Employment Relations : Business Obligations Assessment Answer

Answer:

1. Some similarities between UK and Ireland in the Employment Relationship of their employees are History of the collective participation in UK and Ireland

For many years, the policy of government in Ireland was as similar as UK. The only difference was the different religious belief and opinions of politics. The laws passed in UK are also enacted in Ireland. For example, the race ratios order. Some laws like data protection act and the disability discrimination act had been applied and passed to both the nations. If we talk about obligations and entitlements, they are same in both the countries. The government not only focuses on the interest of employees but also on the benefits of company. Its basis provides a legal frame to the companies and develops a mutual trust and understanding between the parties. Work councils try to build up healthy relations between the employees and employers. Even the general employment rights of employees are almost similar. For example- there must be a reference in a contact of employment that is a part of employment right order and not of employment right act (Walthery, 2014).

The influence of current collective participation in UK and Ireland

The continuity and pervasive restructuring of organization is the result of collective participation. The concern for trade unions is also increasing due to this. There is an increase in the public authorities as found by the researchers. To cope up with the quality, capital and goods and services, there is a need to change policies and strategies. The reasons of changes are technology, changes in the demand of customers, globalization, etc. the process of collective participation is a continuous process in which restructuring takes place so that effectiveness can be invited in the organizations (Chand, 2016).

2. The differences between organized and unorganized labor in India


S. NO.

BASIS

ORGANIZED SECTOR

UNORGANIZED SECTOR

1.

Terms and conditions

In an organized sector the terms for the employment are clearly mentioned before. They are fixed and regularity maintained and the work that is provided is assured in nature.

While the unorganized sector is just opposite from the above as no terms and conditions are fixed and regular.

2

Act

The organized sector is maintained and governed by certain acts like employment act, factories act, PF act, bonus act, Minimum wages act, etc.

This type of sector is not governed by any act.

3

Rules and regulations of the government

The rules and regulations of the government are strictly and thoroughly followed by this sector

In this sector, no rules and regulations are followed as they are formed by the owners only.

4

Salary and wages

Regular salary after every month

Daily wages

5

Security of job

There is job security in organized sector

There is no job security.

6

Basis of salary

Under this, the salary is according to the norms of government

There is no government interference

7

benefits

Employees gets benefit like pension, medical facilities, travel compensation, accommodation etc.

There are no benefits provided to unorganized sector

Similarities

S.NO.

BASIS

ORGANIZED SECTOR

UNORGANIZED SECTOR

1

Productivity

The work of the labor is productive.

In this too, the employees provide good productivity

2

Performance

The performance is good

The performance is good as the employees are not bound

3

Industry size

Size can be similar it depends on the nature of the business.

In this type of sector, size remains same as organized sector.

The key factors of Indian employment relations of India

The employer-employee relation is dependent on the relations between the two parties.
It not only includes the individual relations but also the collective relation between them.
The relation is also dependant on the complexities and multi-dimensional concepts.

3. Employment relation

As we know, that no organization can run and perform its operations with the chair and tables only. They need employees as a human asset in the organization so that work can be done. It refers to relationship that each and every employee of an organization shares with each other. It is very relevant that the employees should work hard and the aim of the organization must be their own aim (Carroll and Miller, 2006).

Characteristics of employment relation

The employer-employee relation is dependent on the relations between the two parties. It not only includes the individual relations but also the collective relation between them. The relation is also depends on the complexities and multi-dimensional concepts. Employer-employee relations includes a developing and dynamic concepts too (Brody and Bowman, 2014). Some key factors are-

There must be a healthy relation between the employees and employers so that it can help them in a longer way to motivate each other and help to increase the confidence and morale of the employees.

The employers must value the employees and treat them as an asset of the organization.

There must be an adjustment between the employees and they should compromise for the other employees of the organization as the best level (Das, 2010).

Each and every employee should enter at the workplace with positive vibes and frame of mine so that he can work calmly and coordinate with others. It helps them to avoid the small issues that take place in the organization (Suzuki, 2010).

The employees must behave properly and calmly with other employees

There should be a friendly relation between the employers and the employees of an organization.

4.) The similarities in the arbitration and collective bargaining in Australia and New Zealand

Earlier, in 1980’s New Zealand police were similar to Australia. In 1984, the government had rejected the formal income policies and by 1991, they had introduced a new conservative policy of employment contracts act. In 1990, the IR policies of New Zealand and Australia were divergent. In 2000, the new employment relations act replaced ECA by the incoming government of labor that moves to collective bargaining from individual contract (Fuchs, 2001). There should be a helping atmosphere of an organization. It will help to bring harmony in the working environment. The Good relations of the employees lead to effectiveness and efficiency in the organization.

