Computer Based Modeling Tools

For complex models, analysts can choose computer-based modeling tools that use _____, which includes standard shapes and symbols to represent events, processes, workflows, and more.

electronic data interchange (EDI)

joint application development (JAD)

business process modeling notation (BPMN)

rapid application development (RAD)

_____ refers to the combination of hardware, software, and services that people use to manage, communicate, and share information.

Instructional technology

Information technology

Assistive technology

Medical technology

The systems implementation phase of the systems development life cycle (SDLC) includes an assessment, called a _____, to determine whether the system operates properly and if costs and benefits are within expectation.

systems estimation

systems verification

systems validation

systems evaluation

When planning an information system, a company must consider how a new system will interface with older systems, which are called _____.

enterprise applications

network operating systems (NOS)

operating applications

legacy systems

In a systems development life cycle (SDLC) model, the purpose of the _____ is to build a logical model of the new system.

systems analysis phase

systems implementation phase

systems design phase

systems support and security phase

The _____ group typically provides leadership and overall guidance, but the systems themselves are developed by teams consisting of users, managers, and IT staff members. 

web support

application development

systems support

database administration

Many large IT departments use a(n) _____ team that reviews and tests all applications and systems changes to verify specifications and software quality standards.

beta testing

quality assurance

alpha testing

acceptance verifier

A(n) _____ uses various symbols and shapes to represent data flow, processing, and storage.

process flow diagram

object model

data flow diagram

network model

_____ provides vital protection and maintenance services for system hardware and software, including enterprise computing systems, networks, transaction processing systems, and corporate IT infrastructure.

User support

Database administration

Systems support and security

Network administration

_____ controls the flow of data, provides data security, and manages network operations.

Enterprise software

System software

Application software

Legacy software

Business support systems _____.

provide job-related information support to users at all levels of a company

simulate human reasoning by combining a knowledge base and inference rules that determine how the knowledge is applied

process data generated by day-to-day business operations

include email, voice mail, fax, video conferencing, word processing, automated calendars, database management, spreadsheets, and integrated mobile computing systems

Many hardware and software companies offer _____ for IT professionals, which verifies that an individual demonstrated a certain level of knowledge and skill on a standardized test.

spot identification

certification

education

accreditation

In a typical organizational model, top managers _____. 

develop long-range plans, called strategic plans, which define a company’s overall mission and goals

provide direction, necessary resources, and performance feedback to supervisors and team leaders

oversee operation employees and carry out day-to-day functions, coordinating operational tasks and people

include users who rely on transaction processing (TP) systems to enter and receive the data they need to perform their jobs

Critical Thinking Questions 
Case 1-2 
 
Maddy has been performing at a very high level at a firm, and so when two of her colleagues who are currently leading other development efforts get sick or leave the company, she is asked to step in and help manage these two other efforts. 
After leaving the first meeting, Maddy goes down the hall to meet with the outgoing manager of the second team. In that meeting, he shares with her the latest draft of the systems requirement document, which is nearly complete. In which phase is the second team currently?

Systems analysis

Systems design

Systems planning

Systems implementation

In object-oriented analysis, an object is a member of a(n) _____, which is a collection of similar objects.

property

class

message

instance

Critical Thinking Questions 
Case 1-1 
 
Roark has just joined a company and in his role as a lead analyst, he will be responsible for determining which systems development method the team uses to create a new application for a major medical supplier. 
It is a new day at the firm. Roark has been in place for a few weeks, strengthening the communications skills of his employees, getting them to work much better together. Now, the challenge that he faces is not an internal one; it lies with the client, which is increasingly incapable of sticking with decisions. Roark, based on his past experience with other clients like this, is afraid that the client will throw them a curveball and want to make changes late in the game—but that they also will be unwilling to absorb the costs of those changes. For this reason, which of the following methods of development will Roark eliminate?

Structured analysis

Agile/adaptive methods

Object-oriented analysis

Rapid application development

Knowledge management systems use a large database called a(n) _____ that allows users to find information by entering keywords or questions in normal English phrases.

inference engine

knowledge base

knowledge database management system

inference manager

User productivity systems _____.

provide job-related information to users at all levels of a company

simulate human reasoning by combining a knowledge base and inference rules that determine how the knowledge is applied

process data generated by day-to-day business operations

include groupware programs that enable users to share data, collaborate on projects, and work in teams

In object-oriented design, built-in processes called _____ can change an object’s properties.

methods

functions

attributes

features

A _____ describes the information that a system must provide.

process model

data model

business model

network model

_____ technology uses high-frequency radio waves to track physical objects.

Redundant array of independent disks (RAID)

Radio frequency identification (RFID)

Enterprise resource planning (ERP)

Management information system (MIS)

_____ graphically displays one or more business processes, such as handling an airline reservation, filling a product order, or updating a customer account.

business matrix model (BMM)

business process model (BPM)

business indexing model (BIM)

business strategic model (BSM)

In object-oriented analysis, objects possess characteristics called _____.

properties

orientations

classes

inheritances 

During the _____ of the systems development life cycle (SDLC), the IT staff maintains, enhances, and protects the system.

systems support and security phase

systems implementation phase

systems analysis phase

systems planning phase

The _____ method of developing systems produces code that is modular and reusable.

object-oriented analysis

adaptive

structured analysis

rapid application development

A large concentration of servers working together is called a _____.

server window

server application

server ranch

server farm

Critical Thinking Questions 
Case 1-2 
 
Maddy has been performing at a very high level at a firm, and so when two of her colleagues who are currently leading other development efforts get sick or leave the company, she is asked to step in and help manage these two other efforts. 
When Maddy sits down at the first meeting at which the first group is gathering, she hears them discussing the feasibility study in which they are currently engaged. She knows, then, in which phase of the systems development life cycle (SDLC) this team currently is. Which phase is it?

Systems analysis

Systems design

Systems planning

Systems implementation

In a(n) _____ model, the result of each phase is called a deliverable, which flows into the next phase.

interactive

iterative

waterfall

spiral

During the _____ of the systems development life cycle (SDLC), a new system is constructed.

systems planning phase

systems support and security phase

systems design phase

systems implementation phase

Identify a method of developing systems that is well-suited to traditional project management tools and techniques.

Object-oriented analysis

Adaptive method

Structured analysis

Rapid application development

One of the disadvantages of _____ methods of system development is that the overall project might be subject to scope change as user requirements change. 

object-oriented analysis

agile

structured analysis

rapid application development

_____ is a systems development technique that tests system concepts and provides an opportunity to examine input, output, and user interfaces before final decisions are made. 

