Anatomy and Physiology Lab

Lab 1

  1. Susan Smith is a participant in an Anatomy and Physiology lab class. Susan walked into lab today carrying a bagged lunch that she brought to eat following class. She has long blonde hair that is not pulled back. Today in class, you are reviewing basic microscopy and you notice that Susan’s microscope is partially hanging off the edge of her lab bench.
    Given what you learned from the lab video, list two lab safety concerns you notice in the above scenario.

Susan brought food into the lab; Susan did not pull her hair back; Susan does not have the microscope safely secured on the lab bench.

  1. Describe the position of a subject’s body when they are in anatomical position.

When a person is standing in anatomical position, they are standing upright with feet flat on the ground. Head is facing forward. Arms are at the sides with palms facing forward.

  1. Which of the following planes best describes the above image?
    a. Frontal Plane
    b. Sagittal Plane
    c. Mid-Sagittal Plane
    d. Transverse Plane
  2. Mid-Sagittal Plane
  1. Which of the following planes best describes the above image?
    a. Frontal Plane
    b. Mid-Sagittal Plane
    c. Sagittal Plane
    d. Transverse Plane
  2. Frontal Plane
  1. When comparing the relationship of the eyes to the occipital (back portion)
    region of the head, which of the following terms best describes the occipital region?
    a. Ventral
    b. Dorsal
    c. Anterior
    d. Posterior
    e. a. and c.
    f. b. and d.
  2. b. and d.
  1. When looking at the body in anatomical position, which of the following
    statements best describes the relationship of the legs to the ribs?
    a. The legs are distal to the ribs
    b. The legs are inferior to the ribs
    c. The legs are lateral to the ribs
    d. The legs are superficial to the ribs
  2. The legs are inferior to the ribs
  1. When looking at the body in anatomical position, which of the following
    statements best describes the relationship of the trunk to the arms?
    a. The trunk is medial to the arms
    b. The trunk is proximal to the arms
    c. The trunk is lateral to the arms
    d. The trunk is superficial to the arms
  2. the trunk is medial to the arms
  1. When looking at the body in anatomical position, which of the following
    statements best describes the relationship of the knee to the ankle?
    a. The knee is distal to the ankle
    b. The knee is superior to the ankle
    c. The knee is proximal to the ankle
    d. b. and c.
    e. none of the above are correct statements
  2. b. and c.
  1. A surgeon is about to perform surgery and directs his OR team to place the
    patient in the supine position. Describe what the supine position is.

The supine position is lying on the back, face upward.

  1. The crus is part of which skeletal division?
    a. The axial division
    b. The appendicular division
    c. Neither division
  2. The appendicular division
  1. Which of the following statements is false?
    a. The two main body cavities are the dorsal and ventral cavities.
    b. The thoracic cavity contains 2 subdivisions.
    c. The ventral cavity can be subdivided into the thoracic and abdominopelvic cavities.
    d. All of the statements are true statements.
  2. The thoracic cavity contains 2 subdivisions. (It contains 3
    subdivisions.)
  1. Which of the following lines the lungs?
    a. The parietal pleura
    b. The meninges
    c. The visceral pleura
  2. The visceral pleura
  1. Which of the following is a true statement?
    a. Inflammation of the pleural lining is referred to as pleurisy.
    b. Inflammation of the pericardium is referred to as carditis.
    c. a. and b.
    d. None of the statements are true.
  2. Inflammation of the pleural lining is referred to as pleurisy.
  1. Describe what the term “retroperitoneal” means and give an example of a retroperitoneal organ.

Retroperitoneal organs are located between the peritoneum and the dorsal body cavity. Examples include the kidneys, portions of the pancreas, the adrenal glands, and portions of the digestive organs.

Retroperitoneal means situated behind the peritoneal cavity, between the peritoneum and dorsal cavity. An example of a retroperitoneal organ is kidney.

