Biology 1500 Basic Life Diversity MWF

Biology 1500: Basic Life Diversity MWF Version 2

Exam #1

Instructions:

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Read the questions slowly and carefully. Choose the most correct response. Be advised that for a statement to be true, all elements in the statement must be true.

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  1. Colonial protists have been hypothesized to be the precursors to multicellular organisms. This hypothesis suggests that the individual unicellular members of the colony, which are initially identical, can begin to take on different functions. Then the colony can begin to evolve into a multicellular organism.
    1. True
    2. False
  1. Primary endosymbiosis of an aerobic bacterium by an ancestral eukaryote cell is believed to have led to __________ with __________ membrane(s).
    1. chloroplasts; one
    2. mitochondria; one
    3. mitochondria; two
    4. chloroplasts; two
  1. Which of the following supports the hypothesis that endosymbiosis was involved in the origin of mitochondria and chloroplasts in eukaryotic cells?
    1. Chloroplasts are found throughout the plant kingdom.
    2. Prokaryotes do not have a cytoskeleton.
    3. Mitochondrial and chloroplast DNA is similar to bacterial DNA.
    4. The kingdom Protista includes phototrophs, heterotrophs and mixotrophs.
  1. A protist is any eukaryote that is not a plant, fungus or animal.
    1. True
    2. False
  1. Some Euglena display a photosynthetic capability only when light is present. In the dark, the chloroplasts of these Euglena shrink up and temporarily cease functioning; the cells, instead, take up organic nutrients from their environment. These Euglena are best described by which of the following terms?
    1. phototroph
    2. heterotroph
    3. autotroph
    4. mixotroph
  1. Under times of stress, many protists undergo ___________ reproduction, which __________ genetic diversity
    1. asexual; increases
    2. asexual; decreases
    3. sexual; decreases
    4. sexual; increases
  1. Which of the following is NOT true?
    1. Rodents infected by Toxoplasma are attracted to cat urine.
    2. Malaria is caused by mosquito larvae injected into a bitten host.
    3. Pregnant women should not clean cat litterboxes.
    4. Some protists form cysts to survive harsh conditions.
  1. Which of the following is NOT true?
    1. Flowers allow plants to secure the benefits of wide outcrossing in promoting genetic diversity.
    2. Waxy cuticles protect land plants from dessication.
    3. The gametophyte has been reduced in size relative to the sporophyte during the evolution of land plants.
    4. The evolution of vascular tissue reduced the height and size of tracheophytes.
  1. In the haplodiplontic life cycle of a land plant, the gametophyte produces haploid:
    1. gametes via meiosis
    2. gametes via mitosis.
    3. spores via meiosis.
    4. spores via mitosis.
  1. In the haplodiplontic life cycle of a land plant, the sporophyte produces:
    1. Haploid spores via meiosis.
    2. Haploid gametes via meiosis.
    3. Diploid gametes via mitosis.
    4. Diploid spores via mitosis.
  1. In plants, the shift from a dominant haploid generation to a dominant diploid generation:
    1. masked mutant alleles.
    2. increased genetic diversity.
    3. protected against desiccation.
    4. a and b
  1. Compare what happens to a spore mother cell as it gives rise to a spore with what happens to a spore as it gives rise to a gametophyte.
    1. The spore mother cell goes through meiosis, and the spore goes through mitosis.
    2. The spore mother cell and the spore both go through meiosis.
    3. The spore mother cell breastfeeds her children, while the spore uses formula.
    4. The spore mother cell goes through mitosis, and the spore goes through meiosis.
  1. The evolution of leaves contributed tremendously to the success of land plants because leaves increased the surface area available for photosynthesis.
    1. True
    2. False
  1. Bryophytes have:
    1. immotile sperm.
  1. The cells that make up the stem-like structure of a moss gametophyte are:
  1. Given that a plant has a green gametophyte and a brown sporophyte, which of the following statements is likely true?
    1. The gametophyte and the sporophyte are both nutritionally independent.
    2. The gametophyte is nutritionally dependent on the sporophyte.
    3. The sporophyte is nutritionally dependent on the gametophyte.
    4. The sporophyte is nutritionally dependent on mycorrhizae.
  1. The non-reproductive cells that line the interior of a moss archegonium are:
  1. In moss, which of the following does NOT aid the fertilization of the egg by the sperm?
    1. wind
    2. water
    3. spores
    4. microscopic animals
  1. Which of the following is NOT a general characteristic of most tracheophytes?
    1. dominant sporophyte generation
    2. seeds
    3. true roots
    4. xylem
  1. The tracheophytes pictured below do NOT contain:
  1. seeds
  2. leaves
  3. xylem
  4. phloem
  1. The spores produced by the sporophyte of a fern are:
  1. Which of the following is found in both bryophytes and lycophytes?
    1. xylem
    2. leaves
    3. a dominant sporophyte generation
    4. none of the above
  1. A sporophyte-dominant land plant that produces flagellated sperm is most likely a:
    1. charophyte
    2. fern
    3. moss
    4. liverwort
  1. Mature fern gametophytes:
    1. are non-photosynthetic.
    2. produce sori.
    3. produce motile sperm.
    4. have rhizomes.
  1. Which of the following is NOT true?
    1. “Endo” means outer.
    2. “Myco” refers to fungi.
    3. “Rhizo” refers to roots and root-like structures.
    4. “Karyote” refers to the nucleus.
  1. The plants below are:
  1. The mitochondria and chloroplasts of fungi are believed to have originated via primary endosymbiosis.
    1. True
    2. False
  1. Which of the following is NOT true?
    1. Amphibian populations are declining globally due to chytridiomycosis.
    2. It is difficult to discover drugs that treat fungal infections in humans effectively because of the close phylogenetic relationship between fungi and animals.
    3. Because fungal spores are so small and light, they can easily be spread through the air.
    4. Mycotoxins are never harmful to humans because of the close phylogenetic relationship between fungi and animals.
  1. The mass of connected hyphae that penetrates and grows through a substrate is called a:
  1. Most of the enzymes secreted into the environment by fungal hyphae are highly effective at digesting chitin.
    1. True
    2. False
  1. In fungi, the mitotic spindle apparatus forms inside the nucleus.
    1. True
    2. False
  1. Which of the following is true?
    1. Fungi are phototrophs.
    2. Fungi have closed mitosis.
    3. All fungi are multicellular.
    4. Seeds are the most common means of reproduction among fungi.
  1. Which of the following is NOT a mutualistic relationship?
    1. mycorhizzae associated with the roots of a photosynthetic plant
    2. lichen consisting of fungi and green algae
    3. mycorhizzae associated with the roots of a non-photosynthetic plant
    4. leaf-cutter ants farming certain types of fungi
  1. Which of the following allows fungi to grow incredibly fast under ideal conditions?
    1. A high surface area to volume ratio in hyphae
    2. A lack of septa in non-septate fungi
    3. Pores in the septa of septate fungi
    4. All of the above
  1. A male lion can breed with a female tiger to produce a sterile hybrid known as a liger. Thus, lions and tigers are technically different breeds of the same species.
    1. True
    2. False
  1. An allele is:
    1. the unit used to measure fitness.
    2. any group of individuals, usually of a single species, occupying a given area at the same time.
    3. a tracheophyte.
    4. one of two or more alternative forms of a gene.
  1. Mutation of a single nucleotide in a gene allele:
    1. is always a harmful mutation in that the mutated protein encoded will be nonfunctional.
    2. will always change the amino acid sequence of the protein it encodes.
    3. typically prevents translation of the mRNA encoded.
    4. none of the above
  1. Which of the following is NOT true?
    1. Some fungi can trap nematodes upon which they then prey.
    2. Genetic studies with yeast have helped uncover many of the basic mechanisms of eukaryotic transcription and translation.
    3. Insects harvest Cordyceps fungi as a source of food.
    4. Yeast fermentation, which is important for making bread, wine and beer, results in the production of carbon dioxide and ethanol.
  1. Which of the following is an example of genetic variation?
    1. Todd eats meat, but his brother Rod is a vegetarian.
    2. Two children have different eye colors.
    3. One person is older than another.
    4. One person has a scar, but her friend does not.
  1. Which of the following is NOT true?
    1. Genetic variation refers to differences in alleles of genes within individuals in a population.
    2. Genetic variation is the raw material for natural selection.
    3. The terms natural selection and evolution are interchangeable.
    4. Many different processes can lead to evolutionary change.
