Biological Question

Unit I Exam Study Guide

These are basic questions you should be able to answer with respect to each learning module.  These questions may not be inclusive of all assessment content.  You should be prepared to answer questions associated with your lecture notes and the textbook.  You should also refer to the objectives associated with each learning module in order to prepare for your exams.


What is biology?

What is biological literacy?

What are elements of biological literacy?

Thinking scientifically relies on two important elements. What are they?

Science is self-correcting. What does this mean?

What are the steps of the scientific process? Be able to describe them.

With what does scientific study always begin?

Scientific data is used for what purpose?

What is the difference between a hypothesis and a null hypothesis?  

What is testable hypothesis? What are examples of testable hypotheses?

When conducting a scientific experiment, what is tested?

After generating a hypothesis, what does a scientist do next?

Once a scientist has formulated a hypothesis that generates a testable prediction, he or she will do what next?

What is a scientific theory?

Experiments in which one variable is manipulated while others are held constant are called?

What is an experimental condition applied to research subjects called?

What is a placebo? What is the placebo effect? Why are placebos given in medical research?

What do statistical methods make possible?

Identify branches of science, if given a list.

How can science best help us understand the role of humans in nature?

What are branches of biology?


What is an element?

What is the smallest chemical unit of a pure substance?

Of what is the atom’s nucleus composed?

Which five chemical elements make up majority of the biomass in plants, animals, and fungi.

What is the atomic number of an element?

What are the four most abundant elements in living organisms?

All matter on earth, both living and non-living is made up of what?

Atoms can be changed into an ion by adding or removing what?

What are the three principal types of bonds that hold multiple atoms together? Understand the differences between these bonds.

What is a molecule? How are they different from an atom?

When you put a piece of candy on your tongue, your brain registers a sensation of sweetness.

What aspect of molecules is responsible for their having a particular taste?

What is the most abundant molecule in the cell?

What is a base?

What is pH? Why is it important?

What is a buffer?

The term “solution acidity” means what?

What are Carbohydrates?

Energy used in cellular respiration can originate from what sources?

What are monosaccharides?

Lactose is a combination of what?

What is a complex polymer built of monosaccharides ?

Glycogen belongs in what class of molecules?

What characteristics unite all lipids?

What is the difference between saturated and unsaturated fatty acid?

What are organic molecules consisting of only hydrogen and carbon are called?

What is the principal component of cell membrane?

What are glycoproteins?

Enzymes are composed of what? What are their functions?

What is Phenylketonuria?

What is DNA composed of? What is the function of DNA?

What nucleotide found on DNA is not found on RNA? What role does RNA play?


Which cell structure is found in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells?

What are differences between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells?

The lipids within the fluid mosaic of the plasma membranes are held in place by what?

What is the most important barrier protecting the inner contents of an animal cell from its exterior environment?

Which structural feature ne of plant cells is not found on animal cells?

What is diffusion?

What is passive transport?

What is the difference between solute and solvent? What is a solution?

What is osmosis?

Osmosis is a more specialized process than diffusion because it involves what?

What are hypertonic, hypotonic and isotonic solutions?

What is the main difference between osmosis and diffusion?

What is active transport? What does it involve?

What is endocytosis and exocytosis?

What structure is found in all metabolically active cells and are involved primarily in transporting materials within, into, and out of cells?

What is the main function of the nucleolus?

What cellular components contain hydrolytic enzymes associated with the digestion of macromolecules?

What organelle is responsible for degrading waste within the cell?

Where is cell membrane components synthesized?

In which organelle are lipids synthesized and modified within the eukaryotic cell? 21. What is the difference between the rough endoplasmic reticulum and the smooth endoplasmic reticulum?

What makes the rough endoplasmic reticulum rough?


What is Photosynthesis?

Living things gains most of its energy from what source?

What is Potential energy?

What is kinetic energy?

What are the first and second laws of thermodynamics?

When ATP is hydrolyzed to ADP, what happens?

What are the products of photosynthesis?

Which by-product of photosynthesis was important in altering the atmosphere of the earth so that aerobic organisms could evolve?

What are Carotenoids?

The most effective portion(s) of the visible spectrum that drives photosynthesis is (are)?

Biologically speaking, what is a pigment?

In photosynthesis, both the first and the second photosystems generate what products?

Aerobic bacteria lack what organelle?

What is cellular respiration?

What is Glycolysis?

What is the Krebs cycle?

What is electron transport process?

What are the three end products of glycolysis?

Among the three energy generating processes, which process is the only one that occurs in all living organisms?

Energy used in cellular respiration can originate from what sources?

What happens during Krebs cycle?

Fermentation reactions generally occur under what conditions?

All alcoholic beverages are produced as the result of cellular respiration under what conditions?



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