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Ethic And Research In Professional Assessment Answer



Abortion is one of the most discussed issues of ethical dilemma and moral controversy that is associated with the human race in the modern civilization. However, the aim of this essay is to find out the moral consideration regarding the fact that abortion is equal to murdering of human life or not. Different countries have different laws regarding abortion and most of them do not support it morally (Herring, 2014). It is also argued in this discussion about the rights of abortion and how a woman is entitled to take decision about the abortion. There are many cases throughout the world where many women have gone for illegal abortion due to different issues and faced several health complications. This is also one of the key issue in this discussion that why authorities are not defining a clear policy regarding the abortion. There are several factors that sometime forces to perform abortion such as the health problems of mother, mental stability of the mother and financial condition of the family therefore government has to make a policy that will ethically allow abortion in few circumstances to decrease the rate of unauthorized abortion. Ethical issue of abortion should also include the honest evaluation of the physician (Shrage, 2013). In every case of abortion there should be a physician evaluation and that physician should talk to understand the need of abortion of a particular women. The effort was put in this discussion to understand the case study and analyse it with the ethical viewpoint to reach amoral consideration.


Description of the case-study in relation with ethical dilemma

Mrs. B is pregnant in the age of 34 years. She already has two children who are still not adult in her family. Mrs. B is suffering from mental illness and she is unable to take proper care of her family. In such situation becoming pregnant for her is a risk for both mother and the baby. If mother is unable to protect her health in the time of pregnancy then it will increase the life risk for mother and baby (Stalnaker, 2013). In such situation the physician needs to play a responsible role to protect the health of mother. Since the family has two children therefore in this case the duty of the doctor is to prioritize the health condition of mother. Abortion could be an option to protect the health of MRS. B. In the time of pregnancy particularly in the first trimester mother needs lot of care and protection otherwise the growth and health of the baby and mother may deteriorate. In such situation physician comes in dilemma about his or her approach towards the treatment (Doherty, 2013). If mother continues with the pregnancy then baby will not get the proper treatment and care that might affect the baby’s life after birth and it is also an ethical issue.

Identify the ethical issues the dilemma raises

The Value of Life refers to the thought that our lives are an essential ownership of every individual. Each individual encounters their own lives uniquely throughout their lifespan, and nobody can really carry on or truly lives with another's life. Every individual must be dealt with as exceptional, however this does not dispose of the idea that closure of a human life can't be supported, rather it is trusted not be finished without proper Justification (Morrison, 2015). Thus, it is esteemed ethically wrong to end a man's life without wanting to. The Principal of individual freedom fundamentally expresses that as human being, we should have the opportunity to pick our own specific manners of life and method for being moral within our system that is associated with the society. Since no individual or circumstance is precisely like another, therefore there must be some flexibility for those individuals to manage these distinctive circumstances in a way that best suits those (Blaas, 2014). Therefore the issue of abortion have different viewpoint that are associated with the ethical dilemma within our society. According to the situation the process of abortion sometime seems to right and sometime wrong. If the health condition of mother is not good and the birth of the child will risk her life then doctors always suggest abortion to save mother’s life. But most of the cases of abortion are done to rectify the mistakes of individuals to restrict unintended pregnancy during sex (Welter, 2015). Most of the organizations are raising their voice to restrict such kind of abortion. In these cases the health of the mother is good and they are able to give birth of healthy child but since the pregnancy is unintended of they have not planned for child therefore they are approaching towards abortion. These types of cases are definitely unethical and doctors also should not support such situation of abortion.

