Employee Motivation And Engagement Answers Assessment Answer

Answer:

Introduction

Motivation is the most significant factor in the organizations that keep the employees encouraged and interested to work beneficially in their workplace domain. This practice of the strategic human resource management helps to maintain flexibility in the business operations and they can thus enhance their work capabilities and improve the standards of the organizations. The prime responsibility of the strategic human resource managers is to motivate the employees in order to engage them in the work and retain them on long time basis (Jeyarathnam, 2008).

It is therefore very much essential to identify the various organizational practices that can be undertaken by the managers so as to foster the emotional, behavioural and cognitive qualities which will help the employees to develop their interpersonal skills and efficacies and work effectively in the organizations. This entire report will shed light upon the impact of motivation on the employees and how motivation can help the employees in their work engagement with the help of certain motivational theories and practices. Also the study will highlight the different motivational factors and the strategies adopted by which the human resource management can bring about the best performance from the employees and thereby ensure the effectiveness of the organizations. 

Main analysis of the paper 

Effective motivational theories influencing the affective and behavioural processes of the employees 

The concept of the human resource management has attracted the attention of many people in the recent times. The overall concern of the human resource management is to implement various strategies and techniques that will enable them to achieve immense success and recognition in the entire operating market. In other words, the human resource managers tend to motivate the employees in order to enhance and develop the innate skills and abilities of the people so that they can be able to contribute their potentiality and capacities in their workplace domain (Mathis and Jackson, 2003).


Motivational theories adopted by the strategic human resources management of the organizations make the employees satisfied and encouraged to work beneficially and ensure the well being of the businesses they are associated with. The different needs and necessities of the employees need to be fulfilled so that they can feel attracted and connected to the company and perform better. Every employee prefers working in such organizations where they can feel safe and secured and can ensure that their desires and expectations will be fulfilled. Once they see that their expectations are accomplished by the companies, their behaviour and attitudes towards the organizational activities and management becomes positive.

In this respect, the different motivational theories can be highlighted through which the management can be able to uplift the working capabilities and standards of the employees in a fruitful way. The Theories are:  

Maslow’s hierarchy of needs

Maslow’s hierarchy of needs is a theory of motivation that focuses widely on the accomplishment or fulfilment of the various needs and desires of the employees in a beneficial manner. The theory involves five stages of hierarchy of needs presented in a pyramid form where all the needs and necessities of the employees are mentioned and highlighted. According to the concerned law, the management must understand what are the things that motivate the employees of the organizations. Maslow believed that the employees feel happy and satisfied to work if their physiological needs are being fulfilled by the human resource management (Udechukwu, 2009). The workforce must be rendered open and jovial work environment along with all sorts of basic resources.

Moreover the management must take proper safety measures so as to ensure the security of the employees within the organizations. No employee should be injured and if such happens the management must take steps to look after the injured. The hierarchy of needs theory also states that the human resource managers must provide the employees with all the social needs and must respect their opinions and identities so that they can feel their importance and value in the organizations. In the opinion of Maslow, every person has the capability of moving up the hierarchy to the maximum level where they can achieve their self-actualisation need. As a matter of fact, the management must aim at satisfying all the desires of the employees for motivating and engaging them to stay loyal to the organizations. 

Vroom’s expectancy theory of motivation 

According to the Vroom’s expectancy theory of motivation, the changes in the attitudes and behaviour of the employees depends widely on how the management of the organizations they are associated with assign work to them and maximise the pleasure among the employees. The theory stated that the behaviour of the employees results from the choices of the alternatives that the management adopts to resolve all the pains and confusions among the employees and satisfy them so that their ultimate purpose of engaging the employees can be accomplished (Mcreynolds, 2012). The work must be given to the employees on the basis of their skills, experience and abilities so that they can be motivated and give maximum efforts to meet their job roles and requirements leading to the increased performance. 

Herzberg’s theory of motivation 

Herzberg emphasised on the needs of the employees and pioneered job enrichment. According to his theory, the employees will want to work in the organizations only if they are satisfied with the prevailing conditions and resources of the companies. Job satisfaction is very much important for the employees (Phillipchuk and Whittaker, 1996). This will in turn help the management to understand the different attitudes and behaviour of the employees in a proper work environment. The work of the employees must be recognised and they must be given responsibilities for work so that they can realise their value within the organizations. If they find that the work is allotted to them as per their abilities then they can be motivated to work effectively. 

