Evaluation of the Cardiovascular System Under Exertion

Evaluation of the Cardiovascular System Under Exertion

Introduction

All living creatures comprise of cells. A cell is the most basic, structural, functional unit of a living organism. Scientists have identified several body systems. A body system consists of organized cells that work together to achieve specific functions. The functioning unit of a body system is an organ. Examples of organs include, lungs, heart, kidney, and so on. The lungs and the heart in body system work hand-in-hand in the transportation of nutrients across the body.          The human body consist of the following systems;

Digestive system; responsible for breaking down food consumed

Nervous System; directs the functions of the body

Immune system; assist in fighting diseases

Respiratory system; responsible breathing and distribution of gases across the body

Cardiovascular system; responsible for distribution of nutrients across the body

Reproductive System; responsible for the holding the ovary or sperms and responsible for providing nutrients and shelter for a fertilized egg for the gestation period.

The Cardiovascular and the respiration systems work together to distribute gases across the body. The cardiovascular system also combines with digestive to distribute nutrients across the body (Nystoriak & Bhatnagar, 2018). Cell respiration takes in oxygen used to break down food releasing Carbon (IV) oxide as a by-product. Cell respiration produces energy necessary to carry out activities. Physical activities require energy to be fulfilled and energy can only be produced from respiration (Carl J. Lavie, 2017). This lab experiment will help us monitor the workings of the respiratory and cardiovascular systems in human being.

The nervous system has three integral parts; sensation, response, and integration. The nervous system receives information about the immediate surrounding and develops a response to the information and sends the response to the specific tissues or (Wuillemin, 1981)muscles via the motor sensors. Integration occurs when information gathered is combined with an emotional state, a memory instance or learning for an efficient response (WON, et al., 2017). The nervous system is also responsible for differentiating different stimuli.

Through the somatosensory system the nervous system is able to discern different stimuli. Through touch the somatosensory system can differentiate stimuli. This phenomenon is termed as tactile discrimination. There are various types of tactile discrimination like, two-point discrimination, spatial discrimination, and grapthesthesia (D, et al., 2001). Two-point discrimination is the most common and most researched among the three. It entails the ability to discern between two tactile stimuli, which are closely related (Wuillemin, 1981). The somatosesnsory system is characterized of different stimuli ranging from light, pressure, pain, touch, temperature, and muscle sense. Discrimination of stimuli occurs from the point of contact. Under the skin are receptors for different stimuli, each having its own pathway. These different pathways end at the cerebellum in the brain (WON, et al., 2017). The cerebellum distinguishes stimuli by tracking the path followed by the information received up to receptors and thus easily discerns the stimuli.

Objective of the Experiment

To determine the physiological effects of exercise on the respiratory and cardiovascular systems. This will be analyzed by increasing and reducing the activity performed by a human being versus the working of the two systems measured through pulse rate measurement and breathing rate measurement.

Materials and Equipment Used

Elastic Straps                                      Stool

Transmitter belt                                  Cardiovascular fitness protocol

Exercise heart rate monitor                 Cardiovascular fitness table

Timer                                                   Reference Sheet

Link adaptor and a laptop

Safety Precautions Considered

We were informed to notify the instructor if one has prior health problems. We were advised to ensure we use the heart rate monitor as instructed in the lab instructions since it employs an electrical signal to operate and if misused could cause harm.

Methods

We started by choosing colleagues that would participate in the experiment. He was asked some questions about his health condition and medical history and he answered accurately. We read through the cardiovascular table and protocol sheet to help us interpret readings to be collected.

We connected the heart rate monitor to the display screen and on the specimen. We set the timer and started observing the changes in the breathing patterns and pulse rate when the specimen was at rest versus when the specimen engaged in a strenuous activity (walking). Data observed was collected. The experiment was repeated for different activities with increasing difficulty on the physical exercise performed. After several observations of the changes in two measurements when specimen is engaged in a physical activity versus when the specimen is at rest, a table was prepared and all the data recorded.