According to the case study of MRS. B it is clear that the situation is very critical for her. Mrs. B is mentally disturbed that is the issue of health problem. Doctors and physicians always suggest conceiving pregnancy during the best health condition of mother. If the mother is not well with her health at that time conceiving baby is also an unethical issue (Marcum, 2012). It is fact that during the bad health condition of mother baby will not grow well therefore there is a high chance to give birth of an unhealthy child. After birth the child has to suffer that bad health condition throughout his or her life and he or she is not responsible for that rather the parents of that child are responsible. Therefore it raises the question of ethical issue that only abortion should not come under ethical consideration other related issues should be taken under consideration. In case of Mrs. B she is mentally ill that ethically do not support her pregnancy (Cochrane, 2014). The doctor and the mother have all right to abort the fetus since there is a high chance of giving birth of unhealthy baby and mother’s life also becomes risky. Therefore the ethical dilemma is that who to prioritize here and under which act the abortion should be done legally.

Different people involved in this ethical dilemma

Abortion is one such process that has no clear stance regarding its ethical view point. The whole society is involved in this process particularly every member of the society have different views in this topic (Ely at al, 2012). Most of the time abortion is argued from different perspective therefore it is difficult to understand the exact view that is discussed below.

Patients – Patients are mother who carries the baby in her womb. From her perspective abortion is one of the job in her life that she will never think off but sometimes it becomes necessary. If the woman is married then there might be financial problem. In case of MRS. B she has two children and the financial condition of the family is not so good. In such situation the third child will not get as much care as he or she deserve. Therefore from the patients perspective abortion is ethical so that she can support her existing children properly (Mizuno et al, 2013).

Physician – Physician have a big role in the incidence of abortion because without their support it is not possible. In many countries where abortion is restricted by law, in those countries physician play a big role because if they think that abortion is really necessary due to the health effect of the mother then only they will do that. Otherwise it is not allowed by the law. In the case of mental illness physician has the right to abort the fetus without informing husband due to the confidentiality of the patients. If the physician thinks that patient will improve her health after abortion then it can be done (Dittmer, 2013).

Family members – Family members also important and their views relate to the ethical and moral incidence. Family members will never support abortion where pregnancy is desired. Most of the time family members support abortion where pregnancy is unintended and society will not support them.

The general public – The view of general public will always morally oppose the incidence of abortion because they will express their view from their perspective. According to the general public abortion is same as killing because it is ending a heartbeat straight away knowingly. Many view of general public also says that if the women is ready to take the pain and risk of aborting the child then it is the right of the mother who will be considered as the deciding authority (Pilkington, 2015).

Health and social care assistants – There are many social organizations who are strongly opposing the incidence of abortion. They believe that since fetus has their life therefore it is same as killing. Many healthcare professional supports the issue because they understand that all the situation do not support the pregnancy therefore it is better to abort the fetus rather to continue with it that risk the life of mother. Both the professionals argue that normal abortion should be avoided which are needed for the carelessness of the women (Luna & Wolf, 2014).

Youth workers – Youth workers in these days have both views because of their lifestyle changes. Since live-together is very popular among them therefore incidence of abortion is also very common. The young population thinks that there is nothing related to the unethical with abortion since it is the personal matter between two individuals. Women should have all the right to decide about the abortion (Coles & Compston, 2013).

Potential conflict and points of agreement in terms of ethical arguments

It is broadly acknowledged that the actuality of abortion has been a subject of discussion for a long time. Subsequent to the extent of individuals who acknowledge abortion as a normal system is equivalent to the extent of the individuals who consider abortion a crime.