Adams’ equity theory 

This equity theory proposed by Adams has strongly recommended that the employees within the organizations must be treated equally. They must be given payment based on their work and their skills. It is important for the employees to maintain equity between the efforts that they render in doing a job and the results that they expect against their work (Fargus, 2000). There should not be any discrimination among the employees and must be paid equally as per their work quality and deserving. Adams has stated in his theory that fair treatment within the organization will make the employees motivated. This will indeed keep the fairness preserved among the employees and smooth relationship will therefore be maintained between the co-workers and the management of the organizations.

All these motivational theories and practices undertaken by the strategic human resource management of the organizations will help them to satisfy the employees and influence their behaviour and attitudes towards delivering positive outcomes.  

Characteristics of positive work environment and job designs of HR 

Proper job design helps to get a good feedback. The employees should be provided with various work options according to their social and personal needs so that they can perform better (Dessler, 2000). Training is an important part of the job design and thus organizing the training programs will prove to be beneficial for the companies as it will motivate and grow interest among the employees to give their best in their work. Job flexibility is essential which also boost them up and lead them to release maximum work pressure and stress influencing their work performance (Dess and Miller, 1993). Thus it can be said that the maintenance of a proper job design will create a positive work environment increasing the encouragement level among the workers.

It is of utmost significance that the management must maintain a smooth and friendly work environment within the organizations so that the employees and the HR managers can share effective relationship with each other (Morgan, 2009). A positive work environment will thereby make the employees feel much good about coming to the companies and give their best effort in their work. The different characteristics of maintaining a positive work environment within the organizations are discussed below:

  1. Open communication: There should be open and free communication and close interaction between the management and the workers so that the employees can share their feelings, opinions and thoughts and the management can easily resolve all sorts of confusions and misunderstandings of the employees, if any.
  2. Balanced work: The management of the companies must assign work to the employees equally so that there can be a balance of work among the co-workers. This will make all the employees happy and satisfied to work in their respective workplaces. Also balanced work will make the employees balance both their personal lives and profession (Morgan, 2009).
  3. Job according to the abilities: A positive work environment can be created by the management within the organizational premises if the employees are assigned the jobs according to their skills and abilities. This way the employees can provide all their knowledge and experience in their work towards the development of their work performances.
  4. Training and development: The management must conduct training programs through which they can deliver proper training to the employees so as to help them develop their interpersonal skills and efficiencies and gain immense knowledge regarding their work field which will ultimately motivate them and grow interest among them to work fruitfully.
  5. Rewards for hard work: The management must ensure that they should reward the employees for their hard work so as to encourage the behaviours and attitudes of the employees towards uplifting the standards of the organizations (Cameron and Pierce, 2002).

The employees feel motivated when the management provide them with all sorts of benefits and facilities that aim at enhancing the level of their work performance. It is referred to the effective allocation of the specific tasks to the employees so as to satisfy their job roles (Whiteley, 2002). The outlining of the tasks must be done in a proper order so that their objectives and aims can be well fulfilled. When the employees find that they are being allotted the jobs based on their qualifications and capabilities, they feel satisfied to put efforts and work beneficially. Thus the human resource management of the organizations must prepare a good job design so that the stress factor of the employees can be thereby reduced and performance enhancement can be ensured. Not only that, if proper job design is maintained, the rate of absenteeism and employee turnover will be reduced thereby ensuring the well being of the organizations.

Effective HR processes in the organization seriously influencing the affecting processes. With the help of effective HR practices, the Human resource management of the organization can able to motivate the employees and make them ready to put their best in fulfilling the commitment. It is the sole responsibility of the management of the organization to provide them all kinds of facilities to reduce the employee turnover rate. On the other hand, management of the organization should engage the employees in the decision making process of the organization. It helps them believe that they are the active part of the organization and ultimately it enhances the job satisfaction of the employees. In case of the behavioural process it plays a significant role, it assists in increasing the effort of the employees and reducing the employee turnover rate. Absenteeism can be prevented through the job satisfaction.