Scrum

Prototyping

Modeling

Rapid application development

Internet-based commerce is called _____ and includes two main sectors: B2C (business-to-consumer) and B2B (business-to-business).

electronic commerce

network-oriented commerce

virtual trading

online trading

A _____ is an overview that describes a company’s overall functions, processes, organization, products, services, customers, suppliers, competitors, constraints, and future direction. 

business matrix

business profile

business index

business glossary

Structured analysis is a traditional systems development technique that uses a series of phases, called the _____, to plan, analyze, design, implement, and support an information system. 

object-oriented (O-O) analysis

systems development life cycle (SDLC)

transaction processing (TP) system

enterprise resource planning system (ERP)

Transaction processing (TP) systems _____. 

provide job-related information to users at all levels of a company

simulate human reasoning by combining a knowledge base and inference rules that determine how the knowledge is applied

process data generated by day-to-day business operations

include email, voice mail, fax, video conferencing, word processing, automated calendars, database management, spreadsheets, and integrated mobile computing systems

A(n) _____ shows the data that flows in and out of system processes. 

process model

object model

business model

network model

_____ enabled computer-to-computer transfer of data between companies, usually over private telecommunications networks.

Electronic data interchange (EDI)

Radio frequency identification (RFID)

Enterprise resource planning (ERP)

Object-oriented (O-O) analysis

Which of the following methods of system development stresses intense team-based effort and reflects a set of community-based values?

Object-oriented analysis

Agile method

Structured analysis

Rapid application development

In a systems development life cycle (SDLC) model, the purpose of the _____ is to create a physical model that will satisfy all documented requirements for the system.

systems implementation phase

systems planning phase

systems analysis phase

systems design phase

In a typical company organizational model, middle managers _____.

develop long-range plans, called strategic plans, which define the company’s overall mission and goals

provide direction, necessary resources, and performance feedback to supervisors and team leaders

oversee operation employees and carry out day-to-day functions, coordinating operational tasks and people

include users who rely on transaction processing (TP) systems to enter and receive the data they need to perform their jobs

Agile methods typically use a(n) _____ , which represents a series of iterations based on user feedback.

incremental model

extreme model

spiral model

evaluative model

_____ is a systems development technique that produces a graphical representation of a concept or process that systems developers can analyze, test, and modify.

Prototyping

Rapid application development

Scrum

Modeling

Critical Thinking Questions 
Case 1-1 
 
Roark has just joined a company and in his role as a lead analyst, he will be responsible for determining which systems development method the team uses to create a new application for a major medical supplier. 
After Roark has spent a week getting to know the members of the team, including their strengths and weaknesses, and what has worked well (and not so well) for this particular team in the past, one theme keeps recurring: the team has particularly weak communications skills. Which of the following methods is Roark least likely to use, given that he knows about the disadvantages of each method?

Structured analysis

Agile/adaptive methods

Object-oriented analysis

Rapid application development

Structured analysis is called a(n) _____ technique because it focuses on processes that transform data into useful information.

iterative

process-centered

inferred

model-specific

A(n) _____ investigates, analyzes, designs, develops, installs, evaluates, and maintains a company’s information systems.

application developer

database administrator

network administrator

systems analyst

Examples of company-wide applications, called _____, include order processing systems, payroll systems, and company communications networks.

enterprise applications

network operating systems (NOS)

operating applications

legacy systems

_____ design and construct webpages, monitor traffic, manage hardware and software, and link web-based applications to a company’s information systems. 

User support specialists

Database administrators

Web support specialists

Network administrators

A(n) _____ is the set of beliefs, rules, traditions, values, and attitudes that define a company and influence its way of doing business.

corporate culture

team guideline

mission statement

ongoing rule-set

A _____ answers questions, troubleshoots problems, and serves as a clearinghouse for user problems and solutions.

user support specialist

database administrator

web support specialist

network administrator

The _____ usually begins with a formal request to the IT department, called a systems request, which describes problems or desired changes in an information system or a business process.

systems design phase

systems planning phase

systems support and security phase

systems analysis phase

Which of the following is one of the main sectors of ecommerce?

C2C (consumer-to-consumer)

B2C (business-to-consumer)

C2B (consumer-to-business)

BPM (business process model)

*******

_____ are advantages that are difficult to measure in dollars but are important to a company.

Tangible benefits

Intangible benefits 

Tactile benefits

Real benefits

Many companies implement _____ systems that integrate all customer-related events and transactions.

CRM (Customer relationship management)

TCO (Total cost of ownership)

JIT (Just-in-time)

RFID (Radio frequency identification)

Systems development typically starts with a _____.

feasibility study, followed by a systems request, which includes a preliminary investigation

systems request, followed by a preliminary investigation, which includes a feasibility study

preliminary investigation, followed by a feasibility study, which includes a systems request

feasibility study, followed by a preliminary investigation, which includes a systems request

A popular technique for investigating causes and effects is called a _____ diagram.

causebone

fishbone

jawbone

crossbone

Determining the _____ means defining the specific boundaries, or extent, of a project.

project index

project matrix

project scope

project table

A(n) _____ is not as flexible as a series of interviews, but it is less expensive, generally takes less time, and can involve a broad cross-section of people.

fishbone

experiment

survey

research

Strategic planning starts with a _____ that reflects a firm’s vision, purpose, and values.

relationship diagram

feasibility study

performance assessment

mission statement

In a preliminary investigation report, the _____ section contains a brief description of the system, the name of the person or group performing the investigation, and the name of the person or group who initiated the investigation.

introduction

recommendations

expected benefits

time and costs estimates

CASE 
 
Critical Thinking Questions 
Case 2-1 
 
Lara, managing director of an information technology firm, has received a big project from one of their highly valuable clients. However, 
the project received is different from the usual projects they handle. 
 
Lara performs certain analyses and ensures that the company’s image will not be at risk by taking this project. This is an example of _____.

operational feasibility

economic feasibility

technical feasibility

schedule feasibility

Of the measures of feasibility, questions such as “Does the proposed platform have sufficient capacity for future needs?” and “Will the hardware and software environment be reliable?” should be considered while assessing _____.

schedule feasibility

technical feasibility

economic feasibility

ethical feasibility

_____ includes ongoing support and maintenance costs, as well as acquisition costs.

CRC (Customer relationship costs)

TCO (Total cost of ownership)

JIT (Just-in-time costs)

RCT (Real cost of time)

The overall aim of a _____ is to avoid seeking goals that are unrealistic, unprofitable, or unachievable.

SWOT (Strength, Weakness, Opportunities, and Threats) analysis

CSF (Critical Success Factor) analysis

BCF (Business Case Factor) analysis

SWCT (Strategy, Weakness, Cost, and Technology) analysis

The objective of _____ is to gather data about project usability, costs, benefits, and schedules.

mediation

fact-finding

project execution

project maintenance

Projects where management has a choice in implementing them are called _____ projects.

discretionary

nondiscretionary

appended

concatenated

In a preliminary investigation report, the _____ section is included in the report if supporting information must be attached.

appendix

introduction

recommendations

findings

When assessing _____, a systems analyst must consider the interaction between time and costs.

resource feasibility

technical feasibility

schedule feasibility

market feasibility

Using _____, a supplier can use radio frequency identification (RFID) tags on each crate, case, or shipping unit to create a digital shipping list.

