The purpose of this study is to evaluate two ICT controversies in order to investigate the ethical dilemmas of the cases. The term ICT stands for Information and Communication Technologies. Nowadays, technology in improving rapidly and therefore, scientists are paying close attention to the prevention of related constraints. In this study, two ICT controversies have been chosen such as “Where has all the data gone? Service providers capturing metadata” and “Is Artificial Intelligence a Threat to Humanity”. These articles emphasize that how technological improvement has diverse impact on moral values of human beings. Moreover, the analysis of these articles has shown the fairness and justice while conducting decision-making. This study focuses on the alternative way that could help to overcome the constraint of the potential issues.
The first controversy is about the telecommunication service providers are not capturing and retaining the metadata. However, according to the law enforcement, service providers should record and retain those data for at least two years. It helps the security agencies to gather raw data before starting a specific investigation (Ekbia et al., 2015). According to the legal facts, these security agencies are free to hack information of the users without any restriction. Therefore, it is difficult for the users to maintain privacy while using the services (Ghezzi, Cortimiglia & Frank, 2015). According to the telecommunications Act 1979, service providers should protect information of the users. However, the process of storing and retaining Meta data for minimum two years is completely opposite of the data protection act as well. Now, the issue is, the overall process of recording and retaining Meta Data is affecting communication flow negatively. On the other hand, monitoring users’ information helps to reduce change of crime in an efficient manner. The moral dilemma of this case is whether the decision of recording and retaining users’ information is good or bad for the society (Nathan 2015). In this article, some examples have been provided in order to elaborate the case. After reviewing this case, it has been noted that people may face diverse situation due to misinterpretation of data. Here, the security agencies are bound to follow their responsibilities and therefore it may create diverse situation for people.
The second article is about the impact of artificial intelligence (AI) on humanity. In this article, it has been emphasized that how AI can affect the humanity in different situation. Research shows that AI is not in developing stage ad scientists are afraid about the diverse impact of the emerging improvement of AI. Here, the issue is Artificial Intelligence cannot be able to understand the critical decision-making (Gurkaynak, Yilmaz & Haksever, 2016). Moreover, the scientists have argued that artificial intelligence would not be able to distinguish between strategy and alternative implementation process. The article emphasizes on how improvement of AI can create difficulties for the humanity (Lorenc, 2015). For example, artificial intelligence in traffic control may cause accident or traffic congestion due to lack of common sense. Here, Musk has mentioned that improvement in AI is not against technological improve (Fast & Horvitz, 2016). However, he has mentioned that scientists should consider the prevention in order to develop AI carefully. When it comes to the fairness and justice to the viewpoint of scientists, it can be said that people should take proper cautions before implementing artificial intelligence.
In order to overcome the constraints of both the cases, it is highly important to understand the significance in an appropriate manner. There are two controversies such as data handling issue of telecommunication companies and the threat of artificial intelligence. After reviewing the articles, it has been identified that both the articles have mentioned different issues regarding the cases. Following are the right things that would help to overcome the identified constraints identified in these articles.
Recommendations for article 1: In the first article, the issues regarding data storing and retaining has been evaluated. On the other hand, the security agencies are using the stored information in order to reduce crime (Ward, 2015). However, the overall process has negative impact on privacy of people. Therefore, it is the sole responsibilities of the security agencies to evaluate the gathered information in order to overcome the constraints. Moreover, the telecommunication service providers should maintain ethical practices in order to ensure data privacy of the users (Müller, 2016).
Recommendations for article 2: In this case, scientists should take proper prevention in order to reduce the threat of artificial intelligence. According to the article, the scientists are considering AI as threat to humanity. The scientists are assuming that improving this particular technology would create diverse situation for the entire humanity (Müller, 2016). The artificial drones would not be able to distinguish between the assign responsibility and human intelligence.
In order to share the findings an Ethical Analysis Discussion Board has been formed containing four members. Here, the discussion on the findings has been provided In order to understand the ethical dilemmas. Following is the discussion of the board members regarding both the selected case studies.
Board member 1: According to the first board member, both telecommunication service providers and security agencies should maintain ethical practice in order to deal with the situation. Moreover, the legal conflict with data protection act should be taken under consideration in order to overcome the issues. The security agencies should evaluate the information properly before taking any kind of charge against people. On the other hand, the first board member has stated that artificial intelligence would help the society to overcome many constraints. However, it might be a threat to humanity, because artificial intelligence would not be able to adopt human intelligence, which can be either ethical or unethical.
Board member 2: The second board member has stated that improvement in data recording and retention would help to comply with the legal framework. However, it would violate certain legal enforcements, which would create conflicts. Moreover, it is not possible for the security agencies to distinguish between genuine and fraud cases. The investigation process should be strict and according to the policies. In case of artificial intelligence, the second board member has stated that huge improvement of this technology would hamper the humanity and human behavior as well.
Ekbia, H., Mattioli, M., Kouper, I., Arave, G., Ghazinejad, A., Bowman, T., ... & Sugimoto, C. R. (2015). Big data, bigger dilemmas: A critical review.Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology, 66(8), 1523-1545
Fast, E., & Horvitz, E. (2016). Long-Term Trends in the Public Perception of Artificial Intelligence. arXiv preprint arXiv:1609.04904
Ghezzi, A., Cortimiglia, M. N., & Frank, A. G. (2015). Strategy and business model design in dynamic telecommunications industries: A study on Italian mobile network operators. Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 90, 346-354
Gurkaynak, G., Yilmaz, I., & Haksever, G. (2016). Stifling artificial intelligence: Human perils. Computer Law & Security Review
Lorenc, T. (2015). Artificial Intelligence and the Ethics of Human Extinction.Journal of Consciousness Studies, 22(9-10), 194-214
Müller, V. C. (Ed.). (2016). Risks of Artificial Intelligence. CRC Press
Nathan, G. (2015). Innovation process and ethics in technology: an approach to ethical (responsible) innovation governance. Journal on Chain and Network Science, 15(2), 119-134
Ward, B. (2015). Emerging Technology and Ethical Innovation: A Case Study Approach to Developing Entrepreneurial Decision Making. Journal of Ethics & Entrepreneurship, 5(2), 103
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