Feminisation Of Agricultural Labour Empower Assessment Answer

Answer:

Introduction

In today’s world, gender equality has earned a critical concern for the improvement of the labor market situation among young men and women in the MENA countries or the countries of North Africa and Middle East (Garcia 2017). MENA region is considered as the region that faces highest youth unemployment in terms of all the Asian and Western countries and it is a matter of fact that the situation is graver for the young women who reside there. From a survey which was conducted in the year of 2015, it was seen that where 77% of the young males are employed in MENA region, only 27% of the female population are empowered and this statistic is very concerning in today’s world. In the year of 2014 it was seen that the percentage of unemployed young women exceeded the rate of unemployed young men by more than 20% and day by day the situation is worsening  (James-Hawkins et al. 2018). It is a matter of fact that the unemployment among the young women actually increased when the literacy rate among the women population got increased in MENA region and this particular statistic is shocking as for educated women, in the MENA region there are no job opportunities. The situation is more concerning in the countries like Tunisia, Jordan and Egypt.

For this research there will be a proper introduction, aims and objectives for the research and a problem statement will be incorporated there. After that a detailed literature relevant to the topic of the research is provided. The literature review contains detailed information regarding gender gaps, inequality in the job market, key trends, government intervention and the job opportunities along with opportunities to receive education for the young women of MENA region. After that a conclusion is incorporated in the paper.   For this particular research work information relevant to the topic of the research will be gathered from numerous secondary sources like journals, books, websites and magazines for preparing the literature review. After that primary data will be collected by surveying the young women of the age group of 20 to 30 years old for collecting primary information relevant to the topic of this particular research work. Then the data will be analyzed by the researcher.

The objective of this research is to highlight


  • The young women population of the MENA region is extremely deprived of the job opportunities.
  • To raise voice against the fact that there are no job openings for the educated young women of MENA region.


"text-align: justify;">As the women population of the MENA region are constantly getting deprived of their rights to receive education or the right to participate in the job market is making them getting lagged behind without having economic empowerment. Lesser job opportunities for women and especially for the educated women in the MENA region are the main problem which is why this research work is being conducted.

It has been seen that in MENA countries the gender gap is closing both education and health sector and that is limiting the opportunities of generating job opportunities in the market of those respective nations. In this regard it can be said that until and unless the education and health related issues that are harming the gender balance of these nations will get fixed, it would be impossible to effectively empower the women of those regions (El Feki, Heilman, and Barker 2017). The uprising in the Arabic nations regarding this issue appeared to be somewhat effective and that worked like a catalyst and the youth women population was successful to break some of the old beliefs and generated a wave of civic engagement with women in important sectors like business and politics. As stated by James-Hawkins et al. (2018), it is a matter of fact that in today’s world that much transition cannot be considered to be enough and therefore it can be said that where in other developed regions of the globe women are playing important role in important sectors like politics, business, healthcare and education, why the women who reside in MENA countries will be deprived of the normal life they deserve. In recent times, it can be seen that some major developmental initiations has been taken by the governments of some of the MENA countries to deal with this burning societal issue (Bhatt 2017). It can be said that in the last couple of years the gender gap has been narrowed down a little but there are immense room for improvement as the women population of that particular region of the globe is in real distress as they are deprived of the basic needs and societal life.

As depicted by El Feki, Heilman, and Barker (2017), it is a matter of fact that the issues of gender equality are a complex matter which is multidimensional also. Therefore, in order to realize what can be effective to promote empowerment of women, it can definitely be said that the government should focus on economic empowerment of women population in important sectors and the relative outcomes for males versus females should be overcome (Baliamoune?Lutz 2016).  In this regard, it can be said that the gender related measurement tools which are existing and are successful indicators of the gaps needs to be assessed to determine their applicability for tracking, designing and evaluating the youth ALMP (Active Labor Market Policies).As depicted by El Feki, Heilman, and Barker (2017), it has been already established that gender equality promotes development of the country and reduction in poverty significantly and therefore the governments of the MENA countries should emphasize on balancing the gender gaps and take serious initiatives to fight this societal ill. It has been estimated by conducting surveys that if the women population of the MENA countries take actively part in the development of small business, that can effectively play a significant role in job creation and the household earnings per annum can significantly rise up to 25%. It can also be said that effective empowerment of women population can lead to the wellbeing of their families and as a whole for the society. It can be said that the recent trend in closing the gender gaps is of course a sign of improvement and that is highly needed in the present scenario (Hammad et al. 2018).