EPOD (Electronic proof of delivery)

PPOD (Physical proof of delivery)

RPS (Radio positioning system)

RDS (Radar detection system)

_____ components can provide automated response to sales inquiries, online order processing, and inventory tracking.

Just-in-time (JIT)

Customer relationship management (CRM)

Automatic teller machine (ATM)

Total cost of ownership (TCO)

To avoid the problem of _____, a project’s scope should be defined as clearly as possible. 

project dilation

project expansion

project creep

project drift

The objective of a _____ is to use the combined judgement and experience of several analysts to evaluate systems projects.

computer resources committee

data storage committee

system networking committee

topology identification committee

When using a _____ to investigate the causes of a problem, an analyst first states the problem and then draws a main bone with sub-bones that represent possible causes of the problem.

causebone diagram

fishbone diagram

jawbone diagram

crossbone diagram 

In a preliminary investigation report, the _____ section contains the results of the preliminary investigation, including a description of the project’s scope, constraints, and feasibility. 

appendix

introduction

recommendations

findings

A systems analyst conducts a preliminary investigation to study the _____ and recommend specific action.

systems request

project scheduling report

systems validation

project staffing report

A _____ is an analysis tool that represents the possible causes of a problem as a graphical outline.

causebone diagram

fishbone diagram

jawbone diagram

crossbone diagram

Which of the following is an example of a tangible benefit?

A user-friendly system that improves employee job satisfaction

A sales tracking system that supplies better information for marketing decisions

A new website that enhances a company’s image

An online package tracking system that improves service and decreases the need for clerical staff

_____ technology uses radio frequency identification (RFID) tags to identify and monitor the movement of each individual product, from a factory floor to the retail checkout counter.

EPC (Electronic product code)

EPOD (Electronic proof of delivery)

MCC (Magnetic character code)

RTPD (Real-time product delivery)

_____ planning is the process of identifying long-term organizational goals, strategies, and resources.

Prospect

Pilot

Strategic

Vertical

_____ usually focus on long-term challenges and goals, the importance of a firm’s stakeholders, and a commitment to the firm’s role as a corporate citizen.

Performance assessments

Relationship assessments

Vision statements

Mission statements

_____ limitations result when a system that was designed for a specific hardware configuration becomes obsolete when new hardware is introduced.

Accessibility

Relationship

Feasibility

Performance

The _____, named after a nineteenth-century economist, is a widely used tool for visualizing issues that need attention and is drawn as a vertical bar graph.

Pareto chart

Gantt chart

Scatter chart

XY chart

Of the measures of feasibility, questions such as “Does management support the project?” and “Will the new system require training for users?” would help predict a system’s _____.

schedule feasibility

technical feasibility

economic feasibility

operational feasibility

_____ means that a proposed system will be used effectively after it has been developed.

Operational feasibility

Technical feasibility

Schedule feasibility

Economic feasibility

Hardware-based security controls include _____.

password fields

online forms

system patterns

biometric devices

A _____ is a summary of a project request and a specific recommendation.

case for action

routine report

breakdown report

case for approval

Which of the following is an example of an intangible benefit?

A user-friendly system that improves employee job satisfaction

A new scheduling system that reduces overtime

An online package tracking system that improves service and decreases the need for clerical staff

A sophisticated inventory control system that cuts excess inventory

CASE 
 
Critical Thinking Questions 
Case 2-1 
 
Lara, managing director of an information technology firm, has received a big project from one of their highly valuable clients. However, 
the project received is different from the usual projects they handle. 
 
Lara is involved in many other projects so she appoints a project manager for this project to ensure that the project is completed on time. This is an example of _____.

operational feasibility

economic feasibility

technical feasibility

schedule feasibility

The term _____ refers to the reasons, or justifications, for a proposal.

business case

use case

work statement

problem charter

Of the measures of feasibility, _____ assesses tangible and intangible benefits to a company in addition to costs.

schedule feasibility

technical feasibility

economic feasibility

operational feasibility

_____ refers to the practical resources needed to develop, purchase, install, or operate a system.

Operational feasibility

Technical feasibility

Schedule feasibility

Market feasibility

_____ means that a project can be implemented in an acceptable time frame.

Operational feasibility

Technical feasibility

Schedule feasibility

Economic feasibility

Electronic data interchange (EDI) enables _____ inventory systems, which rely on computer-to-computer data exchange to minimize unnecessary inventory.

CRM (Customer relationship management)

EPOD (Electronic proof of delivery)

JIT (Just-in-time)

RFID (Radio frequency identification)

A _____ must be achieved to fulfill a company’s mission.

key performance factor

core competency

critical success factor

vision competency

_____ are the benefits that can be measured in dollars.

Tangible benefits

Intangible benefits

Ethical benefits

Agile benefits

Projects that provide the _____ are assigned the highest priority when setting priorities for systems requests.

greatest benefit, at the lowest cost, in the shortest period of time

greatest benefit, at the highest cost, in the shortest period of time 

least benefit, at the lowest cost, in the longest period of time

least benefit, at the highest cost, in the longest period of time 

Projects with very general scope definitions are at risk of expanding gradually, without specific authorization, in a process called _____.

project dilation

project creep

project expansion

project drift

_____ means that the projected benefits of a proposed system outweigh the estimated costs.

Economic feasibility

Schedule feasibility

Operational feasibility

Technical feasibility

Projects where management has no choice in implementing them are called _____ projects.

discretionary

nondiscretionary

appended

concatenated

Which of the following is an example of a discretionary project?

Creating a new report for a user

Adding a report required by a new federal law

Including annual updates to payroll and tax percentages

Updating quarterly changes in reporting requirements for an insurance processing system

_____ result from a decrease in expenses, an increase in revenues, or both.

Tangible benefits

Intangible benefits

Agile benefits

Ethical benefits

A _____ is a requirement or condition that a system must satisfy or an outcome that a system must achieve.

trigger

constraint

query

key

******

Effective project reporting requires _____.

strong communication skills

strong intervention skills

strong negotiation skills

strong leadership skills

A _____ chart displays complex task patterns and relationships.