  1. Describe the proper way to carry a microscope.

You should always carry a microscope by placing one hand under the base while the other hand braces the arm.

  1. What portion of the light microscope adjusts the amount of light that passes through the light source?
    a. The illuminator
    b. The oculars
    c. The diaphragm
  2. The diaphragm
  1. Which knob is the instructor adjusting in the above picture?

The mechanical stage control knob.

  1. The objective magnification is 4x. The ocular magnification is 10x. What is the total magnification?

Total magnification = 40x (objective magnification x ocular magnification = total magnification.)

LAB 2

  1. Give the definition of what a tissue is.

A tissue is a grouping of similar cells that work together to perform a specific function.

  1. Which of the following statements is TRUE regarding the four primary classes of
    tissue in the body?
    a. Epithelial tissue functions in secretion and protection.
    b. Connective tissue functions to bind tissues and anchor organs.
    c. Nervous tissue functions in communication throughout the body.
    d. Muscular tissue functions in movement throughout the body.
    e. All of the above are true statements.
  2. All of the above are true statements.
  1. Which of the following statements is TRUE regarding differences between tissue
    types?
    a. Tissues vary based upon the type of matrix it possesses.
    b. Tissues vary based upon the composition of matrix.
    c. Tissues vary based upon ratio of cells to matrix.
    d. b. and c. are true.
    e. All of the above statements are true.
  2. b. and c. are true.
  1. Which of the following germ layers gives rise to fibroblasts?
    a. Ectoderm
    b. Mesoderm
    c. Endoderm
    d. a. and c.
    e. b. and c.
    f. All of the above
  2. Mesoderm
  3. What are the ways epithelial tissue is classified?

Epithelial tissue is classified by cell type, cell shape, and cell arrangement.

  1. Which of the following statements is FALSE regarding the structure of epithelial
    tissue?
    a. Epithelial tissue has a direct nerve supply.
    b. Epithelial tissue draws its blood supply from the connective tissue.
    c. Epithelial tissue is composed of a large cellular content with a small amount of matrix.
    d. All of the above statements are true.
  2. All of the above statements are true.
  1. B. C.
  1. Which of the above images is an example of simple cuboidal epithelial tissue?

A.

  1. What type of epithelial tissue do you see in the above image?  Explain how you know what type it is.

The above image depicts pseudostratified epithelial tissue. All cells touch the basement membrane, but not all cells reach the apical or free surface.

  1. Match the following epithelial tissue types with its location in the body.
    1. Simple squamous epithelium

a.


  1. Simple cuboidal epithelium

c.


  1. Simple columnar epithelium

d.


  1. Pseudostratified epithelium

b.

  1. capillary walls
    b. respiratory tract
    c. glands
    d. uterine tubes
  1. Match the following epithelial tissue types with their function.
    1. Simple squamous epithelium

  2. Simple cuboidal epithelium

c.


  1. Simple columnar epithelium

a.


  1. Pseudostratified epithelium

b.

  1. secretes mucus in the digestive tract
    b. locomotion
    c. secretes mucus in the bronchioles
    d. transcellular transport 
  2. Explain the function of cilia in pseudostratified epithelium. Note: to receive full
    credit you must give a specific function based upon location of pseudostratified
    epithelium within the body.

Pseudostratified epithelium can be found in the respiratory tract as well as the male reproductive tract. Cilia assists in movement of substances. In the respiratory tract cilia would

propel mucus, and in the male reproductive tract cilia would propel sperm. (either example are acceptable answers.)

Pseudostratified epithelium can be found in the male reproductive tract. This type of tissue has additional structures called cilia. Cilia are structures attached to the cells that are  motile, beat in a rhythm to move fluid. For example, assistance in movement of sperm through the reproductive tract.

  1. Match the following epithelial tissue types with its location in the body.
    1. Stratified squamous epithelium

  2. Stratified cuboidal epithelium

a.