Job characteristics of Hackman and Oldham in employee motivation 

The job characteristics model of Hackman and Oldham has been designed in an effective way. This model helps to understand the psychic of the employees; psychological analysis of the employees helps to determine the demand of the employees. If the psychology of the employees can be understood then motivation can be provided to them. Motivation and job satisfaction helps to improve the work performance and job satisfaction of the employees. The model clearly entails that it is very important for the human resource managers to practice proper smooth designs and maintain them so that they can motivate the employees and direct them in the rightful path (Torrington, Hall and Torrington, 1998). Once the employees get motivated, they feel an extraordinary energy and enthusiasm within which makes them work and perform better. The management must realise that it is the employees who, by means of their hard work and dedication, fulfil their job criteria and meet their job roles which lead to the success and profitability of the companies.

In the job characteristics model, both Hackman and Oldham have stated described that a monotonous and boring job smothers motivation among the employees to perform well (Hackman, and Oldham, 1976). On the other hand, if the employees are given a challenging task then the motivational level will be enhanced. Hence the model states that the employees must be provided with a variety of work options and involve them in the decision making process which will reduce the monotony and dullness of the work and help in job motivation. Job rotation and job enrichment are considered to be two ways through which the management can add variety and challenges in the tasks of the employees.

When the employees are given variety of works they become expertise and skilled in every field of work thereby establishing a proper task identity and realising the significance of the tasks. This in turn brings in good feedback and reduces autonomy thereby influencing them to deliver beneficial outcomes from their works (Sadler, 2003). Thus the five key job characteristics proposed by Hackman and Oldham are the skill variety, task significance, task identity, autonomy and feedback which ascertain the minimisation of the employee turnover rate and absenteeism rate.

It is quite natural that if the employees are being motivated, then they will feel like going to the workplaces every day and will possess an increased level of encouragement or interest in doing their work. Therefore the aforesaid five job characteristics can be used as an index in measuring how the management’s intervention can stimulate the behaviour and attitudes of the employees and can affect the same. According to them high motivation is directly related to the upliftment of the performance standards of the employees and thereby helping them to ensure the success and sustainability of the organizations.

Using appropriate skills and abilities of the employees in the correct work hereby can develop a lot of expertise and knowledge among them which will be beneficial for their future. They can be able to identify the tasks and can easily apply their knowledge and effectiveness in doing that task more fruitfully. Through the job characteristics, the employees can feel the responsibility that they derive from the autonomous work (Hackman, and Oldham, 1976). As per Hackman and Oldham, the job characteristics model will help the employees to become internally motivated to do all sorts of jobs much effectively with utmost satisfaction and job enrichment.

The needs and expectations that they possess from the workplaces must be fulfilled by the management so which will boost up their energy and enthusiasm level thereby supporting them in their work and also bring about desired outcomes from the organizational productivity. Thus intrinsic motivational techniques incorporated by the human resource managers of the organizations can increase the work quality of the employees thus enabling their engagement within their respective workplace domains. 

Relationship between Maslow’s hierarchy of needs motivational theory and the job characteristics 

It has been hereby perceived from the previous discussion that job satisfaction is of utmost significance among the employees within the organizations. This relationship helps to determine the motivation factors for the employees in the organization, even the relationship helps to engage the employees in the work process. Thus the human resource management must make it a point to ensure that they implement all possible strategies and techniques in order to satisfy the employees so that they can be retained and engaged in the organizations (Paul and Robertson, 1999). Maslow’s hierarchy of needs theory has clearly reflected that the employees must be provided with proper working conditions and job environment so that they can be able to feel motivated and encouraged to work effectively for the benefit of the organizations. According to Maslow, every person inherits certain desires and needs that they expect to receive being associated with the companies. The human resource managers must make sure that they hire employees whose needs and necessities they can fulfil. It should be made evident that the employees feel satisfied and pleased working there which will help them to increase their efficiencies and improve their work qualities in a beneficial way.

As per the job characteristics model designed by Hackman and Oldham, it can be said that the characteristics have a direct relation with the Maslow’s hierarchy of needs motivational theory. The employees are the most important and significant stakeholders of the business as without them the companies will have no potentiality to perform and carry out their market operations. It is the working skills and capabilities of the workers that the organizations have been able to gain reputation or goodwill in the operating market (Overtoom, 2000).

Thus it should be the most important and significant look out of the human resource managers that they are providing the employees with all sorts of benefits and job recognition that will motivate them to work even better. As per the Maslow’s theory, it is the utmost essential duty of the management to make sure that they provide the employees with a free working environment where they will have the authority and freedom to share or express their feelings and opinions in front of the higher authority.