Gantt

Pareto

Program Evaluation Review Technique (PERT)

Scatter

A(n) _____ is a series of tasks that, if delayed, would affect the completion date of the overall project.

critical path

dynamic path

absolute path

relative path

A _____ represents the work that one person can complete in one day.

person-day

work-day

work-duration

person-work

The three legs of a project triangle are _____, scope, and time.

requirements

resources

environment

cost

Microsoft’s risk management model includes _____, which represents the likelihood that the risk will happen.

category

probability

trigger

description

A _____ involves breaking a project down into a series of smaller tasks.

work breakdown structure (WBS)

value breakdown structure (VBS)

risk breakdown structure (RBS)

concept breakdown structure (CBS)

Two or more concurrent tasks often depend on a single prior task, which is called a _____.

predecessor task 

wireframe task

beneficiary task

discrete task

A _____ is a review of a project team member’s work by other members of a team.

critical walk-through

foundational walk-through

baseline walk-through

structured walk-through

When several tasks can start at the same time, each is called a(n) _____ task.

model

asynchronous

baseline

concurrent

A _____ displays the same information as the Gantt chart, including task dependencies, but uses task boxes to include much more detail.

semantic wireframe

mesh topology

ring topology

network diagram

A _____ is a series of events and activities with no slack time.

risk path

foundation path

baseline path

critical path

When maintaining schedules, if enough _____ and frequent checkpoints exist, problems will be detected rapidly.

activity diagrams

milestones

data flow diagrams

viewports

A continuous risk-tracking process can _____.

notice changes in existing risks

revert reported risks

prevent human resource turnover issues

prevent new issues

Project scheduling, an activity of a project manager, _____.

requires guiding, supervising, and coordinating a project team’s workload

includes monitoring the progress of a project, evaluating results, and taking corrective action when necessary to stay on target

involves staffing, which includes selecting the project team and assigning specific tasks to team members

includes budgeting a project based on the number of modules and their complexity in a project

_____ give the project managers an opportunity to seek input and conduct brainstorming sessions.

Status reports

Project review reports

Project status meetings

Board meetings

A _____ is a proactive effort to anticipate a risk and describe an action plan to deal with it.

risk identification plan

risk response plan

risk balance plan

risk management plan

_____ give team members of a project an opportunity to share information, discuss common problems, and explain new techniques.

Board meetings

Project status meetings

Project review reports

Status reports

A(n) _____ is a recognizable reference point that can be used to monitor progress.

event 

notification

alert

task

Project planning, an activity of a project manager, _____.

involves requires guiding, supervising, and coordinating the a project team’s workload

includes monitoring the progress of the a project, evaluating results, and taking corrective action when necessary to stay on target

focuses on long-term challenges and goals, the importance of stakeholders, and a commitment to the firm’s role as a corporate citizen consists of staffing, which includes selecting the project team and assigning specific tasks to team members

includes identifying project tasks and estimating completion times and costs

A(n) _____ is a condition, restriction, or requirement that the system must satisfy.

constraint

index

milestone

viewport

The _____ is the most pessimistic outcome of a task.

best-case estimate (B)

probable-case estimate (P)

worst-case estimate (W)

dominant-case estimate (D)

When two or more concurrent tasks depend on a single prior task, each of the concurrent tasks is called a(n) _____.

successor task

discrete task

antecedent task

descendent task

When a project manager first recognizes that a project is in trouble, one of the options available to the manager includes _____.

delaying the project deadline

expanding the project requirements

reducing the project resources

eliminating controls and procedures

Project managers always must be aware of the _____, so they can monitor the vital tasks and keep a project on track.

absolute path

relative path

critical path

dynamic path

_____ can involve a modeling process called what-if analysis, which allows a project manager to vary one or more element(s) in a model to measure the effect on other elements.

Qualitative risk analysis

Quantitative risk analysis

Resource list analysis

Trigger analysis

Project reporting, an activity of a project manager, _____.

involves the creation of a specific timetable, usually in the form of charts that show tasks, task dependencies, and critical tasks that might delay a project

includes informing management, users, and the project team about the progress of a project

consists of staffing, which includes selecting the project team and assigning specific tasks to team members

includes identifying and arranging project tasks and estimating completion times and costs

The first step in creating a work breakdown structure (WBS) is to _____.

mark all recognizable events

determine time requirements

list all tasks

estimate task completion time and cost

A _____ cannot be started until a previous task is completed.

dependent task

predecessor task

precursor task

concurrent task

A _____ consists of horizontal bars, connected with arrows that indicate task dependencies.

Gantt chart

viewport

Scatter chart

wireframe

A(n) _____ is an event that could affect a project negatively.

issue

webinar

uncertainty

risk

A task that represents several activities is known as a _____.

task group

task name

task  review

task  ID

Adding more people to a project actually might increase the time necessary to complete the project because of a principle called _____.

Brooks’ Law

Bernoulli’s Law

Hooke’s Law

Moody’s Law

Using a(n) _____, a project manager can convert task start and finish times to actual dates by laying out the entire project on a calendar.

XY chart

Pedigree chart

Program Evaluation Review Technique (PERT) chart

Scatter chart

The first step in the creation of a Program Evaluation Review Technique (PERT)/Critical Path Method (CPM) chart is to _____.

the graphical planning aids to use

determine the logical order of project tasks identify

determine the status of all tasks

identify all the project tasks

A _____ might involve maximums for one or more resources, such as time, dollars, or people.

successor task

constraint

task ID

milestone

_____, a human resource issue, is a possible cause of cost overruns in an organization.

Inadequate training

Inaccurate demand forecast

Poor monitoring of progress

Unrealistic estimates

Microsoft claims that the Microsoft Project software can _____.

link risks with specific vendors

link risks with specific tasks and projects

eliminate risks

prevent risks

Two or more _____ depend on a predecessor task.

dependent tasks

concurrent tasks

ancestor tasks

precursor tasks

Microsoft’s risk management model includes _____, which specifies the risk type.

category

description

trigger

probability

Critical Thinking Questions 
Mauricio, a project manager at a reputed firm, has been assigned to handle a new project that the firm has received. This project involves a lot of scheduling that has to be handled by Mauricio. 
Mauricio has decided to use a project management tool for this project. He wants the tool to be free and cloud-based so that there is no need for software to be installed. Help Mauricio in identifying the project management tool that best fits the purpose.

Apptivo

Smartsheet

Microsoft Project

Gantter

A _____ negotiates with users who might have conflicting requirements or want changes that would require additional time or expense.

project coordinator

project reporter

software tester

software developer

Project monitoring, an activity of a project manager, _____.

requires guiding, supervising, and coordinating a project team’s workload

involves the creation of a specific timetable, usually in the form of charts that show tasks, task dependencies, and critical tasks that might delay a project

consists of staffing, which includes selecting the project team and assigning specific tasks to team members

includes identifying and arranging project tasks and estimating completion times and costs

A _____ includes a review of a project’s scope, stakeholders, budget, schedule, and any other internal or external factors that might affect the project.

change management plan

configuration management plan

debt management plan

risk management plan

_____ is a full-featured program that holds the dominant share of the project management software market.

Apptivo

GanttProject

Microsoft Project

Gantter

Program Evaluation Review Technique (PERT) is a _____ technique because it analyzes a large, complex project as a series of individual tasks.

top-down

bottom-up

three-point estimate

six-point estimate

_____ lists each risk and assesses the likelihood that it could affect a project.

Risk averting

Risk dominance

Risk identification

Risk analytics

*****

The _____ phase of the SDLC includes four main activities: requirements modeling, data and process modeling, object modeling, and consideration of development strategies.

systems planning

systems analysis

systems design

systems implementation

Software such as Microsoft OneNote is a type of _____ software.

personal information manager (PIM)

personal data management

project data management

personal digital assistant (PDA)

Critical Thinking Questions
Case 4-1 
 
John has finished compiling a list of the various members of the joint application development (JAD) group and the list is as follows: John is the JAD project leader, Tom is the representative from top management, Jennifer is a manager, Alen and Ian are users, Linda and Alex are systems analysts, and Clark is the recorder. 