  1. Stratified columnar epithelium

d.


  1. Transitional epithelium

b.

  1. seminiferous tubules
    b. bladder
    c. palms of hands
    d. male urethra
  1. Would non-keratinized stratified squamous epithelium prevent water loss? Explain why or why not.

Non-keratinized stratified squamous epithelium would not prevent water loss because it lacks the dead layer of compact cells and the water repellent glycolipid which keratinized stratified squamous epithelium possesses.

  1. Match the following epithelial tissue types with the correct description.
    1. Stratified squamous epithelium

  2. Stratified cuboidal epithelium

d.


  1. Stratified columnar epithelium

a.


  1. Transitional epithelium

c.

  1. found where one type of epithelium meets
    another
    b. prevents abrasion
    c. top layer of cells can appear round or flat
    d. acts in secretion

MODULE 3

  1. True of False, Connective tissue can be described as histologically variable.

True – connective tissue can take on various forms

  1. Which of the following statements is FALSE regarding general characteristics of connective tissue proper?
    a. Connective tissue proper is composed of a small amount of matrix and large amount of densely packed cells.
    b. The matrix of connective tissue proper is clear and gel-like.
    c. Connective tissue proper is vascular and has a nerve supply.
    d. Connective tissue proper has no free or apical surface.
  2. Connective tissue proper is composed of a small amount of matrix and large amount of densely packed cells. Correct answer is that it is composed of large amount of matrix with widely scattered cells.
  1. Which of the three developmental germ layers gives rise to connective tissue?
    a. Ectoderm
    b. Mesoderm
    c. Endoderm
  2. Mesoderm
  1. The following developmental pathway will result in which type of connective tissue?
    Mesenchyme→Fibroblasts→Fibrocytes→Fibers

Connective Tissue Proper

  1. Write out the developmental stages of blood (begin with mesenchyme.)

Mesenchyme→Hemocytoblasts→Blood

  1. Which of the following statements is TRUE regarding the cells of Connective Tissue Proper?
    a. Plasma cells are former neutrophils
    b. Mast cells produce heparin and histamine
    c. Neutrophils are the most common white blood cell found in connective tissue
    d. a. and c. are true
    e. b. and c. are true
    f. All of the above are true statements
  2. b.and c. are true
  1. Match the following connective tissue fibers with the correct description.
    1. Collagenous

  2. Reticular

a.


  1. Elastic

c.

  1. Coated with glycoprotein for strength
    b. Are referred to as “white fibers”
    c. Found in the lungs and arteries
  1. Match the following matrix forms with the correct connective tissue type.
    1. Liquid

  2. Gel-like

c.


  1. Semi-solid

a.


  1. Solid

b.

  1. Cartilage
    b. Bone
    c. Connective tissue proper
    d. Blood
  1. Which of the following statements is FALSE regarding loose connective tissue?
    a. Areolar tissue is avascular
    b. Reticular tissue forms a structural framework called a stroma around soft organs
    c. Adipose tissue gives shape to the body
    d. All of the above are true statements
  2. Areolar tissue is avascular. Correct answer is that areolar tissue is
    highly vascular.
  1. Which of the following statements is TRUE regarding dense connective tissue?
    a. Dense regular connective tissue contains a small amount of fibroblasts
    b. Dense regular connective tissue provides strength in one direction
    c. Dense irregular connective tissue provides strength in multiple directions
    d. b. and c. are true
    e. All of the above are true statements
  2. b. and c. are true