The main changes in the arbitration and collective bargaining in Australia and New Zealand

Earlier, in 1900, the arbitration system had taken a rapid growth of unions and association of labor that was developed on the basis of craft. Currently, there is a decline in the membership of union and increase in non-standard employment. In 1927 ACTU was formed ad in 1987 NZCTU is formed. They should try to accomplish the goals and objectives of the organization by a proper coordination and cooperation among them. There should be harmony, compliments of positive nature, and work as a single unit.  The fair work commissions of Australia and New Zealand is working on arbitration and conciliation process. They also introduced centralize wages system. The basic wages is decides through the breadwinner model of 1907. This model is applied in the places where there is any harm taking place to the parties or any wage negotiation.

5.) The trade unions role and their development over the last few years in Qatar

Qatar is one of the members of the International Labor Organization since the year 1972 but it did not authorize the freedom of association and protection of the right to convention, 1948 and the right to organize and the right of collective bargaining convention, 1949.

In Qatar, the trade unions were established by the government of the same in the year of 1957that was a response of strikes taking place by the workers of the country at the petroleum of Qatar. It was announced by the Emir in the year 2004 that no worker is allowed to go for strike or to form any kind of trade union. They promote an international framework that is legal in nature so that fair and stable rights can be enhanced. They set some standards according to which work has to be done so that the improvement can been traced out in the performance of labor as well as in the economy of the country. The main objective is to provide safety and security to the labor and to remove the poverty.  

There were many additional reforms that takes place and a rule was made that an individual who is 16 or below 16 is not allowed to do job, working time is 8 hours, there must be equal rights for the men and women of the country, and women have equal rights against men. Many organizations like International Transport Workers' Federation and the International Trade Union Confederation oppose that 2004 policies were unable to be applied by the government. In this way, they improved the policies for Qatar airlines and its employees. They also make new policies for the migrant workers of Qatar (Mattson, 2008).

6.) International Labor Organization (ILO)

Unlike, the other agencies of united nation, the international labor organization is one of the tripartite that deals with not only the national standards but also the international standards of labor of all over the world. It has 187 members in which 186 members are of UN and other are of Cook Islands. It provides many facilities to the labor of the world so that they can realize their rights and duties and used them for their benefits (Rolf, Schlachter and Welbourne, 2016).

The roles of International Labor Organization (ILO)

The international labor organization is playing a vital and significant role as it tries to bring up the companies, governments and the trade unions together so that improvement can takes place in the working environment. They motivate the employees to perform better and provide key roles to them (Mumma, 2001).

Challenges and the history of ILO

The ILO was formed at the time of World War I in the year 1919 by the professionals, ideals and experienced people.  ILO has faced many obligations and the agitation from the government and other groups. They had started the first programme to protect the international labor during the war time (Millward, Bryson and Forth, 2000).

Members and the membership of ILO

It has 187 state members in which 186 members are belongs to UN and others are from the Cook Islands. The UN members who are not of the member of ILO are North Korea, Bhutan, Nauru, etc. Any members of UN can become member with ILO. Others can enter by two-third votes from the delegation team of ILO in the conference of the same. The league national members automatically become the members of ILO.

Benefits of ILO for countries belong to it

ILO is becoming more prominent with the challenges faced by it. They provide many types of benefits to labor like they show a decent path to work. It is a dual side task performed as they not only see to the benefits of labor but also of the companies and organizations as well.  This organization is a total sum of international knowledge, skills and experience (Stackel, 2010).

7. Work councils in Germany

In Germany, there is legal basis on which the workplace of organizations is represented. The first act in Germany for labor was Work constituent act 2001, which was set up for the private sectors with only 5 employees. Its main role is to give equal rights and information to the labor. They also develop such activities that help to build up the ability of labor and enhance them to participate in the work. In Germany, the work councils are not the direct bodies but stills have a great influence on the operations (Rasmussen, 2004).

The role of workers council in Germany

Work councils provide a representation to the workers and employees working in the organization. It performs many other functions related to the labor like protection of labor and the rights, social protection, opportunity to work, etc. The idea behind this was to promote a makeable society to the labors. Gradually, it becomes one of the most important instruments in promotion of social reforms into the practice. They also have some substantial powers to the work force at the work place, provides their rights of veto on some issues (Linenberger, 2010).