As John develops the agenda, he wants to put the name of the appropriate person next to the agenda item. Whose name would he put next to the final task on the agenda, the task of documenting the results of the JAD session and preparing the report that will be sent to JAD team members?

Clark

Tom

Linda

His own

To evaluate _____, a systems analyst needs information about projected future volume for all outputs, inputs, and processes.

scalability

reliability

compatibility

applicability

_____ is a planned meeting during which a systems analyst obtains information from another person.

A survey

An interview

Sampling

Research

Using _____, an analyst can show business functions and break them down into lower-level functions and processes.

Unified Modeling Language (UML)

total cost of ownership (TCO)

functional decomposition diagrams (FDD)

Rapid Economic Justification (REJ)

_____ is a model that asks the traditional fact-finding questions in a systems development context.

A functional decomposition diagram

A class diagram

The Unified Modeling Language

The Zachman Framework for Enterprise Architecture

When preparing a representative sample from a list of 200 customers who complained about errors in their statements, a _____ might select any 20 customers.

systematic sample

stratified sample

random sample

comprehensive sample

One of the main activities in the systems analysis phase is _____, which involves fact-finding to describe the current system and identification of the specifications for the new system.

objective modeling

requirements modeling

goal-based modeling

user-based modeling

In a use case diagram, the user becomes a(n) _____, with a specific role that describes how he or she interacts with a system.

agent

actor

interlocutor

master

In a(n) _____, team members prepare to lunge at each other to achieve their objectives.

pool

resequencing session

scrum

adaptation

Supporters of neutral locations for interviews believe that it _____.

makes the interviewee feel comfortable during the meeting

gives the interviewee easy access to supporting material that might be needed

keeps interruptions to a minimum so people can concentrate fully

gives the interviewee an opportunity to take calls during the interview

_____ are important to a systems analyst who must work with people at all organizational levels, balance conflicting needs of users, and communicate effectively.

Problem solving skills

Artistic skills

Interpersonal skills

Confrontational skills

When preparing a representative sample from a list of 200 customers who complained about errors in their statements, a _____ might select every tenth customer for review.

systematic sample

stratified sample

random sample

comprehensive sample

Which of the following is a typical example of a system requirement for the output category?

Manufacturing employees must swipe their ID cards into data collection terminals that record labor costs.

The contact management system must generate a daily reminder list for all sales reps.

All transactions must have audit trails.

As the final step in year-end processing, the payroll system must update employee salaries, bonuses, and benefits and produce tax data required by the IRS.

Critical Thinking Questions

Case 4-1

John has finished compiling a list of the various members of the joint application development (JAD) group and the list is as follows: John is the JAD project leader, Tom is the representative from top management, Jennifer is a manager, Alen and Ian are users, Linda and Alex are systems analysts, and Clark is the recorder.

There have been some rumblings within the firm that this development project is not necessary so John and others feel it is important to explain the reason for the project at the outset. Whose name goes next to this point on the agenda?

His own

Jennifer

Alex

Tom

Which of the following is a general category of system requirements?

Daily reports

Inputs

Response time

Login security

The _____ is a top-down representation of a process.

Unified Modeling Language (UML)

total cost of ownership (TCO)

functional decomposition diagram (FDD)

Rapid Economic Justification (REJ)

Rapid application development (RAD) relies heavily on _____.

prototyping

management direction

agile methods

scrum

_____ is a fact-finding technique that can help a systems analyst understand how the current system is supposed to work.

Document review

Brainstorming

A systematic sample

Productivity software

In a(n) _____ structure, which usually is based on interpersonal relationships, some people have more influence or knowledge than appears on an organization chart.

spontaneous

unstructured

informal

open-ended

_____ enable a systems analyst to identify a problem, evaluate the key elements, and develop a useful solution.

Analytical skills

Artistic skills

Interpersonal skills

Confrontational skills

When studying an information system, illustrations of actual documents should be collected using a process called _____.

stratification

randomization

indexing

sampling

Critical Thinking Questions 
Case 4-2 
Jerry has inherited an Excel sheet that lists all of the system requirements for his team’s new project. But unfortunately, his predecessor did not label the requirements with categories—or in some cases failed to categorize them correctly. He needs to take care of this so the requirements can be sorted correctly. 
Jerry knows that there were supposed to be three performance examples but he finds four in the spreadsheet. Which one of these is mislabeled as a performance example?

            a. The system must automatically generate an insurance claim form.

            b. Response time must not exceed four seconds.

c. The online inventory control system must flag all low-stock items within one hour after the quantity falls below a predetermined minimum.

d. The records system must produce key reports within five hours of the end of each fiscal quarter.

In addition to joint application development, another popular user-oriented method is _____, which resembles a condensed version of the entire SDLC with users involved every step of the way.

agile method

sampling

rapid application development

brainstorming

When preparing a representative sample from a list of 200 customers who complained about errors in their statements, a _____ could ensure the sample is balanced geographically by selecting five customers from each of four zip codes.

systematic sample

stratified sample

random sample

comprehensive sample

The primary advantage of rapid application development (RAD) is that _____.

systems can be developed more quickly with significant cost savings

a company’s strategic business needs are emphasized and the mechanics of the system are not stressed

the decelerated time cycle allows more time to develop quality, consistency, and design standards

systems are developed more slowly with fewer bugs

In the rapid application development (RAD) model, during the _____ phase, users interact with systems analysts and develop models and prototypes that represent all system processes, outputs, and inputs.

requirements planning

user design

construction

cutover

The _____ is a widely used method of visualizing and documenting software systems design.

Unified Modeling Language (UML)

total cost of ownership (TCO)

functional decomposition diagram (FDD)

Rapid Economic Justification (REJ)

Greater user involvement in the system development process usually results in _____.

poorer communication

more satisfied users

slower development times

lower quality deliverable

In the rapid application development (RAD) model, the _____ phase resembles the final tasks in the SDLC implementation phase.

requirements planning

user design

construction

cutover

The term _____ refers to a system’s ability to handle increased business volume and transactions in the future.

scalability

reliability

compatibility

applicability

A(n) _____ shows the timing of interactions between objects as they occur.

timing diagram

class diagram

orientation diagram

sequence diagram

A(n) _____, such as Microsoft Outlook, includes a private calendar, a to-do list, and powerful contact management features.

personal information manager (PIM)

enterprise architecture

swim lane

fact-finding application

Critical Thinking Questions 
Case 4-2 
 Jerry has inherited an Excel sheet that lists all of the system requirements for his team’s new project. But unfortunately, his predecessor did not label the requirements with categories—or in some cases failed to categorize them correctly. He needs to take care of this so the requirements can be sorted correctly. 
Jerry has found one system requirement that he thinks could fit into a couple of different categories. The requirement is as follows: An employee record must be added, changed, or deleted only by a member of the human resources department. What is the best categorization of this requirement?

