Organizational behavior can be defined as the study of human behavior in the workplace settings. It is regarded as the interface between the organizational behaviors with that of the human behavior. The organizational behavior research can be categorized into three specific ways which includes; micro level (individuals in the organizations), meso level (work groups) and macro level (how the organizations behave). According to Chester Barnard, organizational behavioral researchers study the individuals’ behavior primarily in the organizational roles. The major goal of organizational behavior is revitalizing the organizational theories and to develop a better concept of the organizational life (Osland, Devine & Turner, 2015).
The paper discusses about three articles namely, power and overconfidence decision making, right versus left: how does political ideology affect the workplace, effects of group discussion integrative complexity on inter group relations in a social dilemma. The articles are being summarized and analyzed in a detailed manner, in the study. Moreover, recommendations are being given on the basis of the analysis done, regarding organizational behavior. The researchers of organizational behavior study the individual’s behavior primarily in their roles at the organizations. The major goal for organizational behavior is to revitalize the organizational theories as well as develop a better conception of the organizational lives (Miner, 2015).
The article of power and overconfident decision making deals with the organizational power that leads to an individual’s overconfidence as per the accuracy of one’s knowledge. Moreover, in the article five experiments are demonstrated, which discuses about the power leading to overconfident decision making. The findings, through moderation and mediation highlight the role of power in producing the decision making tendencies. Firstly, the sense of the power is mediated between the links of overconfidence and power. Secondly, the links between confidence and power was being analyzed and it can be summarized that power makes an individual less competent. The findings mostly indicate that only the objective power leads an individual to feel subjectively powerful and tends to produce overconfidence in decision making procedures. The power induced overconfidence may lead to underperformance of the power holders on the accuracy tasks (Fast et al., 2012).
It can be summarized from the article above that over confidence of the organizational leaders or managers can lead to poor decision making capabilities. Individuals vary in their awareness, widely, and a high order thinking control over their mental processes. In simpler terms, too much overconfidence is associated with lower abilities of meta-cognitive behavior. According to Scandura (2018), the more confident individuals are about their level of performance, the higher is the activation in their brain areas like the striatum, a part of brain associated with the reward processing. However, it can be said that overconfidence can undermine the decision making procedure. The overall concept of overconfidence is located at the larger body of evidence in the cognitive psychology, which demonstrates widespread prevalence of self enhancement biases as well as positive illusions (Huff et al., 2016).
It is a matter of fact that underscored by the actor and model fruits which way in most of the times punctuated by political ideology and hypocrisy can be looked at as a deeply helped conviction for various individuals that affects their behavior. In this context it is worthwhile to mention that within an organizational setting the political ideologies which are conflicting in nature might lead various undesirable results for the company. It can be said that this incubator calls for various other studies into this particular individual trait (Iyengar & Westwood, S2015).
By consulting these articles it can be said that the business organizations in contemporary times are becoming increasingly dependent on the work systems which are team based. A word which can be said that the inter group behavior is actually predisposed towards competition that can effectively render conflict management within the business organizations especially difficult. Depending on the integrative complexity model of group decision making and the relevant literature regarding the social dilemmas which are present in inter group conversation with can be argued that low quality group discussion can effective heighten the members of the group breathe and fear towards the other groups and it can be said that by doing so it increases the likelihood that the governing body of a group will decide to compete with another group (Andrew & Katherine, 2016). Thus, it can be said that people can evaluate to interventions that the target group discussion dynamics in order to promote a group discussions integrative complexity and the cooperation intergroup.
In this context it is worthwhile to mention that a structured group discussion and the discussion led by any of the group members who favors Corporation can be beneficial for this. In the article effects of group discussion integrative complexity on intergroup relations It is seen that 285 participants were divided into three groups and they played and iterated prisoner’s dilemma game and the results showed that participating in a structured group discussion actually increases the integrative complexity of the book discussion and during that time the different perspectives which wear deliberate that before making a final decision is possible (Thibaut, 2017). And it is seen that this actually diminished the fear and greed and also decreased the likelihood that a group may decide to compete against the other groups and quite contrastingly it was seen that the leader of a Cooperative discussion can be helpful to reduce the decisions made by the group to compete in the first round as it actually did not increase the integrative complexity of the group discussion do this particular method eventually failed to motivate cooperation over time (Park & De Shon, 2018).
In this part of the study, the three articles are being analyzed and presented in a detailed manner. It is important to mention that overconfident individuals are often poor in making decisions and moreover, it can lead to potentially disastrous consequences as per Bolino & Grant (2016). For this study, the whole papers are being analyzed and it indicated that overconfidence undermines individuals’ decision making procedures. The more the individuals are confident regarding their performance level, the higher is the chance of their downfall. It can be said that making decisions is the most essential job of an organizational managers and leaders. It can be the toughest as well as riskiest job. Taking bad decisions can lead to the downfall of the business and also a career, sometimes both (Fast et al., 2012).
The researchers have been identifying the whole series of flaws in a way of making decisions. It is highly important to remember that awareness is the best defense. The organizational executives who attempt of familiarizing themselves with those traps as well as the diverse forms enable them to take best decisions. From the article, it can be analyzed that overconfidence and power lead to the downfall of the overall business. On taking any decision, organizational managers need to be sure but not overconfident. Moreover, organizational leaders at times, misuse their power and their approach is not that good (Cain, Moore & Haran, 2015). Therefore, it can be analyzed from the article that organizational managers need to motivate or encourage their employees to perform better in an effective manner. Overconfidence can harm team morale as well as production level.