ALMP is an important tool that the government and the developing partners for this particular cause can effectively use to address the challenges in the youth employment and especially for the employment of youth women population of the respective countries (Garcia 2017). In this regard, it would be worthwhile to mention that in MENA countries very few nations’ governments focus on ALMP for young women; and for an example, it can be said that in the job market of Egypt, merely 9% of the ALMPs are focused on the women population of that country (Thabet 2015).

Political empowerment of Women of MENA region

It has been observed that the women population residing in MENA region isvulnerable to suppression and discrimination of the basic rights they deserve. As opined by Naila (2016), there are limitations n their participation in the political sectors though the situation started to improve by the advent of 21st century but still there are a lot of issues needs to be addressed. In recent years, the revival of feminism and the awareness regarding these issues have improved the situation to some extent for the women population. The governments of the MENA countries have somehow realized that if the women population of their country actively participate in the political affairs it would be beneficial for the society and it can effectively help to enhance women empowerment in that particular region (James-Hawkins et al. 2018). Therefore it can be said that wider and equal participation of women population can effectively enhance the situation of the MENA region. As depicted by El Feki, Heilman, and Barker (2017), it is seen that in today’s world women are striving to participate in the decision making processes and lesser participation of the women can be degrading for the women population and naturally the states will be deprived of the services they could have utilized that the population of young women could have offered.

It can be said that low political empowerment of women in MENA region may be a result of the similarities in the cultural and ideological values of the countries of MENA region and in this regard, it is worthwhile to mention that it is possible that if the women population gets the right to participate in political affairs, it can effectively improve the situation for the best interests of the society (Hammad et al. 2018).

The huge population of young men and women is a feature of MENA region and it can be said that the presence of young population in the MENA region implies that those countries have the potential to rise economically tough the main question that arises in this particular context is that how these transformations can give a boost to the women empowerment which is the main topic of this discussion.

Key trends in the job market of MENA region

It is a matter of fact that the major trends in the development of the population of the countries that fall under MENA region includes the large labor force, opportunities for economic growths of the respective nations and the better opportunities to get education. As stated by Badran and Farid (2017), it has been observed that the growth rate of the literate young population in currently creating various job opportunities in the job market of the MENA countries and it has also been observed that; as education determines qualification and the potential professional development of an individual, people who are highly qualified are most likely to get decent jobs; but the problem arises as in recent times too, the government and the private business sectors are failing to create job opportunities in the market (Moghadam 2016). Therefore, it can be said that a large wave if the educated young population of MENA countries create conditions of the accelerated economic growth of MENA countries not only that, the countries of MENA region has a potential to create a rich disposal of effective human resources but due to lack of governmental initiation the countries are not being able to perform up to their ability (Badran and Farid 2017).

As stated by James-Hawkins et al. (2018), it can be said that gender equality is important for the growth and development of any country as when the gender quality is present in the workforce, naturally the depth of the human resources gets bigger and the job opportunities emerge. It has been seen that the gender quality promotes the development of the job market significantly. It has already been estimated that if the females of MENA region participate in the job market just like the male population of that region does, it can effectively increase the income of each household up to 25% and that is enormous achievement (Hammad et al. 2018). Not only that empowering the women population can effectively increase the well being of human kind and while the women population of the other parts of the globe is enjoying their lives and their participation in every important sector, why would the women population of this particular area would be deprived of the rights that they have (Avis 2017). Therefore, it can be said that if the female labor force participates the job market of MENA region, it would be immensely beneficial for the economy of those countries under MENA region. ALMP’s utilization is important for the growth and development of any country’s economic sector. It has been seen that the government of MENA region should realize what it requires to promote women’s empowerment and ALMP’s focus should be on those factors. The government of this particular region should focus on improving the measurement tools to determine the gender inequality and take subsequent decisions (Garcia 2017).

