From experiments and research to reveal effects of amino acids on chicks, L-Cit, L-Arg and L-Orn were used. The researchers used oral administration instead central administration which actually altered rectal temperature. Rectal temperature was depressed strongly by oral administration of L-Cit while L-Arg and L-Orn increased the temperatures slightly. Injection of these amino acids did not change rectal temperature, when a single dose was used. In this experiment, the amino acids administration was done on the left ventricle by i.c.v injection to monitor rectal temperatures foe two hours. The dose specifications used in this particular experiment were 1µmol/10µl.
In another experiment, oral administration of L-Cit decreased rectal temperature while a rise in rectal temperature was witnessed when L-Arg and L-Orn were used. In this particular experiment, oral administration was used. The dose used here was at 15mmol/10 ml/ kg boby weight. There was still need of studying further how urea cycle of amino acids regulates the temperature in chicks. In mammals, most L-Arg from food supply is converted by the liver. But L-Cit can fail to pass through the liver if the liver is unable to uptake it from portal circulation. This will consequently lead to formation of L-Arg by the kidney and thereafter released to whole body. However, the enzyme carbamyl phosphate synthetase is not found in birds. This is the enzyme responsible for synthesis of L-Cit from L-Orn. Hence birds cannot synthesize L-Cit or L-Orn in their original form but can form L-Orn from L-arg. There is need to understand concentration of amino acids and their metabolites.
In the third experiment, three doses were administered to the chicks through oral administration. The dose used was L-Cit (3.75, 7.5 or 15 mmol/10ml/ kg body weight). There was no alteration of body temperature of the chicks when the three amino acids were administered through injection. It is worth noting that there was significant reduction in body temperature when L-Cit was orally administered in to the chicks. Body temperature reduced effectively on highest dose. Consequently, suggestion by the results is that there is hypothermic function in chicks caused by peripheral L-Cit. this can be used therefore during heat stress to reduce poultry body temperatures.
In conclusion, the most effective dose that induced hypothermic action was found to be 15 mmol/ 10ml/ kg body weight. It was again found that in neonatal chicks, hypothermic function was caused by L-Cit. This makes it suitable in high temperature regulation during heat stress.
Plasma Uric Manipulation on Broiler Chicks
Birds age at a slower rate when compared to other animals despite their high metabolism rates, high concentrations of glucose, and high body temperatures. A study is conducted to determine that the oxidative stress in birds is controlled by uric acid that is an antioxidant.
Broiler chicks that are three weeks old are fed with Inosine while others are not fed with Inosine, thus acting as a control for the study. The rst study was made up of female chicks fed with Inosine for a week, the second group was made up of male chicks which were fed by the farmers fed with Inosine for three weeks, and the third group was made up of a mixture of male and female chicks that who farmers fed a dose that reduces the plasma uric acid in the body. The records we have done every week to determine the plasma uric acid and the oxidative activity in the broilers' bodies.
The poultry farmers determined the sizes of the kidney and the liver of the chicks in the second group and the plasma glucose concentrations. The results showed that in the rst group, the plasma glucose concentration increased two times more in the chicks fed with Inosine than the control birds. The oxidative activity was low in chicks fed with Inosine when compared to the control birds. In the second group, the results showed that the plasma concentrations increased ve times in chicks fed with Inosine compared to the control. Their kidney sizes had also increased. In the third group, the oxidative activity had increased. It is evident that the ageing of tissues in birds is related to the stress in birds, and it is also linked with plasma uric acid.
Antimicrobial Usage in Broiler farms
As a branch of zoology, poultry farming is practiced worldwide. lt is regarded as the source of animal protein resulting from eggs and meat. In most cases, broilers have been regarded as a replacement or alternative protein source that takes part of the traditionally recognized red meat, more specifically beef, and mutton. Broiler farming is a highly regarded venture across the World resulting from high demand for white meat and faster growth of broilers than beef cattle and sheep. This is evident in various cases, take, for example, a cattle take a longer duration of time to mature and be available in the market for consumption; when compared to the high growth rate of broilers, many will venture into broilers because it takes a shorter time to mature and be availed in the consumption market. When demand is high, it means suppliers ought to produce more for market consumption; as a result, many find across the World have started venturing into poultry farming (Muthuma Gitau, et al.,201 6). Most of the urban centers have faced various challenges in the quest for poultry farming.
Sanitary risks, which comprise a lack of biosecurity, have become one of the challenges encountered by poultry farmers. Another set of problems exists in the prior hygiene management in the farms. Sanitary risks are always accompanied by a high prevalence of infectious diseases, which necessitate the indiscriminate application of anti-microbial drugs, which are put to use for treatment and the management of bacterial infections.
This has been one of the major problems highly faced by farmers undertaking poultry farming across the World. A study reported that approximately 14600 kg of highly active antimicrobials are being used in Kenya's fixed animal production, using tetracycline and sulfonamides-trirnethoprim combined, which accounts for an average of 78°/c as per the recent study conducted. In most instances, whenever one is practicing poultry farming, one often uses sulfonamides to treat and manage poultry disease or increase the growth rate. In effect, the use of sulfonamides has resulted in various impacts, which include; they harm people's health, such as allergy or anaphylactic reactions. lt is, therefore, a high risk at the same time. lt helps in the treatment and control of poultry diseases, but as a result of the usage, it causes adverse impact to broiler consumers.
This is often put to use in poultry farming systems. It is used for two major purposes, first for the management of poultry diseases on the farm, and the second purpose is to promote poultry growth. To ascertain the chemical's adverse effect, a study was conducted in Kenya, and several inferences were made based on the samples used for the experimentation.
In the experiment, it was certain that broiler meat produced by poultry farmers in Nairobi, Kenya, had a content of sulfonamides way above the required percentage. This indicated that the consumers were exposed to a high risk of exposure to very dangerous drug residue levels. A conclusion was also made that the poultry farmers' failure in observing the drug withdrawal duration might be the contribution to the presence of the drug residue in the meat broiler.
In summary, a recommendation was made in the article regarding the enforcement of the laws and policies and the biosecurity measures that would discourage the extensive application of antimicrobial drugs in poultry farming.
Chowdhury, V. S., Shigemura, A., Erwan, E., Ito, K., Bahry, M. A., Phuong, T. V., & Furuse, M. (2015). Oral administration of L-citrulline, but not L-arginine or L-ornithine, acts as a hypothermic agent in chicks. The Journal of Poultry Science, 0150014.
Dai SF, Gao F, Xu XL, Zhang WH, Song SX and Zhou GH. Effects of dietary glutamine and gamma-aminobutyric acid on meat colour, pH, composition and water holding characteristic in broilers under cyclic heat stress. British Poultry Science, 53: 471-481. 2012.
Muthuma, E.N, Gitau, G.K and above, G.O (2016) Antiinicrobial usage in broiler farms in peri- urban, Nairobi, Kenya. American Journal of Research Communication, 4(8); 14- 1 6
Simoyi, M. F., Van Dyke, K., & Klandorf, H. (2002). Manipulation of plasma uric acid in broiler chicks and its effect on leukocyte oxidative activity. American Journal of Physiology-Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology, 282(3), R791-R796.
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