Starting with the methodology of Utilitarianism, we should say that Utilitarianism is concerned basically with pleasure and with pain. Therefore somebody should be worried with the measures of pleasure and pain in circumstances where abortion is allowed as stood out from the measures of pleasure and pain where aborting fetus is forbidden. McNeilly (2013) has suggested that the main consideration should be associated with the interest of fetus whether the fetus has the right to live or not. In the same topic Shannon (2013) has argued with the right of fetus and mother that is important. If mother has the freedom to choose the option of abortion for her better life then why the interest of the fetus is ignored. Fetus also has the right to live her life with full freedom. In the case of ethical arguments the life of mother and the life of fetus should be considered as separate entity and neither mother nor any other entity has the right to decide about the abortion in normal circumstance. Therefore arguing with the conflict it can be said that morally abortion should be considered in few circumstances where mother is unable to survive or in the case the life off the child is under risk (Gallagher et al, 2012). There has been another argument that includes the family members with the incidence of abortion. There has been a myth that having a baby will decrease the happiness within a relationship even in those cases where pregnancy is desired. These types of situation are very much unexpected because these types of parents do not have any responsibility about their child’s life. The mentality of such parents will not help the child to grow properly in his or her life. The conflict starts here with the decision that if the abortion is allowed then they will perform such thing frequently and if the abortion is restricted then the child will suffer after birth therefore both ways the process is becoming unethical (Parks, 2015). According to the moral view it is necessary to allow abortion in modern civilization where affordability is one of the key issues but it is also necessary to adopt other ways so that husband and wife’s should be conscious enough to avoid the incidence of abortion frequently. More frequently abortion will increase the life risk of the mother and also becomes wrong morally because mistakes can be done once but when it is frequent then it can be supported by the strong unethical issue (Guadamuz, 2015).

In a different argument two distinct views of abortion is discussed to understand the right or wrong thing associated with it is the Prolife that is against abortion and the other is Prochoice that is in favour of abortion. The first view is prolife that believes in the concept of absolute right to life that is associated with the value of principle. By the 3rd week of the pregnancy the embryo gets its heart beats and starts to live her own life (Cheong & Tay, 2014). Therefore abortion in any stage is same as killing that ends the life of an innocent child. This view is providing thee alternative of abortion as adoption because it will at least help the fetus to get the life and after birth he or she will be able to live the life. Prolife view also suggests that women should keep control over their bodies and if they fail to do that, then they should take the help of contraceptives to avoid unwanted pregnancy. If a woman fails to use these measures then she should take the full responsibility of that child rather sacrificing human life. According to the second view of Prochoice women have all the right over their bodies and greatly favour abortion. This view is arguing that how it can be considered as a human life before birth (Coeytaux et al, 2014). Prochoice is claiming the principle of individual freedom that is associated with the individual choice to determine what is right for them in their own circumstances. The argument starts with the concern of deformities of the fetus that is associated with the health burden and lot of suffering of the child after birth. The argument is also applicable for thee unfit mothers who are not able to continue with the embryo. In case of rape the woman should have all the right to go for abortion because the circumstance is unwanted (Sundstrom, Briones & Janoske, 2013). Discussing all these views Prochoice is also developing the logical way to prove their claim so that morally abortion do not become a crime and there is no way that mother will feel bad if the situation is unintended.

Influence in respond to the ethical dilemma

Ethical dilemma regarding the abortion issue has got no clear view that will help to reach in a particular decision. There are different elements in the society that are influencing the incidence of abortion.

Gender – Gender is one such element that influences the abortion too much. Male and females have different views regarding this issue. Since female are the victim and they have to carry the fetus in their womb therefore they always have a sentiment to abort a fetus. Most of the female do not support the abortion but still they have to accept it because of their carelessness (Church & Ekber, 2013). But males are very open to the process and majority of them support the issue because it will reduce the responsibility of their carelessness also.

Ethnicity - Ethnicity morally do not support the abortion of fetus but the most of the women went to abort their fetus due to this society. Therefore the question arises that how it can be justified that which circumstances are really ethical to abort a fetus. The influence due to ethnicity thus forces in both way and creates the ethical dilemma (McCullough, 2012).

Religion – Influence of religion is very high in this issue because most of the individual in this earth belongs to some religion belief. No religion belief is there in the earth that supports abortion in any circumstances. Religiously it is the worst job to end the life of a fetus because they believe that every fetus have the right to get birth (Macklin, 2012). Education of the human being is changing the view and peoples are less influenced by the religion belief so that women or parents can decide according to their needs.

Age – Age influence in different way because different age of a women have different complication that may or may not support the abortion. Therefore it is totally decided by the doctors that at which age it can be performed or not (Allyse et al, 2013).