Performance

Control

Process

Input

Which of the following is a typical example of a system requirement for the control category?

The customer analysis system must produce a quarterly report that identifies changes in ordering patterns.

The system must maintain separate levels of security for users and the system administrator.

The data entry screens must be uniform, except for background color, which can be changed by the user.

The warehouse distribution system must analyze daily orders and create a routing pattern for delivery trucks.

In an interview, _____ are questions that ask a person to evaluate something by providing limited answers to specific responses or on a numeric scale.

open-ended questions

factual questions

leading questions

range-of-response questions

A(n) _____ is a characteristic or feature that must be included in an information system to satisfy business needs and be acceptable to users.

system requirement

property

questionnaire

object

Identify is a typical example of a system requirement for the performance category.

The purchasing system must provide suppliers with up-to-date specifications.

Each input form must include date, time, product code, customer number, and quantity.

The manager of the sales department must approve orders that exceed a customer’s credit limit.

The student records system must produce class lists within five hours after the end of registration.

If an interviewee gives only short or incomplete responses to open-ended questions, a systems analyst should _____.

switch to closed-ended questions

give the interviewee easy access to supporting material that might be needed

continue using open-ended questions

rudely conclude the meeting

Identify a typical example of a system requirement for the input category.

As a final step in year-end processing, the payroll system must update employee salaries, bonuses, and benefits.

Response time must not exceed four seconds.

The system must provide logon security at the operating system level and at the application level.

Student grades must be entered on machine-readable forms prepared by the instructor.

The process of concentrating on what is said in an interview and noticing any nonverbal communication that takes place is called _____.

brainstorming

sampling

engaged listening

fact-finding

In projects where it is desirable to obtain input from a large number of people, a(n) _____, can be a valuable tool.

observation

questionnaire

suggestion

title

In the rapid application development (RAD) model, the _____ phase focuses on program and application development tasks similar to the SDLC.

requirements planning

user design

construction

cutover

In addition to direct evaluations, systems developers must identify and document indirect expenses that contribute to the _____.

business process modeling notation
(BPMN)

total cost of ownership (TCO)

functional decomposition diagrams (FDD)

Rapid Economic Justification (REJ)

A _____ is a Unified Modeling Language (UML) technique that visually represents the interaction between users and an information system.

surface flowchart

scatter diagram

use case diagram

user-based flowchart

The kind of document shown in the accompanying figure starts with a heading, which should include  _____.

a brief statement of purpose

your suggestions

your signature

your observations

In an interview, _____ encourage spontaneous and unstructured responses.

open-ended questions

closed-ended questions

leading questions

range-of-response questions

When phrasing interview questions, a systems analyst should avoid _____ that suggest or favor a particular reply.

range-of-response questions

open-ended questions

closed-ended questions

leading questions

43. Which of the following is a typical example of a system requirement for the process category?

The website must report online volume statistics every four hours and hourly during peak periods.

The system must be operated seven days a week, 365 days a year.

The equipment rental system must not execute new rental transactions for customers who have overdue accounts.

All transactions must have audit trails.

In an interview, _____ limit or restrict the response.

open-ended questions

closed-ended questions

leading questions

range-of-response questions

A common tool for showing the distribution of a questionnaire or sampling results is a vertical bar chart called a _____.

flowchart

histogram

tree map

streamgraph

*****

Among the symbols in the accompanying figure, a _____ is used to represent data that a system stores because one or more processes need to use the data at a later time.

data store

data flow

process

gray hole

Many analysts follow _____, which means that they develop a physical model of the current system, a logical model of the current system, a logical model of the new system, and a physical model of the new system.

a four-model approach

a process description

the Zachman Framework

the Gane and Sarson symbol

Typical process description tools include _____.

context diagrams

decision trees

pseudocode

database tables

Critical Thinking Questions 
The analysts at Techno InfoSystems are considering the four-model approach to system development for a new client. 
If they make use of the four-model approach, which of the following is a likely outcome?

Time taken to develop the model increases.

Costs needed to develop a logical and physical model of the current system will be less.

It will not be possible to get a clear picture of the current system functions before modifications are made.

The requirements of a new information system will always be different from the current information system.

In modular design, _____ also is called looping.

sequence

selection

iteration

process description

A _____ is a central storehouse of information about a system’s data. 

data cube

data feed

data mart

data repository

A _____ shows how data acts through an information system but does not show program logic or processing steps.

data flow diagram

data tree diagram

data model diagram

data structure diagram

In a data dictionary, data elements are combined into _____ that are meaningful combinations of data elements that are included in data flows or retained in data stores.

fields

columns

records

decimals

In a data flow diagram (DFD), a gray hole is a process that has _____.

no input

at least one output and one input, but the output obviously is insufficient to generate the input shown

no output

at least one input and one output, but the input obviously is insufficient to generate the output shown

A data dictionary specifies a data element’s _____, which is the set of values permitted for the data element.

index

domain

array

record

In a data dictionary, a(n) _____ is the smallest piece of data that has meaning within an information system.

field

index

record

pixel

_____ maintains consistency among data flow diagrams (DFDs) by ensuring that input and output data flows align properly.

Balancing

Indexing

Adapting

Shipping

The selection structure is the completion of _____.

one or more process steps based on the results of a test or condition

steps in a chronological order, one after another

a process step that is repeated until a specific condition changes

a specific condition that is repeated until a process changes

Balancing _____.

uses a series of increasingly detailed data flow diagrams (DFDs) to describe an information system

ensures that the input and output data flows of the parent data flow diagram (DFD) are maintained on the child data flow diagram (DFD)

uses a series of increasingly sketchy data flow diagrams (DFDs) to describe an information system

ensures that the input and output data flows of the child data flow diagram (DFD) are maintained on the parent data flow diagram (DFD)

A data flow diagram (DFD) shows _____.

how data is related

what key fields are stored in the system

how a system transforms input data into useful information

what data is stored in the system

In a data flow diagram (DFD), the Gane and Sarson symbol for an entity is a ____.

rectangle with rounded corners

line with a single or double arrowhead

flat rectangle that is open on the right side and closed on the left side

rectangle, which may be shaded to make it look three-dimensional

The data dictionary usually records and describes a default value, which is the _____.

the set of values permitted for the data element

identification of the user(s) responsible for changing values for the data element

specification for the origination point for the data element’s value

value for the data element if a value otherwise is not entered for it

Which of the following provides a report of all data flows and data stores that use a particular data element?