Exam Page 3

  1. What types of tissue fibers are present in cartilage?
    a. Collagen
    b. Reticular
    c. Elastic
    d. a. and b.
    e. a. and c.
    f. All of the above
    E
  1. Explain why the sensation of pain can be felt in cartilage when there is no direct nerve supply.
    The pain is felt due to the inflammation around the injured site.
  1. Match the type of cartilage with the correct description.
    1. Hyaline cartilage C a. Found in the pubic symphysis
    2. Elastic cartilage    B b. Cells always surrounded by perichondrium
    3. Fibrocartilage  A                 c. Perichondrium lacking around articular cartilage
  1. Which of the following statements is FALSE regarding bone tissue?
    a. Bone tissue is comprised of few fibers with a solid matrix arranged in
    cylinders called osteons
    b. The Haversian Canal functions to bring blood into the bone tissue
    c. Lacunae contain osteocytes
    d. All of the above statements are true
    D
  1. Name the formed elements found in blood.

red blood cells (erythrocytes)

white blood cells (leukocytes)

platelets (thrombocytes)

Exam Page 4

Match each image with the correct description.


C

B

A

  1. Canaliculi present in this tissue connect lacuna to lacuna
    b. Chondrocytes distinguish this tissue from tendons or ligaments
    c. Gives epithelial tissue its blood supply

MODULE 4

Exam Page 1

  1. List, in order, the anatomical structures found in the respiratory pathway. You should begin at the nose and end at the alveoli.
    Nose - Pharynx - Larynx - Trachea - Right and Left Bronchi - Bronchioles - Alveoli
  1. Which if the following statements is TRUE regarding structures within the respiratory tract?
    a. The trachea contains cartilaginous rings to keep it from collapsing as air flow through it.
    b. If a patient were to aspirate, the content would likely enter the left main bronchus.
    c. The bronchi are a part of the respiratory division of the respiratory tract.
    d. The pharynx is part of the conducting division of the respiratory tract.
    e. a. and d. are true.
    f. b. and c. are true.
    g. All of the above statements are true.
    E
  1. You are assessing a patient admitted to the hospital with pneumonia. They are breathing at a rate of 30 breaths per minute. What is their Alveolar Ventilation Rate? (show your calculations.)

AVR = respiratory rate x (TV - dead air volume)

AVR = 30 breaths/min x 350mL 

AVR = 10,500 mL/min

  1. List TWO reasons why we measure pulmonary ventilation?
  2. To assess pulmonary function
    2. To assess severity of pulmonary disease
    3. To monitor improvement or deterioration of a diseases process
    *Note: The student only has to provide two reasons.
  1. Which of the following statements is FALSE regarding restrictive lung disorders?
    a. In a restrictive lung disorder, the lungs are limited with the amount of air that can be
    inflated.
    b. Any disorder that produces pulmonary fibrosis is considered a restrictive lung disorder.
    c. Tuberculosis is an example of a restrictive lung disorder.
    d. a. and b. are false
    e. b. and c. are false
    f. All of the above statements are true.
  2. All of the above statements are true.
  1. Which of the following statements is FALSE regarding obstructive lung disorders?
    a. Obstructive lung disorders limit the amount of air that can be inhaled or exhaled at a given
    time.
    b. Individuals with an obstructive lung disorder will have an increased Forced Expiratory
    Volume.
    c. Chronic bronchitis is an example of an obstructive lung disorder.
    d. All of the above statements are true.
  2. Individuals with an obstructive lung disorder will have an increased Forced
    Expiratory Volume. Correct answer is that the FEV would be decreased.

Exam Page 3

Match each pulmonary measurement with the correct description.

1. Expiratory Reserve Volume E
2. Residual Volume C
3. Vital Capacity G
4. Inspiratory Capacity J
5. Functional Residual Capacity B
6. Total Lung Capacity F
7. Tidal Volume D
8. Inspiratory Reserve Volume A
9. Forced Expiratory Volume I
10. Minute Respiratory Volume H

  1. VC – (TV + ERV)
    b. Amount of air remaining in lungs after normal
    tidal expiration
    c. Amount of air remaining in lungs after maximal
    expiration
    d. Amount of air inhaled or exhaled in 1breath
    during quiet breathing
    e. Amount of air, in excess of tidal volume that
    be exhaled with maximal effort
    f. Obtained by adding Vital Capacity and Residual
    Volume
    g. Deepest breath possible
    h. Related to alveolar ventilation rate
    i. Obtained by having subject rapidly exhale into a
    spirometer
    j. Obtained by subtracting ERV from VC