  1. The white-throated sparrow exhibits two color varieties – white-striped and tan-striped. In both genders, the white-striped birds are more aggressive and territorial, whereas tan-striped birds are more engaged in providing parental care to their offspring. Therefore, the mating between white-striped and tan-striped birds allows for an efficient division of labor in terms of raising and protecting their offspring and thus occurs more often than mating between similarly colored birds. This is an example of __________ mating and will increase the proportion of __________ in the white-throated sparrow population.
    1. assortative; homozygotes.
    2. assortative; heterozygotes
    3. disassortative; heterozygotes.
    4. disassortative; homozygotes.
  1. Gene flow is likely to be high among populations of all the following except:
    1. insect-pollinated plants.
    2. wind-pollinated plants.
  1. Which of the following is NOT true?
    1. Mutation is the ultimate source of genetic variation.
    2. Mutation rates are generally low.
    3. Mutations occur more frequently in response to environmental stresses.
    4. Mutation alone does not usually change allele frequency within a population.
  1. Genetic drift is change in the allele frequency of a population due to:
    1. natural selection.
    2. random chance.
    3. non-random mating.
    4. artificial selection.
  1. A man steps on a group of beetles, randomly killing most of the green ones but leaving most of the brown ones alive. This results in fewer green beetles being produced in the population. This is an example of:
    1. natural selection.
    2. founder effect.
    3. gene flow.
    4. bottleneck effect.
  1. Which of the following is/are necessary for natural selection to occur?
  1. Variation must exist among individuals in a population.
  2. Variation among individuals must result in differences in the number of offspring surviving in the next generation.
  3. Variation must be genetically inherited.
  1. i only
  2. i and ii only
  3. i and iii only
  4. i, ii and iii
  1. When the environment changes from year to year and different phenotypes have different fitness in different environments,
    1. the effect of natural selection may change from year to year, favoring alternative phenotypes in different years.
    2. natural selection will not occur.
    3. genetic variation is not required to get evolutionary change by natural selection.
    4. None of the choices are correct.
  1. The northern elephant seal was nearly hunted to extinction by man. At one point, a small population of only about twenty northern elephant seals remained. This population rebounded and now numbers in the tens of thousands. However, this population is still considered to be fragile. This is due to a(n):
    1. abuse of opioids.
    2. low mutation rate.
    3. loss of genetic variation.
    4. low birth rate.
  1. The figure below illustrates:
  1. constructive gene flow in which gene flow is impeding natural selection.
  2. constraining gene flow in which gene flow is impeding natural selection.
  3. constructive gene flow in which gene flow is spreading beneficial mutations to other populations.
  4. constraining gene flow in which gene flow is spreading beneficial mutations to other populations.
  1. A population of grasshoppers in the Kansas prairie has two color phenotypes, green and brown. Typically, the prairie receives adequate water to maintain healthy, green grass. Assume a bird that eats grasshoppers moves into the prairie. How will this affect natural selection of the grasshoppers?
    1. The green phenotype should be more easily seen by the predator and decrease in frequency.
    2. The brown phenotype should be more easily seen by the predator and decrease in frequency.
    3. Predation will cause the brown grasshoppers to mutate into green grasshoppers.
    4. The grasshoppers will band together to develop weapons of mass destruction to eliminate the birds.
  1. In nature, mutation often counters natural selection.
    1. True
    2. False
  1. Which of the following is the most fit in an evolutionary sense?
    1. A lioness that has 8 cubs, three of which live to adulthood.
    2. A lioness that is successful at capturing prey but has no cubs.
    3. A lioness that overcomes a disease and lives to have four cubs, all of which live to adulthood.
    4. A lioness that has 10 cubs, two of which live to adulthood.
  1. Which of the following is NOT a component of fitness?
    1. Number of offspring per mating
    2. Survival/longevity
    3. Sexual selection
    4. All of the above are components of fitness.

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