Educating the women population

Education is one of the key elements that can effectively promote women empowerment in MENA region and it has been observed that though in the last decade the opportunities to study has developed for the women population, but there are much more improvements required for this particular sector. The government of the countries of MENA region should amend the policies associated with women education and the governments should proactively promote education for women in order to negate the gender gap in the labor market (Avis 2017).

The above graph suggests that there is lot of areas of improvements to promote and enhance education for women population of the MENA countries and it can be said that government’s participation and along with that awareness should be increased among the women population regarding this issue. It is a matter of fact that as the women population of particular that region is lagging behind due to lack of academic qualification it can easily be assumed that that has a major effect in the job market and the women population in MENA region is not getting adequate opportunities to work or participate in the job market (Avis 2017).

Government’s intervention

As opined by Naila (2016), it has been seen that the though governments of the countries of MENA region somehow improved their course of actions regarding improving the situation of young women population. It has been seen that women of that particular region of this globe has been deprived of the basic rights to participate in the important administrative right. When the world has progressed significantly admitting that gender equality should prevail, in that scenario this type of attitude of the governments of the MENA region countries is unacceptable (Saviano et al. 2017). It has been seen that in the last 5 years numerous policies were amended for the educational and training and developmental programs for the young women population of MENA region. It can be said that this effort of the government of the respective countries did not gone in vein and there has been a significant improvement in the situation. Though there is lot of areas of improvement but it can be said that the government officials need to have a bit more serious approach to the situation (Garcia 2017). A survey conducted by the governments of the nation under MENA region exhibited that the gender gap in the job market has got reduced by 5 to 7 percent in the last couple of years and that is definitely a good sign (Bahramitash and  Esfahani 2016). It has been observed that the young women of the MENA region are realizing the importance of self dependency and education. Due to extensive campaigning performed by the governments of those countries the awareness regarding this issue among the young women population got increased massively and the males also understanding the importance of promoting education for women (Avis 2017). This can be looked at as a huge achievement for the governments and for the humankind. In this regard, it is worthwhile to mention the fact that when the young women population of that particular region will join the labor force, it can effectively give a boost to the human resources of the respective nations and will definitely give a boost to the economy of those nations (Kabeer 2016). With increased educational qualification in the human resources of the country, the government and the private sector of those countries will experience a significant rise in the productivity which can play a vital role behind the success of those nations to achieve a human resource where there is no gender gap.

Job opportunities in MENA region

It has been observed that in the MENA countries the job opportunities for educated women are significantly lower than any parts of the world and that is due to the lesser exposure and lesser developmental growth in those countries (Garcia 2017). In today’s world, when the world is getting globalized and with the advancement of technology, communication is becoming easier to establish, the attitude of the public and private sectors of the MENA region are not up to the mark. It has been estimated that by the year of 2030, the percentage of educated women in the human resources of MENA region will increase up to 20% due to extensive campaigns and increased awareness of the people residing in that particular region; but if adequate job opportunities are not given to the young women population, the improvement of the situation will not be possible or viable. It has been estimated that in order to improve the situation, the administrators of the public and private sectors should effectively take action to increase the job opportunities( Naila. 2016). It has been seen that if the education sector and the technological sector increases job opportunities, that can significantly improve the situation of the economic condition of the countries under the MENA region (Garcia 2017).

Conclusion

Therefore, it can be said that in today’s world when the world is progressing rapidly with the increased awareness regarding the rights of the women population, it has been disappointing that the governments of the countries under MENA region did not realize the fact on time and that caused the sufferance of the young women population of that region. It can be said that the governments of the countries of MENA region should invest a fortune to steer the condition to a productive phase. In this regard it is worthwhile to mention that the administrators of both the public and private sectors should proactively participate in improving the situation by increasing the job opportunities. It is a matter of fact that if the human resources of the MENA region acquires additional professional skills receiving proper education and attending numerous training and developmental workshops and programs introduced by both the governments and the administrators of the business industry, it can effectively improve the job opportunities as looking at the skilled labor force many foreign companies will expand their businesses in the countries of MENA region and then only the situation will change. It has been observed that though the awareness regarding women education and women’s right to take part in important sectors like business and administration has increased in the last decade but still there are more areas of improvement and the governments of those countries should take come forward with more ideas that can be materialized. Therefore, to conclude, it can be said that the matter of women empowerment should not be looked at with reluctance as the gender gap in the labor force of the countries under MENA region is significantly affecting the economic condition of those countries which is not at all desired and the women population of that region is getting deprived of their rights which is unacceptable.