Results

Tabulated data from the experiment

exercise level

observation

steps/min

respiratory rate (breath/min)

Pulse rate (bpm)

Tidal volume (mL)

Expiratory reserve volume (mL)

Vital Capacity (mL)

Inspiratory reserve volume (mL)

At rest

1st reading

0

16

84

550

2300

5500

2650

 

2nd reading

0

14

84

500

2200

5200

2500

 

3rd reading

0

13

80

600

2500

5300

2200

Intermediate activity

1st reading

25

24

96

1100

2300

5300

1900

 

2nd reading

25

22

100

900

2200

5300

2200

 

3rd reading

25

23

92

1100

1900

5400

2400

High activity

1st reading

40

28

116

1600

1800

5300

1900

 

2nd reading

40

27

120

1500

1700

5500

2300

 

3rd reading

40

30

124

1700

1900

5300

1700

SUMMARY TABLE (for your results section)

exercise level

steps/min

Respiratory rate (bpm)

Pulse rate (bpm)

Tidal volume (mL)

Expiratory reserve volume (mL)

Vital Capacity (mL)

Inspiratory reserve volume (mL)

at rest

0

14.33

82.67

550.00

2333.33

5333.33

2450.00

low activity

25

23.00

96.00

1033.33

2133.33

5333.33

2166.67

medium activity

40

28.33

120.00

1600.00

1800.00

5366.67

1966.67

Regression Analysis

We computed a regression analysis of the data collected as follows;

SUMMARY OUTPUT

               

Regression Statistics

               

Multiple R

0.961199634

             

R Square

0.923904737

             

Adjusted R Square

0.911222193

             

Standard Error

133.9619329

             

Observations

8

             

ANOVA

               

 

df

SS

MS

F

Significance F

     

Regression

1

1307325.203

1307325.203

72.84853519

0.000141815

     

Residual

6

107674.7967

17945.79946

         

Total

7

1415000

 

         
 

Coefficients

Standard Error

t Stat

P-value

Lower 95%

Upper 95%

Lower 95.0%

Upper 95.0%

Intercept

489.2682927

88.26722596

5.543034658

0.001455463

273.2861714

705.250414

273.2861714

705.250414

Steps/Minute

26.08130081

3.055757148

8.535135335

0.000141815

18.60413243

33.55846919

18.60413243

33.55846919

Discussion and Conclusion

When an individual engages in physical activity the demand for oxygen and energy in the body increases. This implies that both systems need to work harder to meet the deficit demand. Heart muscles work harder to supply nutrients and oxygen to different muscles in the body. Heart muscles have less resting time during such strenuous exercises. This also implies a faster breathing rate in a bid to meet the oxygen requirement. Heart muscles/walls grow thicker over time to and the lungs expand thus bigger breathing volumes. Physical activity increases the demand for energy and oxygen supply in body muscles. The raised demand is satisfied through increasing pulse rate since heart muscles have less resting time and higher breathing patterns. The intensity of breathing patterns and pulse rate is directly proportional to the intensity of the physical activity and demonstrated in the above charts. Inversely the expiratory reserve and inspiratory is proportional to the intensity of exercises. Thus the inspiratory and expiratory reserves decrease with increase in the intensity of physical activity. The tidal volume also increases with increase the intensity of physical activity. In conclusion, we determined that an increase in the physical activity of a person leads to an increase in the performance of bot the respiratory and cardiovascular systems. The performance of these systems are measured by pulse rate and breathing rate.

Reference List

D, P., GJ, A & D, F. eds., 2001. Differences in Mechanosensory Discrimination Across the Body Surface. 2nd ed. Sunderland: Sinauer Associates.

Carl J. Lavie, R. A. D. L. S. N. M. J. X. S. D.-c. L. C. P. E. T. S. C. J. H. O. R. V. M. S. N. B.,     2017. Exercise and the Cardiovascular System: Clinical Science and Cardiovascular       Outcomes. Circulation Research, 117(2), pp. 207-19.

Nystoriak, M. A. & Bhatnagar, A., 2018. Cardiovascular Effects and Benefits of Exercise. Front Cardiovasc Med, 5(135), p. September.

WON, S.-Y., KIM, H.-K., KIM, M.-E. & KIM, K.-S., 2017. Two-point discrimination values       vary depending on test site, sex and test modality in the orofacial region: a preliminary study. Journal of Applied Oral Science, 25(4), pp. 427-35.

Wuillemin, B. L. R. D. B., 1981. Different orientations of sub-two-point threshold tactile stimuli can be discriminated. Bulletin ofthe Psychonomic Society, 18(6), pp. 311-314.

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