**ECEN 325-510**

**Lab 2 Report**

**Calculations:**

**Transfer function:**

**Selecting the value of components:**

**Bode plots**

**Output waves:**

**Simulations:**

**Bode plots:**

**Low pass:**

-3.0dB frequency at 2.6kHz

Magnitude at 6k Hz is -8.6dB, phase shift is -92.15 degrees

Magnitude of input is 0.493V, output is 0.182V

Time delay is 41.5us, Phase shift is 41.5us/(1/6000)*360 = 89.64 degrees

**High pass**

-3.0dB frequency at 12.37k Hz

Magnitude at 6k Hz is -8.6dB, phase shift is 87.68 degrees

Magnitude of input is 0.499V, output is 0.206V

Time delay is 36.6us, Phase shift is 36.6us/(1/6000)*360 = -79.06 degrees

**Band pass filter**

-3.0dB frequency at 2.45k Hz and 13.12k Hz

Magnitude at 6k Hz is -5.14dB, phase shift is -2.32 degrees

Magnitude of input is 0.508V, output is 0.281V

Time delay is 5.55us, Phase shift is 5.55us/(1/6000)*360 = -11.99 degrees

**Measurements:**

**Low pass:**

-3dB frequency is 2.62k Hz

Magnitude at 6k Hz is -8.49dB, phase shift is -90.31 degrees

Magnitude of input is 0.499V, output is 0.186V

Time delay is 39.82us, Phase shift is 39.82us/(1/6000)*360 = 86.01 degrees

**High pass:**

-3dB frequency is 13.3k Hz

Magnitude at 6k Hz is -8.25dB, phase shift is 88.99 degrees

Magnitude of input is 0.499V, output is 0.193V

Time delay is -42.98us, Phase shift is -42.98us /(1/6000)*360 = -92.84 degrees

**Band pass:**

-3dB frequency is 2.01k Hz and 17.49k Hz

Magnitude at 6k Hz is -4.99dB, phase shift is 2.24 degrees

Magnitude of input is 0.500V, output is 0.281V

Time delay is -1.26us, Phase shift is -1.26us /(1/6000)*360 = -2.72 degrees

**Table of data:**

Type of Filter |
Calculation |
Simulation |
Measurement |

Low pass |
0.22sin(2*pi*6000t-86.77) |
0.18sin(2*pi*6000t-89.64) |
0.19sin(2*pi*6000t-90.31) |

High pass |
0.25sin(2*pi*6000t+86.92) |
0.21sin(2*pi*6000t+76.06) |
0.19sin(2*pi*6000t+92.84) |

Band pass |
0.33sin(2*pi*6000t+3.18) |
0.28sin(2*pi*6000t+11.99) |
0.28sin(2*pi*6000t+2.72) |

**Comments**

When compare the results form calculation, simulation, and measurements, they appear to be the same in general. However, magnitude of calculation tends to be higher than both simulation and measurement. Since the value of components I selected has difference compare to calculation, this difference can be explained.

The basic idea of choosing components is to make sure they match to the calculated value as close as possible. Since the constant is the product of inductance and resistance, when increase the capacitance of the capacitor, we have to find a resistor with a correspond smaller resistance. The trade off of changing to another set of components could result in a bigger variation of the measurement data.

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