References

Badran, Mona Farid. "Achieving Gender Equality in the Arab Region amidst the Changing World of Work." (2017).

Bahramitash, Roksana, and Hadi Salehi Esfahani. "Women’s Economic Role in the MENA Region: Growth and Equality through Female-Owned SMEs." In Political and Socio-Economic Change in the Middle East and North Africa, pp. 155-190. Palgrave Macmillan, New York, 2016.

Baliamoune?Lutz, Mina. "The Effectiveness of Foreign Aid to Women's Equality Organisations in the MENA." Journal of International Development 28, no. 3 (2016): 320-341.

El Feki, S., B. Heilman, and G. Barker. "Understanding masculinities results from the International Men and Gender Equality Study in the Middle East and North Africa." (2017).

James-Hawkins, Laurie, Eman Shaltout, Aasli Abdi Nur, Catherine Nasrallah, Yara Qutteina, Hanan F. Abdul Rahim, Monique Hennink, and Kathryn M. Yount. "Human and economic resources for empowerment and pregnancy-related mental health in the Arab Middle East: a systematic review." Archives of women's mental health (2018): 1-14.

Kabeer, Naila. "Gender equality, economic growth, and women’s agency: the “endless variety” and “monotonous similarity” of patriarchal constraints." Feminist Economics 22, no. 1 (2016): 295-321.

Kabir, Naila. Women’s economic empowerment and inclusive growth: labour markets and enterprise development. School of Oriental and African Studies, UK, 2016.

Moghadam, Valentine M. Empowering Women After the Arab Spring. Palgrave Macmillan, 2016.

Saviano, Marialuisa, Luisa Nenci, and Francesco Caputo. "The financial gap for women in the MENA region: a systemic perspective." Gender in Management: An International Journal32, no. 3 (2017): 203-217.

Thabet, Salwa. "Women Empowerment in the Arab Region: Between the Anvil of Illiteracy and the Hammer of Passive Representative Bureaucracy." Journalism 5, no. 5 (2015): 234-249.

Hammad, Suzanne, Alice Alunni, and Tamara Alkhas. "Reflections on the potential (and limits) of action research as ethos, methodology and practice: A case study of a women’s empowerment programme in the Middle East." Action Research (2018): 1476750318759778.

Bhatt, Antra. "Global Gender Parity Insights from the World Economic Forum’s Gender Gap Report." Chicago Policy Review (Online) (2017).

Avis, William. "Gender equality and women’s empowerment in Lebanon." (2017).

Bahramitash, Roksana, and Hadi Salehi Esfahani. "Women’s Economic Role in the MENA Region: Growth and Equality through Female-Owned SMEs." In Political and Socio-Economic Change in the Middle East and North Africa, pp. 155-190. Palgrave Macmillan, New York, 2016.

Cornwall, Andrea. "Women's Empowerment: What Works?." Journal of International Development 28, no. 3 (2016): 342-359.

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Buchanan, Whitney. "International agency implementation of women's empowerment programs under secular and Islamist governments: comparative cases of UN Women and the International Labour Organization experiences in Egypt." (2015).

Abdelali?Martini, Malika, and Jennie Dey de Pryck. "Does the feminisation of agricultural labour empower women? Insights from female labour contractors and workers in Northwest Syria." Journal of International Development 27, no. 7 (2015): 898-916.

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Kabeer, Naila. "Gender equality, economic growth, and women’s agency: the “endless variety” and “monotonous similarity” of patriarchal constraints." Feminist Economics 22, no. 1 (2016): 295-321.

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