Exam Page 4

  1. In the lab video, you were shown a spirometry read out of 3100 ml. of air. Based upon the information presented in the lab, which pulmonary measurement was obtained? (*Note – results taken from a healthy female.)
    This was the Vidal Capacity.
  1. Using the normative values provided in the lab for a healthy male, calculate the Total Lung Capacity. (To receive full credit, you must include the formula and show your calculations.)
    TLC = VC + RV
    TLC = 4700mL + 1200mL
    TLC = 5900mL
  1. Using the normative values provided in the lab for a healthy male, calculate the Functional Residual Capacity. (To receive full credit, you must include the formula and show your calculations.)
    FRC = RV + ERV
    FRC = 1200mL + 1200mL
    FRC = 2400mL
  1. You are monitoring someone who has a respiratory rate of 14 breaths per minute. Calculate their Minute Respiratory Volume, assuming they are a healthy adult. (To receive full credit, you must include the formula and show your calculations.)
    MRV = TV x respiratory rate

    MRV = 500mL(14 breaths/min)
    MRV = 7000 mL/min

MODULE 5

  1. List the 5 stages of digestion.
    1. ingestion 2. digestion (chemical and mechanical) 3. absorption 4. compaction 5. defecation/elimination
  1. True or False: The esophagus is considered a primary organ of the GI tract.
    True
  1. True or False: The tongue is considered an accessory organ of the GI tract.
    True
  1. True or False: Mechanical digestion in the mouth is carried out by way of salivary amylase.
    False

Exam Page 2

What is the function of the structure pictured above specified by the pointer?
Epiglottis is a small cartilage structure that closes the opening to the airway (trachea) when swallowing food. It prevents food particles from entering the trachea.

Identify the structure in the picture above, specified by the pointer, then describe its relationship to the trachea using anatomical terminology.
Esophagus. The esophagus is posterior to the trachea.

Identify the sphincter pictured above (specified by the arrow and highlighted in blue) and describe its function.
THe pyloric sphincter controls contents entering the small intestine from the stomach.

Identify the structure in the above picture, specified by the arrow, and describe its function.
Rugae are folds of tissue found inside the stomach. Rugae can increase surface area in the stomach. When contents enter the stomach, rugae can extend and spread which can increase volume in the stomach without increased pressure.

Exam Page 3

Which of the following statements best describes the structure pictured above, specified by the arrow.
a. Each segment is a collection of fecal material.
b. This structure can be found in the large intestine and increases surface area to allow for nutrient absorption.
c. a. and b. are false.
d. a. and b. are true.  
C

Identify the membranous structure pictured above, specified by the pointer, and describe its function.
The mesentary is a weblike structure that serves to anchor small intestine to the abdominal cavity. Also prevents the small intestine from twisiting

Identify the structure pictured above, specified by the pointer.
Large intestine aka colon

Identify the specific structure pictured above, specified by the pointer.
Descending colon

Which of the following statements is TRUE regarding the structure pictured above, specified by the pointer?
a. Each segment is a collection of fecal material.
b. This structure can be found in the colon.
c. All of the above statements are false.
d. All of the above statements are true.
D

  1. Which of the following statements is TRUE regarding the teeth?
    a. The canine teeth are specialized for crushing and grinding food.
    b. The neck of the tooth is where we find pulp.
    c. Enamel is the hardest substance found in the human body.
    d. All of the above statements are true.
    e. All of the above statements are false.
  2. Enamel is the hardest substance found in the human body.

