One of the three Civil War Amendments that guarantees all citizens receive equal protection of the laws and extends the Fifth Amendment due process clause to protect citizens from their states is known as the
The constitutional prohibition that the government is forbidden from inflicting "cruel and unusual punishment" is found in the
The double jeopardy clause can be found
ex post facto privileges and immunities.
in the Fifth Amendment.
Which Article of the Constitution created the U.S. Supreme Court?
The 1954 U.S. Supreme Court decision which held that school segregation under the "separate but equal" doctrine was inherently unconstitutional because it violated the Fourteenth Amendment's guarantee of equal protection is known as
Brown v. Board of Education.
_________________ created lower federal courts to assist the U.S. Supreme Court and established the basic three-tiered structure of the federal court system.
The Judiciary Act of 1789
A group of policies designed to give special attention or compensatory treatment to members of a group that has been historically and systematically disadvantaged by discrimination is known as
The constitutional doctrine that prevents the government from prohibiting speech or prohibiting publication by the press before the fact and which generally has been held to be in violation of the First Amendment is known as
the prohibition of prior restraint doctrine.
You are protected from arrest in the United States unless authorities have probable cause to believe that you have committed a crime. This protection is provided by
the Fourth Amendment.
How many justices normally (assuming there are no vacancies) serve on the Supreme Court?
In which of the following cases did the Supreme Court first claim the right of judicial review?
Marbury v. Madison
A law declaring an act illegal without a judicial trial is known as
a bill of attainder.
In which courts do cases generally begin, in courts where the facts in evidence are heard and decided upon?
When a case is granted review in an appellate court, the parties submit written __________ presenting their arguments.
A writ of __________ is a request submitted to the U.S. Supreme Court to review a lower court decision.
For a case to be heard in the Supreme Court, a minimum of how many justices must vote to hear the case?
No liberty interest is absolute. For instance, the right of assembly, guaranteed in the First Amendment, can be limited by a regulation of the time, place, and _______ of the assembly.
Part of the Constitution sets out the basic requirements of procedural due process for federal courts to follow in criminal trials. These procedural rights include the right to speedy and public trials, impartial juries, trials in the state where the charges were committed, the right to confront witnesses and to obtain witnesses and the right to counsel. These list of rights can be found in
the Sixth Amendment.
Following oral arguments, the justices gather __________, during which they discuss the case and cast preliminary votes.
Who among the following represents the federal government before the Supreme Court in cases where the federal government is a party?
The Solicitor General
Which of the following nominates federal judges?
"Civil liberties" refer to __________ that the government may not take away.
The Bill of Rights is made up of the first __________ amendments to the U.S. Constitution.
Which amendment did the Supreme Court use to make most provisions of the Bill of Rights which originally only applied to protect citizens from the national government applicable to the states as well?
The free exercise clause guarantees that the national government will not interfere with which of the following?
your right to worship in whatever religion you choose.
Profanity, obscenity, and threats are examples of which of the following?
fighting words as defined in Chaplinsky v. New Hampshire
The Fifteenth Amendment guarantees citizens the right to vote regardless of __________.
Any discrimination in public accommodations based on race or color is prohibited by.
the Civil Rights Act of 1964.
The proposed amendment to the Constitution that stated, " Equality under the law shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or any state on account of sex," is called the
Equal Rights Amendment
He was perhaps the most important Chief Justice of the United States. Among other major decisions, he authored the opinion in 1803 which created the doctrine of judicial review, giving the Supreme Court the power to interpret the Constitution of the United States. Who was this Chief Justice?
One of the three Civil War Amendments that specifically bans slavery ("involuntary servitude") in the United States is known as
The Supreme Court has _______________ appealed to it.
great discretionary power what cases they wish to hear that are
A philosophy of judicial decision-making which posits that judges should use their powers broadly to further justice and the needs of society is known as
Which of the following is NOT specifically protected by the First Amendment to the United States Constitution?
The right to privacy
In 1833, the Supreme Court ruled that that the Bill of Rights only applied to protect citizens from the national government, not the state governments. That was in the case known as
Barron v. Baltimore.
Laws that makes an act punishable as a crime even if the action was legal at the time it was committed are prohibited by the Constitution and are known as
an ex post facto laws.
A judicial doctrine whereby most, but not all, of the protections found in the Bill of Rights are made applicable to the states via the Fourteenth Amendment is known as
The three-part test created by the Supreme Court for examining the constitutionality of establishment clause issues is known as the
A part of the Constitution imposes a number of restrictions on the federal government with respect to the rights of persons suspected of committing a crime. It provides for indictment by a grand jury and protection against self incrimination, and prevents the national government from denying life, liberty or property without due process of law. It also prevents the national government from taking property without just compensation. These liberty protections are explicitly guaranteed in the Constitution by
the Fifth Amendment.
The judicially created rule that prohibits the use of illegally obtained evidence seized by the police as evidence at trial is known as
the exclusionary rule.
The right to privacy is protected
in the preamble to the Declaration of Independence.
explicitly in the First Amendment.
by several constitutional amendments (the 1st, 3rd, 4th, 9th, and 14th) as determined by the Supreme Court in a number of separate decisions over the years.
Articles of Confederation.
by the exclusionary rule.
Under the nation's first constitution, the Articles of Confederation, the U.S. Supreme Court
did not exist.
Which of the following forms of speech IS protected under the First Amendment?
Federal district courts are courts of original jurisdiction and hear cases in only two instances: 1) when a federal question (a matter pertaining to federal law) is joined, or 2)
if there is diversity of state citizenship between the plaintiff and defendant in a civil case
Which law(s) passed after the Civil War Amendments reverted many freed African Americans back to conditions similar to those characterizing their previous lifestyles before they gained their citizenship (such as forbidding blacks from jury duty and laws against their appearing in public places)?
Provisions of the Education Amendments of 1972 bars educational institutions which receive federal funds from discriminating against female students. These protections in the Education Amendments of 1972 can be found in
Where in the United States Constitution is the right to privacy explicitly mentioned?
Privacy is not specifically mentioned anywhere in the Constitution
In the U.S. Supreme Court case that challenged a Louisiana statute requiring rail roads provide separate accommodations for blacks and whites, the Court found that the separate but equal accommodations did not violate the equal protection clause of the Fourteenth Amendment. This case is known as
Plessy v. Ferguson.
The U.S. Supreme Court decided, in Church of Lukumi Babalu Aye v. City of Hialeah(1993), on behalf of the church in a matter relating to the
First Amendment free exercise clause.
If you are appealing your case, whether criminal or civil, federal or state, to the United States Supreme Court, you must apply to the U.S. Supreme Court for a _________ which requires ____________ to agree to accept in order for it to be granted and the Court to hear your appeal.
writ of certiorari / four of the nine justices
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