Relevant codes of professional conduct and law associated with dilemma and moral solution

According to the abortion act 1967 there is no clear view of thee abortion circumstance. The law support abortion is those cases that are associated with urgent medical reasons with the consent of a psychiatrist, to protect their mental health. According to this act the cost to women’s health of illegal abortion was high with around 40 women dying each year and many more injured. Doctors, politicians and members of some religious communities worked together to pass a law that allowed for abortion in some circumstances (Sahinoglu et al, 2013). This law has entitled thee doctor as the decision making authority not the woman for each case of abortion but does not provide any reason that will make abortion as illegal. Much of the law is open to interpretation and asks doctors to make a judgment based on weighing up risks rather than specifying particular circumstances in which abortion would be legal (Emmerich, 2015). In 1990 the 1967 Act was amended by the Human Fertilisation and Embryology Act, which reduced the original time limit of 28 weeks to 24 weeks for most abortions.


It can be concluded from this discussion that abortion is morally a wrong purpose if it is not associated with the health condition of mother. Therefore the law also entitles doctors to decide about the legality of the abortion to minimize the illegal form that is more affecting the women’s health. Most of the time doctors found that carelessness is the cause of abortion that can be state as the unethical but there are incidences also when mother has to do abortion to survive with her own life that is termed as the morally ethical.

Reference List

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Blaas, S., 2014. Intellectual disability: ethics, dehumanization, and a new moral community. International Journal of Disability, Development and Education, 61(2), pp.186-186.

Cheong, M.A. and Tay, C.S.K., 2014. Application of legal principles and medical ethics: multifetal pregnancy and fetal reduction. Singapore medical journal, 55(6), p.298.

Church, S. and Ekberg, M., 2013. Student midwives' responses to reproductive ethics: A qualitative focus group approach using case scenarios. Midwifery, 29(8), pp.895-901.

Cochrane, S., 2014. Doogan and Wood v. NHS Greater Glasgow & Clyde Health Board [2013] CSIH 36. Aberdeen Student L. Rev., 5, p.148.

Coeytaux, F., Hessini, L., Ejano, N., Obbuyi, A., Oguttu, M., Osur, J. and Shuken, K., 2014. Facilitating women’s access to misoprostol through community-based advocacy in Kenya and Tanzania. International Journal of Gynecology & Obstetrics, 125(1), pp.53-55.

Coles, A.J. and Compston, D.A.S., 2013. 30. Multiple Sclerosis: Ethics, Outcome Wariables and. Clinical Trials in Neurology, p.359.

Dittmer, J., 2013. Ethics, Applied. Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy.

Doherty, C.F., 2013. Current discourses to abortion in Ireland.

Ely, G.E., Flaherty, C., Akers, L.S. and Noland, T.B., 2012. Social Work Student Attitudes Toward the Social Work Perspective on Abortion. Journal of Social Work Values and Ethics, 9(2).

Emmerich, N., 2015. A Sociological Analysis of Ethical Expertise. SAGE Open, 5(2), p.2158244015590445.

Gallagher, K., Marlow, N., Edgley, A. and Porock, D., 2012. The attitudes of neonatal nurses towards extremely preterm infants. Journal of advanced nursing, 68(8), pp.1768-1779.

Guadamuz, T.E., 2015, November. Ethical considerations of adolescents engaging in sexuality-themed research in Vietnam: Perceptions of parents with teenage children. In 143rd APHA Annual Meeting and Exposition (October 31-November 4, 2015). APHA.

Herring, J., 2014. Medical law and ethics. Oxford University Press.

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McCullough, L.B., 2012. Responsibly managing uncertainties in clinical ethics. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy, 37(1), pp.1-5.

McNeilly, K., 2013. Framing Wrongs and Performing Rights in Northern Ireland: Towards a Butlerian Approach to Life in Abortion Strategising.Journal of International Women's Studies, 14(4), pp.95-108.

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