Which of the following statements is TRUE regarding the accessory organ pictured above (highlighted)?
a. It produces bile to digest fats and cholesterol.
b. It produces insulin to metabolize blood glucose.
c. It is considered endocrine and exocrine.
d. It stores glycogen, vitamins, and minerals.
e. a. and d. are true.
f. b. and. c. are true.
g. All of the above are true statements.

  1. a. and d. are true.

Which of the following statements is FALSE regarding the accessory organ pictured above (highlighted in blue)?
a. 90% of the cells perform digestive functions.
b. It produces insulin to metabolize blood glucose.
c. It is considered endocrine and exocrine.
d. All of the above statements are true.

  1. 90% of the cells perform digestive functions. 99% is the correct answer.

Describe the clinical condition that results when the organ pictured above (specified by the pointer) is not able to function properly.

When the gallbladder is unable to break down fat and cholesterol present in the body, gall stones will occur. Pain occurs when these stones block the duct passing from the gallbladder to the liver.

MODULE 6

Exam Page 1

  1. The Squamosal suture marks the division of which cranial bones?
    a. Frontal bone and Parietal bones
    b. Parietal bones
    c. Occipital bone and Parietal bones
    d. Temporal bone and Parietal bones
    D

Which cranial bone is pictured above (highlighted in blue)?
Ethmoid bone

Which facial bone is pictured above (highlighted in blue)?
nasal bone

Which facial bone is pictured above (highlighted in blue)?
Mandible

Identify the atypical vertebra pictured above. Explain how you know which specific vertebra it is.

C2 Axis vertebra lacks a vertebral body and has the distinguishing odontoid process, or the dens.

Based upon appearance, state which division of the vertebral column the vertebra pictured above belongs to, and explain your answer.

This is a typical thoracic vertebra. It has a long, pointed spinous process.

Identify the bony landmark the lab instructor is specifying with her fingers, and describe the function of this landmark.

Superior articular facets join this vertebra to the vertebra superior to it.

Identify the region of the sternum specified by the lab instructor, and state which ribs articulate to this region.

This is the region of the gladiolus or the body of the sternum. Ribs 2-10 attach directly or indirectly to the body of the sternum.

Which of the following ribs is pictured above (highlighted in blue)?
a. True rib
b. False rib
c. Floating rib

  1. True rib (This is specifically rib 4. Anteriorly, it attaches to the sternum directly by way of its own costal cartilage.)

Exam Page 3

The lab instructor is holding a scapula. State whether this is a right or left scapula, and explain how you know that is the case.
This is a right scapula. The glenoid fossa, which articulates with the head of humerus bone, will be lateral (point away from mid-line)

Identify the bony landmark of the proximal Humerus, shown in the above picture (highlighted in blue) and describe its function.
Greater Tubercle. The greater tubercle is where a number of muscles attach, such as supraspinatus and infraspinatus.

Identify the forearm bone and specific bony landmark the lab instructor is palpating (touching) in the picture above.
Ulna. The styloid process of the ulna.

Identify the carpal bone in the picture above (highlighted in blue).

Hamate

Identify the specific bone of the hand in the picture above (highlighted in blue).
Second proximal phalanx

Exam Page 4

Identify the specific bone of the pelvic girdle pictured above (highlighted in blue and specified by the arrow.)
Ishium

Identify the lower extremity bone and specific bony landmark shown in the picture above (highlighted in light blue and specified by the arrow.)
Femur. Greater trochanter

Identify the lower extremity bone and specific bony landmark shown in the picture above (specified by the lab instructor and arrow.)
Fibula. Lateral malleolus

4.

Identify the tarsal bone in the picture above (highlighted in blue and specified by the arrow.)
Navicular

5.