Structure of work councils

Number employed

Number of works council members

5-20

1

21-50

3

51-100

5

101-200

7

201-400

9

401-700

11

701-1,000

13

1,001-1,500

15

Reasons due to which countries use workers council

The aim of work councils is to ensure that some of the decisions related to employees are not taken by the employers. While taking decision, there must be a representative who makes wise decisions on behalf of both the parties. It provides mainly two types of rights to the employee: Right to participate that depicts that the employees must be informed and should be consulted for problems and issues, they can give their ideas and proposals to the employers, these rights are known as co- determination rights. It represents that the decision cannot takes place in against of the right and wishes of the work force (Grahl and Teague, 2003).

8. US and Canada similarities and differences

Similarities

The United State and Canada are the two largest states of world. They are neighbor states of North America that shares a friendly bond with each other. The Niagara Falls that is one of the largest falls of the world is at the border and they enjoy the tourism of world together (Geare and Edgar, 2007). It is playing a vital and significant role as it tries to bring up the companies, governments and the trade unions together so that improvement can takes place in the working environment. They motivate the employees to perform better and provide key roles to them

Differences

The style of government of both the courtiers is different but they both are the democratic nations. In Canada, the official languages that are used are French and English while in United States, the official language is English only. In United States, many of the government services are provided to Spanish speaking individuals due to its large Hispanic population diversification (Rose, 2004).

S. NO.

BASIS

CANADA

US

1

FEATURES OF ER

·         Decentralized

·         10 Canadian provinces

·         Multi party system

·         Standard of living

·         250 unions

·         Collective bargain

 

·         Large service sector

·         Strong growth of economy

·         Low inflation

·         High income

·         Large companies

·         Least role of state

·         No labor bargaining power

2

EMPLOYERS

·         Accept the role of union

·         Paternalism and coercion

·         Dominant

·         Union avoidance activities

 

3

LABOR MOVEMENT

Steady growth of labor

 

·         Unions of labor

·         Focus on economic benefits

4

UNIONS

·         Accept the role of union

·         Long history of unions

·         Low density

·         Well develop activity

·         Collective bargaining

5

GOVERNMENT

·         Combination of government and union management legislation

·         Bargaining

·         Separate legislation

·         Employer

·         Direct regulation

·         Interaction

 

References

Brody, H. and Bowman, C. (2014). Supreme Court Issues Decisions on Employee Compensation: Defining Changing Clothes and Taxable Wages. Employment Relations Today, 41(2), pp.69-74.

Carroll, S. and Miller, S. (2006). Equal Employment Opportunity commission issues new Compliance Manual section. Employment Relations Today, 33(2), pp.67-74.

Chand.S. (2016).11 essential features of employer-employee relations. [Online].Accessed on: 24 October 2016. Available at: https://www.yourarticlelibrary.com/hrm/11-essential-features-of-employer-employee-relations/27999/

Das, S. (2010). Managing people at work. New Delhi: SAGE.

Fuchs, M. (2001).The Polarization and Differentiation of Employment Relations and New Organizational Models.Global Business Review, 2(2), pp.243-257.

Geare, A. and Edgar, F. (2007).Employment relations. Dunedin, N.Z.: Otago University Press.

Grahl, J. and Teague, P. (2003). The Euro zone and financial integration: the employment relations issues. Industrial Relations Journal, 34(5), pp.396-410.

Linenberger, P. (2010). Personal appearance: Issues in employment. Empl.Rel.Today, 10(3), pp.296-311.

Mattson, R. (2008). Managing the challenges of global compensation.Employment Relations Today, 35(2), pp.51-57.

Millward, N., Bryson, A. and Forth, J. (2000).All change at work?. London: Routledge.

Mumma, J. (2001). Relocation Issues in Today's Workforce.Employment Relations Today, 28(1), pp.55-65.

Rasmussen, E. (2004). Employment relationships. Auckland: Auckland University Press.

Rose, E. (2004). Employment relations. Harlow: Financial Times Prentice Hall.

Rolf, S., Schlachter, S. and Welbourne, T. (2016).Leading Sustainable Global Change from Within: The Case of Environmental Employee Resource Groups.Employment Relations Today, 43(2), pp.17-23.

Surbhi.S. (2016).Difference between organized and unorganized sector.[Online].Accessed on: 24 October 2016. Available at: https://keydifferences.com/difference-between-organised-and-unorganised-sector.html.

Stackel, L. (2010). Employment relations programs.Empl.Rel.Today, 16(2), pp.167-169.

Suzuki, H. (2010). Employment Relations in Japan: Recent Changes under Global Competition and Recession. Journal of Industrial Relations, 52(3), pp.387-401.

Walthery, P. (2014). Book review: Yana van der Meulen Rodgers, Maternal Employment and Child Health: Global Issues and Policy Solutions. Work, Employment & Society, 28(2), pp.348-350.

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