Engr3701 Computer Organisation And Design: Assessment Answer

Answer:

Introduction

In this project we are going to see about the ALU of the CPU. That is the very important component of the computer. That is responsible for the arithmetic and logical operations of the CPU. Here we are going to develop the 8-bit simple ALU. For that we need to study about the ALU. In this project the detailed study about the ALU and its functions will be studied. Then the required ALU will be designed based on the study ("African Leadership University - Educating Africa's future leaders", 2018).

Arithmetic And Logic Unit:

<p>ALU is Heart of any processor. It performs both arithmetic and logical operations. It performs arithmetic operations like addition, subtraction, multiplication etc and logical operations like AND, OR, XOR etc… ALU also performs operations like one’s complement, two’s complement for given input. ALU also has two registers for inputs and one register for output.

For example If we give two operands for addition, then  the result will be produced as output that is sum of given two numbers ("VHDL Primer", 2018). ALU uses clock cycles for its operations. ALU computes results for every positive edge of the clock cycle

Below diagram shows the block diagram of 8-bit ALU

Figure 1 Block Diagram of 8-bit ALU

Design Of 8-Bit Adder And Sub-Tractor

It will be designed using the principle of carry look ahead and also using fast adder. Which operation should be performed is determined by mode control signal. This signal performs two’s complement operation during subtraction only.

Design Of 8-Bit Logical Block

Logical operations purely based on bits. This block performs all the operations like AND< OR based on bits. It also contains parallel gates for performing required operations.

Design of comparator

Consider two inputs A and B. This comparator generates high signal for three cases.

If A greater than B

If A lesser then B


If A equals B

Now arise some question how these operations are performed in ALU. These operations are performed using selection lines.

Below diagram shows selection lines for 8-bit ALU

SELECT LINES

operation

000

Addition

001

Subtraction

010

AND

011

OR

100

NOT

101

XOR

110

2’s Complement

111

Compare

Vhdl Design:

VHDL is a programming language. Digital system models are constructed by using this language.

Three types of models are there,

(i)Behavioral model

(ii)Dataflow model

(iii)Structural model

VHDL is an entity. This entity is help to examine the hardware modules. The entity contents are,

(i)Architecture

(ii)Package declaration

(iii)Entity declaration

(iv)Package body

(v)Configuration

Architecture:

It contains behavioral, structural, dataflow or mixed style.

Syntax:

The architecture statement is present between begin and end keywords. And the constants, variables and components are present in declarative part.

Package body:

The set of data types, functions and data types are known as package. These things are declared once we have to use any other VHDL design units.

Behavioral Modeling:

Entities are present in this modeling style. Entity means set of statements. This statements are executed sequentially. Only the statements are present process, function or procedure.

There are three types of sections are present in code.

(i)Process

(ii)Function

(iii)Procedures

These are executed sequential order. Other statements are present in outside it.

They have no limitations for sequential logic. This is the major aspect of behavioral modeling. We have to build combinational circuits and sequential circuits. IF, WAIT, CASE these are present in behavioral statements. Sequential code only used to variables. The variable values only passed out indirectly.

Dataflow Modeling:

The flow of data present in entity. This entity is described using parallel (concurrent) signals.

WHEN and GENERATE concurrent statements are comes under VHDL.

Only the operators are used to assignments. The operators are,

(i)AND

(ii)NOT

(iii)SII

(iv)*

The BLOCK is defined by special kind of assignment.

(i)The GENERATE statement

(ii)Operators

(iii)The BLOCK statements

(iv)The WHEN statements

These are used to concurrent code.

Structural Modelng:

The collection of interconnected components are known as entity. This model cannot be follow the executing order. So, these components are executed in any order. This modeling is only explains the interconnection of components. This modeling do not using any component behaviors.

The structural modeling contains, two parts. They are,

(i)Declarative part (Before the keyword begin)

(ii)Statement part (after the keyword begin)

AND GATE – logic Operation:

Figure 2 AND gate

Table 1Truth Table for AND gate

Figure 3 Waveforms for AND gate

XOR Gate –Logic operation:

Figure 4 XOR gate symbol

Table 2 Truth table for XOR gate

Figure 5 Output wave for XOR gate

Vhdl Code For A Simple Alu 

VHDL code for simple ALU is given below:

VHDL plays a vital role in electronic applications. We can design code for microcontroller, filter, ram, finite state machines, comparator, and counters and so on.

If we design 8-bit ALU in VHDL then it uses 3 bit address bus. Mostly used tool for designing ALU was VHDL Xilinx Synthesis tool ISE 13.1.

Conclusion

The simple 8-bit ALU was designed and developed by the appropriate methods and tools. For that the VHDL codding was used in this project. Here the AND gate as well as XOR gate was used to perform all kind of arithmetic as well as logical operations by the processor. And also the developed system was tested successfully. 

References

African Leadership University - Educating Africa's future leaders. (2018). Retrieved from https://www.alueducation.com/

 VHDL Primer. (2018). Retrieved from https://www.seas.upenn.edu/~ese171/vhdl/vhdl_primer.html

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