Also it will help them to showcase their talents and put forwards the innovative ideas and thoughts in ensuring the well being of the organizations. Apart from all these, the management must undertake certain improved safety measures so as to protect or safeguard the employees from any safety issues or harm. The physiological needs must be fulfilled. Training must be provided to the employees through which they can grab a lot of knowledge and expertise regarding their work (Neher, 1991). Constant interaction and close communication must be encouraged between the management and the workforce which will thereby establish a smooth and effective relationship between them.

This inter-relationship is capable of increasing the motivation level within the employees. Hence they can set a benchmark and can work with extreme efficacy. The performance of the employees must be appreciated by the managers and their efforts must be recognised and given value so as to serve the purpose of satisfying them and engaging them in their work (Armstrong and Armstrong, 2009). As a consequence it can be said that if the management can maintain the job characteristics well enough and ensure the implication of effective job design, then the hierarchy of needs of the employees will be satisfied helping the business to flourish and prosper.

Conclusion 

From the overall discussion, it can be thereby concluded that motivation is very much necessary for the employees which tends to improve and uplift their performance standards and evaluate success and profitability of the organizations. With the help of various effective motivational theories and practices, the significance and the necessity of motivation in the organizations have been reflected (Hitt, Ireland and Hoskisson, 1999). The management must make sure that all the desires and expectations of the employees from their workplaces are fulfilled so as to satisfy them and retain them on long term basis. The study entailed that the job designs and the characteristics must be appropriate enough to tackle the organizational performance and enhance the capabilities of the employees for its well being. Hence motivation is a much essential element.  

References 

Armstrong, M. and Armstrong, M. (2009). Armstrong's handbook of human resource management practice. London: Kogan Page.

Cameron, J. and Pierce, W. (2002). Rewards and intrinsic motivation. Westport, Conn.: Bergin & Garvey.

Dess, G. and Miller, A. (1993). Strategic management. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Dessler, G. (2000). Human resource management. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Fargus, P. (2000). Measuring and improving employee motivation. London: Financial Times Prentice Hall.

Hackman, J.R. and Oldham, G.R., 1976. Motivation through the design of work: Test of a theory. Organizational behavior and human performance,16(2), pp.250-279.

Hind, D. and Moss, S. (2005). Employability skills. Sunderland: Business Education Publishers.

Hitt, M., Ireland, R. and Hoskisson, R. (1999). Strategic management. Cincinnati: South-Western College Pub.

Hunger, J. and Wheelen, T. (1996). Strategic management. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley Pub. Co.

Jang, J. (2000). The impact of career motivation and polychronicity on job satisfaction and turnover intention among hotel industry employees. Denton: University of North Texas.

Jeyarathnam, M. (2008). Strategic management. Mumbai: Himalaya Pub. House.

Mathis, R. and Jackson, J. (2003). Human resource management. Mason, Ohio: Thomson/South-western.

Mcreynolds, J. (2012). Motivational theories & psychology. Delhi: English Press.

Mondy, R., Noe, R. and Gowan, M. (2005). Human resource management. Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Pearson Prentice Hall.

Morgan, L. (2009). The impact of work-life balance and family-friendly human resource policies on employees' job satisfaction.

Neher, A. (1991). Maslow's Theory of Motivation: A Critique. Journal of Humanistic Psychology, 31(3), pp.89-112.

Overtoom, C. (2000). Employability skills. Columbus, OH: ERIC Clearinghouse on Adult, Career, and Vocational Education, Center on Education and Training for Employment, College of Education, the Ohio State University.

Paul, W. and Robertson, K. (1970). Job enrichment and employee motivation. London: Gower P.

Phillipchuk, J. and Whittaker, J. (1996). An Inquiry into the Continuing Relevance of Herzberg's Motivation Theory. Engineering Management Journal, 8(1), pp.15-20.

Sadler, P. (2003). Strategic management. Sterling, VA: Kogan Page.

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Torrington, D., Hall, L. and Torrington, D. (1998). Human resource management. London: Prentice Hall Europe.

Udechukwu, I. (2009). Correctional Officer Turnover: Of Maslow's Needs Hierarchy and Herzberg's Motivation Theory. Public Personnel Management, 38(2), pp.69-82.

tandards of the employees in a fruitful way. The Theori

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