Data dictionaries

Data types

Databases

Data warehouses

_____ is based on combinations of the three logical structures, or control structures, which serve as building blocks for the process.

Modular design

Interface design

Visual design

Product design

In a data flow diagram (DFD), the Gane and Sarson symbol for a data flow is a _____.

segment of a differentiable curve

line with a single or double arrowhead

flat rectangle that is open on the right side and closed on the left side

triangle, which may be shaded to make it look three-dimensional

Decision trees show the logic structure in a _____.

vertical form that resembles a tree with the roots at the bottom and the branches at the top

horizontal form that resembles a tree with the roots at the left and the branches to the right

vertical form that resembles a tree with the roots at the top and the branches at the bottom

horizontal form that resembles a tree with the roots at the right and the branches to the left

In a data dictionary, _____ is the maximum number of characters for an alphabetic or character data element or the maximum number of digits and number of decimal positions for a numeric data element.

domain

valence

length

index

Among the symbols in the accompanying figure, a _____ is a path for data to move from one part of the information system to another.

data store

data flow

process

gray hole

Among the symbols in the accompanying figure, a _____ receives input data and produces output that has a different content, form, or both.

data store

data flow

process

gray hole

In a data dictionary, some data elements have _____ rules. For example, an employee’s salary must be within the range defined for the employee’s job classification.

domain

range

validity

mastered

By showing processes as _____, an analyst can create data flow diagrams (DFDs) that show how the system functions but avoid unnecessary detail and clutter.

black boxes

process descriptions

business rules

decision tables

A _____ is logically impossible in a data flow diagram (DFD) because a process must act on input, shown by an incoming data flow, and produce output, represented by an outgoing data flow.

spontaneous combustion

gray matter

black hole

server farm

The disadvantage of the four-model approach is that ____.

it gives an unclear picture of the current system functions before any modifications or improvements are made

the requirements of a new information system always are different from the current information system

additional time and cost are required to develop a logical and physical model of the current system

it does not take additional steps to avoid mistakes made earlier in systems development

Structured English might look familiar to programming students because it resembles _____, which is used in program design.

pseudocode

a decision tree

iterative code

decision code

The iteration structure is the completion of _____.

one or more process steps based on the results of a test or condition

steps in a chronological order, one after another

a process step that is repeated until a specific condition changes

a specific condition that is repeated until a process changes

Critical Thinking Questions 
 The analysts at Techno InfoSystems are considering the four-model approach to system development for a new client. 
Which of the following is a benefit if they use the four-model approach?

It will take less time to build a logical and physical model of the current system.

It will not incur additional costs to develop logical and physical model of the current system.

It will provide a clear picture of current system functions before any modifications or improvements are made.

It will provide time to create the current system models even for projects with tight schedules.

A _____ documents the details of a functional primitive, which represents a specific set of processing steps and business logic.

logical description

primitive description

process description

function-based description

If processes must be performed in a specific sequence, the information should be documented in the _____.

leveling guide

process descriptions

data dictionary

data flow diagram (DFD)

A _____ shows a logical structure, with all possible combinations of conditions and resulting actions.

pseudo table

database table

decision table

validation table

In a data dictionary, any name other than the standard data element name is called a(n) _____.

clone

cipher

alias

element

Using _____, an analyst starts with an overall view, which is a context diagram with a single process symbol, and then the analyst creates diagram 0, which shows more detail.

balancing

indexing

expanding

leveling

In a data flow diagram (DFD), a spontaneous generation process is a process that has _____.

no input

at least one output and one input, but the output obviously is insufficient to generate the input shown

no output

at least one input and one output, but the input obviously is insufficient to generate the output shown

In data and process modeling, a(n) _____ shows what the system must do, regardless of how it will be implemented physically.

organizational model

physical model

logical model

relational model

In a data flow diagram (DFD), the Gane and Sarson symbol for a data store is a _____.

rectangle with rounded corners

line with a single or double arrowhead

flat rectangle that is open on the right side and closed on the left side

rectangle, which may be shaded to make it look three-dimensional

In a data flow diagram (DFD), a black hole is a process that has _____.

no input

at least one output and one input, but the output obviously is insufficient to generate the input shown

no output

at least one input and one output, but the input obviously is insufficient to generate the output shown

In a data dictionary, _____ refers to whether the data element contains numeric, alphabetic, or character values.

pool

type

valence

domain

In a data flow diagram (DFD), the Gane and Sarson symbol for a process is a _____.

rectangle with rounded corners

line with a single or double arrowhead

flat rectangle that is open on the right side and closed on the left side

rectangle, which may be shaded to make it look three-dimensional

_____ is the process of drawing a series of increasingly detailed data flow diagrams (DFDs), until all functional primitives are identified.

Leveling

Balancing

Indexing

Looping

Since diagram 0 is a(n) _____ version of process 0, it shows considerably more detail than a context diagram.

contracted

exploded

condensed

extrapolated

Critical Thinking Questions 
Nathan is an expert on all of the different kinds of process description tools. So, when his colleagues have questions, they know where to turn. 
One of the firm’s trainee analysts is working on a financial process that will continue to print vendor payments until it reaches the end of the file. Which of the following processes will Nathan suggest the analyst to use?

Sequence

Selection

Concatenation

Iteration

In addition to the Gane and Sarson symbol set, another popular symbol set is _____.

Mantissa

Jira

Zachman

Yourdon

Data flow diagram (DFD) entities are also called _____ because they are data origins or final data destinations.

data stores

pseudocodes

terminators

gray holes

Critical Thinking Questions 
Nathan is an expert on all of the different kinds of process description tools. So, when his colleagues have questions, they know where to turn. 
Another of the firm’s analysts is unable to figure out what is wrong with some structured English he has been using to describe the processing logic. Nathan walks over and spots the problem in an instant. Which of the following can Nathan identify as the problem?

The structured English is indented.

The structured English is not using a sequence, selection, or iteration structure.

The structured English uses a limited vocabulary.

The structured English is used as a shorthand notation for actual code by programmers.

The major benefit of _____ is that it gives a clear picture of current system functions before any modifications or improvements are made.

the four-model approach

balancing

leveling

the Zachman Framework

A _____ is a graphical representation of the conditions, actions, and rules found in a decision table.

decision board

decision tree

decision element

decision point

Leveling _____.

uses a series of increasingly detailed data flow diagrams (DFDs) to describe an information system

ensures that the input and output data flows of the parent data flow diagram (DFD) are maintained on the child data flow diagram (DFD)

uses a series of increasingly sketchy data flow diagrams (DFDs) to describe an information system

ensures that the input and output data flows of the child data flow diagram (DFD) are maintained on the parent data flow diagram (DFD)

In data flow diagrams (DFDs), a process resembles a _____, where the inputs, outputs, and general functions of the process are known, but the underlying details are not shown.

black box

terminator

business rule

decision table

In the accompanying figure, the sequence structure is the completion of _____.

one or more process steps based on the results of a test or condition

steps in a chronological order, one after another

a specific condition that is repeated until a process changes

a process step that is repeated until a specific condition changes

*****

Object modeling requires many types of diagrams, creating which by hand is very time consuming and tedious, so systems analysts rely on _____ to speed up the process.