Identify the specific bone of the foot in the picture above (highlighted in blue and specified by the arrow.)
4th metatarsal

LAB 7

Exam Page 1

  1. A specialist in the field of myology would study______:
    A. muscles
    B. bones
    C. mental functions
    D. hormones
    A
  1. Discuss how muscles help in the function of communication:
    Muscles are responsible for the movement around the mouth and neck that help with speech, swallowing, and non-verbal (facial expressions)
  1. Which of the following is true concerning tendons:
    A. Tendons connect bone to bone
    B. Tendons connect muscle to bone
    C. Tendons connect muscle to muscle
    D. Tendons are not involved in the function of muscles
    B
  1. Frontalis:
    A. Elevates the eyebrows
    B. Wrinkles the skin on the forehead
    C. Covers the posterior portion of the head
    D. Retracts the scalp
    E. A&B
    F. C&D
    E

Exam Page 2

  1. Orbicularis Oculi:
    A. Surrounds the eye
    B. Surrounds the mouth
    C. Controls squinting
    D. Controls mouth closure
    E. A&C
    F. B&D
    E
  1. Zygomaticus major:
    A. Is also called the “laughing muscle”
    B. Pulls the angle of the mouth upward and laterally
    C. Draws the lower lip down and laterally
    D. Assists in expressions of doubt
    E. A&B
    F. C&D
    E
  1. Buccinator:
    A. Is located deep within the cheek
    B. Compresses the cheek when chewing
    C. Elevates and protrudes the lips
    D. Is located superficially
    E. A&B
    F. C&D
    E

Identify the muscle and innervation in the picture above, specified by the lab instructor. (Dissection of the anterior neck)
This is the platysma muscle. It is innervated by a cervical branch of the facial nerve,

Exam Page 3

Identify the muscle and innervation (specific branch) in the picture above, specified by the arrow and lab instructor. (Dissection of the lateral face)
This is the masseter muscle. It is innervated by the mandibular branch of the trigeminal nerve

Identify the muscle and insertion point in the picture above, specified by the arrow and the lab instructor.
This is the sternocleidomastoid muscle. The insertion of this muscle is the mastoid process of the skull

Identify the muscle and its action in the picture above, specified by the arrow and the lab instructor. (Dissection of the anterior neck)
This is the sternohyoid muscle. It depresses the hyoid bone after it elevates

  1. Which of the following is false concerning the scalenes:
    A. Innerved by the cervical plexus
    B. Are deep to the platysma
    C. Unilaterally perform ipsilateral rotation
    D. Are accessory muscles in breathing
    E. A&D
    F. B&C
  2. Unilaterally perform ipsilateral rotation
    (False, scalenes perform ipsilateral flexion, contralateral rotation)
  1. Which of the following is false concerning the muscles of the abdominal wall?
    A. The external oblique fibers run down and in
    B. The transverse abdominis fibers run vertically
    C. The internal oblique fibers run down and out
    D. The rectus abdominis fibers run vertically
    E. A&C
  2. The transverse fibers run vertically
  1. The internal intercostals:
    A. Perform quiet inspiration
    B. Perform forceful inspiration
    C. Perform forced expiration
    D. Perform quiet expiration
  2. Perform forced expiration
  1. Accessory muscles of breathing (forceful inspiration) include:
    A. Pectoralis minor, scalenes, sternocleidomastoid
    B. Sternocleidomastoid, internal intercostals
    C. External intercostals, diaphragm, sternocleidomastoid
    D. Scalenes, sternocleidomastoid, diaphragm
  2. Pectoralis minor, scalenes, sternocleidomastoid
  1. The superior rectus moves the eye ______; the inferior rectus moves the eye______:
    A. inferiorly; superiorly
    B. superiorly; inferiorly
    C. medially; laterally
    D. in oblique rotation; in oblique rotation
  2. superiorly; inferiorly

LAB 8

.