It is seen that conservative individuals tends to be attracted towards the business organizations with generous packages and low turnover on the other hand deliver individuals are more likely to focus on Fire salaries and generous packages. Can we say that both sides of the political spectrum can value flexibility more than 2 people who doesn’t have any liabilities. Actually it is a criminal offence to discriminate against any individual in the workplace due to their political beliefs are activities and the employees of any business organization should be protected from any sort of discriminations in every stages of the employment that includes the recruitment conditions for workplace terms and dismissal (Andrew & Katherine, 2016).
In this regard it should be mentioned that in political belief that an individual also does not hold and any political activity where they participated refused to participate does not have anything to do with their professional life if that doesn’t affect their productivity and the interests of the business corporation. For an example, it can be said that if in and job interview question is asked whether he is a member of a particular political organization and after getting this answer if the interviewer abruptly shorts down the process of recruitment with him and ask him that he should not share is political beliefs that should follow the practices and the beliefs followed by the management of the organization that will be a violation of the recruitment policy and the constitution (Gupta, Briscoe & Hambrick, 2017).
Quite astonishingly it can be said that an employer can discriminate depending on the political belief for activity if in the job description it is mentioned that the company will recruit for the post of a political advisor or for any political party then the discrimination will not go against the legal regulations and the management of the employer group will not face any legal consequences. In this regard it can be said that the employers might be liable for their workers act of discrimination and for that the management of the company will be liable for the harassment of the party who got victimized (Blau, 2017). The managements of the business organizations should ensure that their employees know that the management will play an effective roll to eradicate the matters of sexual harassment discrimination and victimization on the basis of political beliefs.
Regarding the article named ‘Effects of group discussion integrative complexity on intergroup relations’ it can also be said that a group discussion which is of high quality enhances the intergroup Corporation in a repeated social dilemma and not only that group discussion integrative complexity actually decreases fear and greed against the other groups. It can be seen that Cooperative leaders fail to increase the group discussion integrative complexity and on the other hand the structured group discussion actually increases the integrative complexity along with the intergroup Corporation (Park & De Shon, 2018).
It can be recommended that the organizations need to view the problems from a different perspective and start using alternative points or approaches instead of sticking to the original ones. It is important for the organizational managers or leaders to think about the problems before consulting with others. Moreover, the organizational leader need to be open minded and seek opinions and information from various people in order to widen the frames of references and push into the fresh directions. In addition to this, being careful is also a way, to avoid wrong decisions and thus, looking for opportunities can be the better option for managing organizational behavior of the individuals. Before the decision making procedure, the organizations need to identify the problems or issues, the company is currently facing. Not identifying the issue properly can lead to erroneous decisions. The organizational leaders should be able to evaluate the decision procedures and work together with the employees, in order to resolve the issues. Moreover, at times multiple perspectives can lead to poor decisions; therefore, the organization leaders need to take care of those factors, for the success of their companies.
To conclude, it can be said that the managements of the business organizations should understand that no one can discriminate a person due to his or her political belief and the political activities he or she participates. If those beliefs does not harm the policies of the company or affects the productivity and profitability or the ethical issues, no one should be judgmental on anyone’s political beliefs and ideology. On the other hand, it can be said that the managements of the business organizations should understand that their dependence on team based work systems can render conflict management and integrative complexity model of group discussion can actually motivate cooperation over time.
Andrew, F. J., & Katherine, J. R. (2016). Right versus left: How does political ideology affect the workplace? Journal of Organizational, 39(4), 385-541.
Blau, P. (2017). Exchange and power in social life. Routledge.
Bolino, M. C., & Grant, A. M. (2016). The bright side of being prosocial at work, and the dark side, too: A review and agenda for research on other-oriented motives, behavior, and impact in organizations. The Academy of Management Annals, 10(1), 599-670.
Cain, D. M., Moore, D. A., & Haran, U. (2015). Making sense of overconfidence in market entry. Strategic Management Journal, 36(1), 1-18.
Crenshaw, K. (2018). Demarginalizing the intersection of race and sex: A Black feminist critique of antidiscrimination doctrine, feminist theory, and antiracist politics . In Feminist legal theory (pp. 57-80). Routledge.
Fast, N. J., Sivanathan, N., Mayer, N. D., & Galinsky, A. D. (2012). Power and overconfident decision-making. Organizational behavior and human decision processes, 117(2), 249-260.
Gupta, A., Briscoe, F., & Hambrick, D. C. (2017). Red, blue, and purple firms: Organizational political ideology and corporate social responsibility. Strategic Management Journal, 38(5), 1018-1040.
Huff, A. S., Milliken, F. J., Hodgkinson, G. P., Galavan, R. J., & Sund, K. J. (2016). A conversation on uncertainty in managerial and organizational cognition. In Uncertainty and strategic decision making (pp. 1-31). Emerald Group Publishing Limited.
Iyengar, S., & Westwood, S. J. (2015). Fear and loathing across party lines: New evidence on group polarization. American Journal of Political Science, 59(3), 690-707.
Miner, J. B. (2015). Organizational behavior 1: Essential theories of motivation and leadership. Routledge.
Osland, J., Devine, K., & Turner, M. (2015). Organizational behavior. Wiley Encyclopedia of Management, 1-5.
Park, G., & De Shon, R. P. (2018). Effects of group-discussion integrative complexity on intergroup relations in a social dilemma. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 146, 62-75.
Scandura, T. A. (2018). Essentials of organizational behavior: An evidence-based approach. SAGE Publications.
Thibaut, J. W. (2017). The social psychology of groups. Routledge.
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