CRC modeling

extreme Programming (XP)

whiteboard sketches

CASE tools

In a sequence diagram, a _____ is identified by a line showing direction that runs between two objects.

message

procedure

method

response

_____ enable objects to communicate and interact as they perform business functions and transactions required by a system.

Aggregates

Relationships

Clusters

Linkages

Objects within a class can be grouped into _____, which are more specific categories within a class.

grids

units

subclasses

matrices

All objects within a(n) _____ share common attributes and methods.

catalog

register

index

class

_____ describes how instances of one class relate to instances of another class.

A modifier

A deliverable

Scope

Cardinality

The number of _____ needed to describe the characteristics of an object depends on the business requirements of the information system and its users.

attributes

packets

indices

keys

In a use case, the _____ is shown as a stick figure with a label that identifies its role.

actor

association

linkage

service request

An _____ shows the objects and how they interact to perform business functions and transactions.

object relationship diagram

object precedent chart

object antecedent chart

object interaction diagram

The black box concept is an example of _____, which means that all data and methods are self-contained.

polymorphism

inheritance

encapsulation

use case modeling

The line from the actor to the use case is called a(n) _____.

association

aggregation

lifeline

observation

In a class diagram, each class appears as a(n) _____, with the class name at the top, followed by the class’s attributes and methods.

rectangle

circle

oval

triangle

A major advantage of object-oriented (O-O) designs is that systems analysts can save time and avoid errors by using _____ objects.

dynamic

feasible

modular

linear

A(n) _____ is a group of similar objects.

aggregate

concatenation

class

packet

In a sequence diagram, a lifeline is identified by a _____ line.

solid

dashed

red

curved

A(n) _____ graphically documents a use case by showing the classes, the messages, and the timing of the messages.

state transition diagram

sequence diagram

data flow diagram

scatter diagram

An object, such as a bank account, can have a specific attribute called a(n) _____ that can be active, inactive, closed, or frozen.

state

grade

instance

status

In an object-oriented system, objects can _____ certain attributes from other objects.

broadcast

concatenate

inherit

reformat

Inheritance enables an object, called a _____, to derive one or more of its attributes from a parent.

child

user

package

suite

In a sequence diagram, a _____ represents the time during which an object above it is able to interact with the other objects in the use case.

focus point

schematic matrix

validity link

lifeline

A _____ is a visual summary of several related use cases within a system or subsystem.

use case description

use case diagram

use case schema

use case matrix

A _____ shows how an object changes from one state to another, depending on events that affect the object.

state transition diagram

case tools diagram

scatter diagram

business process diagram

The Unified Modeling Language (UML) notation _____ identifies a zero or many relation.

0..1

1..*

0..*

0..0

The _____ of an object is an adjective that describes the object’s current status.

polymorphism

encapsulation

resemblance

state

In a use case, an external entity, called a(n) _____,initiates a use case by requesting the system to perform a function or process.

beneficiary

user

domain

actor

A(n) _____ resembles a verb and defines specific tasks that an object can perform.

attribute

method

command

message

Critical Thinking Questions 
 Kevin, the trainee analyst at Lynach TechSystems, is in charge of allocating suitable Unified Modeling Language (UML) notations to a particular class diagram. 
In a given diagram, Kevin is designing a relationship in which a given employee can have no payroll deductions or he/she can have many deductions. Which of the following notations should Kevin write to mark this relationship?

0..1

1

0..*

1..*

A(n) _____ is a specific member of a class.

key

index

file

instance

_____ allows objects to be used as modular components anywhere in a system.

Dynamic addressing

Technical feasibility

Encapsulation

Linear addressing

A car performs a(n) _____ called OPERATE WIPERS when it is sent a message with the wiper control.

method

role

command

objective

An object can be viewed asa(n) _____, because a message to the object triggers changes within the object without specifying how the changes must be carried out.

black box

class diagram

use case

activity diagram

A(n) _____ resembles a horizontal flowchart that shows the actions and events as they occur.

state transition diagram

sequence diagram

business model diagram

activity diagram

A(n) _____ represents the steps in a specific business function or process.

relationship diagram

use case

data flow unit

interaction diagram

The Unified Modeling Language (UML) represents an object as a _____ with the object name at the top, followed by the object’s attributes and methods.

circle

rectangle

pentagon

rhombus

In a sequence diagram, the _____indicates when an object sends or receives a message.

request link

focus

command line

lifeline

An object has certain _____,which are characteristics that describe the object, such as the make, model, and color of a car.

keys

attributes

indices

elements

A class can belong to a more general category called a _____.

superclass

register

subclass

catalog

For each use case, a _____ in the form of a table is developed to document the name of the use case, the actor, a description of the use case, and so forth.

use case description

use case diagram

use case schematic

use case outline

_____ is a widely used method of visualizing and documenting an information system.

Unified Modeling Language (UML)

Java Virtual Machine (JVM)

UNiplexed Information and Computing System (UNIX)

Multimedia Logic (ML)

_____ describe what objects need to know about each other, how objects respond to changes in other objects, and the effects of membership in classes, superclasses, and subclasses.

Instances

Relationships

Aggregates 

Clusters 

When a use case diagram is created, the first step is to identify the system boundary, which is represented by a _____.

triangle

circle

rectangle

square

A _____ is a command that tells an object to perform a certain method.

dictum

message

pledge

pronouncement

Critical Thinking Questions 
 Kevin, the trainee analyst at Lynach TechSystems, is in charge of allocating suitable Unified Modeling Language (UML) notations to a particular class diagram. 
Which of the following relationships corresponds to theUnified Modeling Language (UML) notation on the class diagram 0..1 that Kevin has written?

An employee can have no direct reports or many direct reports.

An employee can have no spouse or one spouse.

An office manager manages one and only one office.

One order can include one or many items ordered.

For a use case diagram, the _____ shows what is included in the system and what is not included in the system.

system design

system boundary

system layout

system matrix

A red Mustang is a(n) _____ of the CAR class.

index

key

metric

instance

An object’s _____ are the tasks or functions that the object performs when it receives a command to do so.

roles

utilities

instances

methods

The Unified Modeling Language (UML) symbol for a use case is a(n) _____ with a label that describes the action or event.

rectangle

triangle

dashed line

oval

A(n) _____represents a person, a place, an event, or a transaction that is significant to the information system.

object

instance

class

model

A(n) _____ shows the object classes and relationships involved in a use case.

class diagram

association diagram

use case diagram

modeling diagram

The concept that a message gives different meanings to different objects is called _____.

encapsulation

dynamic addressing

polymorphism

linear addressing

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