Which of the following statements is TRUE regarding the muscle pictured above specified by the lab instructor?
a. It is an accessory muscle in breathing
b. It elevates the scapula
c. It protracts the scapula
d. It is innervated by the accessory nerve
e. a. and. c. are true statements
f. b. and d. are true statements

  1. b. and d. are true statements

Identify the muscle and innervation in the picture above, specified by the lab instructor.
(Dissection of the anterior aspect of the fetal pig)

Pectoralis Major; medial and lateral pectoral nerve

Which of the following statements is FALSE regarding the muscle pictured (highlighted in blue and specified by the arrow)?
a. It is innervated by the lower scapular nerve
b. It abducts the humerus
c. It flexes the humerus
d. It extends the humerus
e. All of the above statements are true
f. All of the above statements are false

  1. It is innervated by the lower scapular nerve (the deltoid is innervated by the axillary nerve.)
  1. a.   b.
  1. d.

Your patient has sustained a rotator cuff injury. It is determined that the axillary nerve was damaged as a result. Given this information, which of the muscles pictured above would you expect to be affected?

  1. The teres minor is the only rotator cuff muscle innervated by the axillary nerve.
  1. Infraspinatus:
    a. Internally rotates the humerus
    b. prevents upward slippage of the humerus during abduction
    c. innervated by the axillary nerve
    d. prevents upward slippage of the humerus when the arm is at rest
    e. a. and b.
    f. c and d.
  2. prevents upward slippage of the humerus when the arm is at rest

Exam Page 2

  1. Brachialis: (mark all that apply)
    a. Primary action is supination of the forearm
    b. Primary action is flexion of the elbow
    c. Innervated by the musculocutaneous nerve
    d. Innervated by the radial nerve
    B, C
  1. Triceps Brachii: (mark all that apply)
    a. Extends elbow
    b. Adducts humerus
    c. Innervated by radial nerve
    d. Innervated by axillary nerve
    A, B, C
  1. Flexor Carpi Ulnaris: (mark all that apply)
    a. Flexes the wrist
    b. Innervated by the radial nerve
    c. Ulnar deviation of the wrist
    d. Innervated by the median nerve
    A, C
  1. Extensor Digiti Minimi: (mark all that apply)
    a. Extends the wrist
    b. Extends the fifth digit
    c. Innervated by the posterior interosseous nerve
    d. Located on the dorsal forearm
    A, B, C, D
  1. Abductor Pollicis Longus: (mark all that apply)
    a. Located on the dorsal forearm
    b. Abducts the 1st digit
    c. Extends the wrist
    d. Innervated by the median nerve
    B, A

Exam Page 3

  1. List the 3 gluteal muscles in order from deep to superficial.
    Gluteus minimus, gluteus medius, gluteus maximus
  1. Tensor Fasciae Latea: (mark all that apply)
    a. Hip adduction
    b. lateral rotation of the tibia
    c. medial rotation of the tibia
    d. Attaches to the IT tract
    e. Innervated by the superior gluteal nerve
    B D E
  1. Adductor Magnus: (mark all that apply)
    a. Hip adduction
    b. Hip medial rotation
    c. Innervated by the obturator nerve
    d. Innervated by the tibial nerve
    A B C D
  1. a.   b.

Which of the muscles pictured above acts to flex the hip joint?
A, rectus femoris

Identify the muscle pictured above (highlighted in blue) and give its nervous innervation.
Sartorius muscle. Femoral nerve.

Exam Page 4

Identify the muscle in the picture above, specified by the lab instructor, and list its innervation.
Biceps femoris. Tibial nerve

Identify the muscle in the picture above, specified by the lab instructor, and its actions.
(Dissection of the lower leg)
Tibialis anterior. Dorsiflexion, ankle inversion, helps resist tipping by maintaining balance

  1. Extensor Digitorum Longus: (mark all that apply)
    a. Extends toes
    b. Plantarflexes ankle
    c. Innervated by peroneal nerve
    A C
  1. Soleus: (mark all that apply)
    a. Plantarflexes ankle
    b. Flexes the knee
    c. Innervated by tibial nerve
    d. Superficial muscle
    e. Deep muscle
    A C E

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