Fin6001 Financial Management - Free Assessment Answer

Answer:

Solution 1:

Yes the projects can be ranked by simply inspecting the cash flows. Below is the table of raking:


Project number:

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

Year

 

 

 

 

 

 

0

-5,000

-10,000

-15,000

-25,000

-25,000

-30,000

-35,000

1

1,000

1,000

1,700

1,000

11,000

-3,000

-9,000

2

1,000

2,000

1,700

1,200

10,000

10,000

-3,000

3

1,000

2,000

1,700

3,000

9,000

9,000

6,000

4

800

3,000

1,700

4,000

8,000

6,000

6,000

5

800

3,000

1,700

5,000

7,000

6,000

8,000

6

700

4,000

1,700

6,000

6,000

6,000

12,000

7

600

4,000

1,700

7,000

5,000

4,500

12,000

8

600

2,000

1,700

8,000

4,000

4,500

14,000

9

500

2,000

1,700

9,000

3,000

3,000

14,000

10

500

2,000

1,700

11,000

-5,000

3,000

14,000

Sum of cash-flow benefits

7,500

25,000

17,000

55,200

58,000

49,000

74,000

Excess of cash flow over initial investment

2,500

15,000

2,000

30,200

33,000

19,000

39,000

Ranking

6

5

7

3

2

4

1

In the above table we have simply ranked the project based on the net cash flows. The net cash flows are calculated by netting off the cash inflows and outflows. Therefore, based o the same, project 7 is ranked number 1, since it has the highest cash flows. (Peterson & Fabozzi, 2012)

Solution 2:

There are a lot of quantitative methods which can be used in order to choose the best available investment options. We have used the net present value approach, internal rate of return and pay-back period, in order to rank the projects. (Bierman & Smidt, 2010)

Net Present Value

Net present value is the quantitative tool which helps the investor calculates the cash flow from the project. The cash flows which are calculated under this method are then discounted using the appropriate discounting rate. This helps to calculate the present value of the benefits which are expected to generate from a given project. (Shapiro, 2007)

Project number:

PV Factor @ 9%

PV of CF of project 1

PV of CF of project 2

PV of CF of project 3

PV of CF of project 4

PV of CF of project 5

PV of CF of project 6

PV of CF of project 7

Year

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

0

1

-5,000

-10,000

-15,000

-25,000

-25,000

-30,000

-35,000

1

0.9174311927

917

917

1,560

917

10,092

-2,752

-8,257

2

0.8416799933

842

1,683

1,431

1,010

8,417

8,417

-2,525

3

0.7721834801

772

1,544

1,313

2,317

6,950

6,950

4,633

4

0.7084252111

567

2,125

1,204

2,834

5,667

4,251

4,251

5

0.6499313863

520

1,950

1,105

3,250

4,550

3,900

5,199

6

0.5962673269

417

2,385

1,014

3,578

3,578

3,578

7,155

7

0.5470342448

328

2,188

930

3,829

2,735

2,462

6,564

8

0.5018662797

301

1,004

853

4,015

2,007

2,258

7,026

9

0.4604277795

230

921

783

4,144

1,381

1,381

6,446

10

0.4224108069

211

845

718

4,647

-2,112

1,267

5,914

Sum of cash-flow benefits

 

5,106

15,563

10,910

30,539

43,265

31,710

36,407

Excess of cash flow over initial investment

 

106

5,563

-4,090

5,539

18,265

1,710

1,407

Excess of cash flow over initial investment

 

6

2

7

3

1

4

5

Based on net present value calculations we see that project 5 is most viable, as it has the highest positive net present value. This indicates that project 5 is likely to earn highest profits to the investors. (Adelaja, 2015)

Internal Rate of Return

Internal rate of return is the capital budgeting tool which helps us to calculate the actual percentage of return from a given project. Under this tool the cash flows and cash outflows are equated. Then using the process of interpolation the hidden rate of interest is calculated. The project with the highest IRR is considered as the most viable project. (Seitz & Ellison, 2009)

Project number:

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

1

-5,000

1,000

1,000

1,000

800

800

700

600

600

500

500

PV factor @ 9.55%

 1.000000

 0.912825

 0.833250

 0.760611

 0.694305

 0.633779

 0.578530

 0.528097

 0.482060

 0.440036

 0.401676

PV @ 9.55%

      -5,000

          913

          833

          761

          555

          507

          405

          317

          289

          220

          201

2

-10,000

1,000

2,000

2,000

3,000

3,000

4,000

4,000

2,000

2,000

2,000

PV factor @ 19.13%

 1.000000

 0.839426

 0.704636

 0.591490

 0.496512

 0.416785

 0.349861

 0.293682

 0.246524

 0.206939

 0.173710

PV @ 19.13%

    -10,000

          839

       1,409

       1,183

       1,490

       1,250

       1,399

       1,175

          493

          414

          347

3

-15,000

1,700

1,700

1,700

1,700

1,700

1,700

1,700

1,700

1,700

1,700

PV factor @ 2.34%

 1.000000

 0.977116

 0.954756

 0.932907

 0.911558

 0.890698

 0.870315

 0.850399

 0.830938

 0.811923

 0.793343

PV @ 2.34%

    -15,000

       1,661

       1,623

       1,586

       1,550

       1,514

       1,480

       1,446

       1,413

       1,380

       1,349

4

-25,000

1,000

1,200

3,000

4,000

5,000

6,000

7,000

8,000

9,000

11,000

PV factor @ 12.41%

 1.000000

 0.889624

 0.791431

 0.704077

 0.626364

 0.557228

 0.495724

 0.441008

 0.392331

 0.349028

 0.310503

PV @ 12.41%

    -25,000

          890

          950

       2,112

       2,505

       2,786

       2,974

       3,087

       3,139

       3,141

       3,416

5

-25,000

11,000

10,000

9,000

8,000

7,000

6,000

5,000

4,000

3,000

-5,000

PV factor @ 31.18%

 1.000000

 0.762340

 0.581163

 0.443044

 0.337750

 0.257481

 0.196288

 0.149638

 0.114075

 0.086964

 0.066296

PV @ 31.18%

    -25,000

       8,386

       5,812

       3,987

       2,702

       1,802

       1,178

          748

          456

          261

         -331

6

-30,000

-3,000

10,000

9,000

6,000

6,000

6,000

4,500

4,500

3,000

3,000

PV factor @ 10.27%

 1.000000

 0.906906

 0.822479

 0.745911

 0.676471

 0.613496

 0.556383

 0.504587

 0.457613

 0.415012

 0.376377

PV @ 10.27%

    -30,000

      -2,721

       8,225

       6,713

       4,059

       3,681

       3,338

       2,271

       2,059

       1,245

       1,129

7

-35,000

-9,000

-3,000

6,000

6,000

8,000

12,000

12,000

14,000

14,000

14,000

PV factor @ 9.51%

 1.000000

 0.913142

 0.833828

 0.761403

 0.695269

 0.634880

 0.579735

 0.529381

 0.483400

 0.441412

 0.403072

PV @ 9.51%

    -35,000

      -8,218

      -2,501

       4,568

       4,172

       5,079

       6,957

       6,353

       6,768

       6,180

       5,643

Following are the projects laid down with IRR and Ranks:

Project

IRR

Rank

1

10

5

2

19

2

3

2

7

4

12

3

5

31

1

6

10

4

7

10

6

Therefore based on above calculations we can say that project 5 is the most viable project, with highest IRR of 31%.

Pay Back Period

Pay-back period refers to the time period in which the amount invested is recovered by the investor(Menifield, 2014). Lower the period in which the amount is recovered better it is for the investor. Following is the cumulative cash flows table for the projects which will help us calculate the pay-back period:

Project number:

1

Cumulative Cash Flows

2

Cumulative Cash Flows

3

Cumulative Cash Flows

4

Cumulative Cash Flows

5

Cumulative Cash Flows

6

Cumulative Cash Flows

7

Cumulative Cash Flows

0

-5,000

-5,000

-10,000

-10,000

-15,000

-15,000

-25,000

-25,000

-25,000

-25,000

-30,000

-30,000

-35,000

-35,000

1

1,000

-4,000

1,000

-9,000

1,700

-13,300

1,000

-24,000

11,000

-14,000

-3,000

-33,000

-9,000

-44,000

2

1,000

-3,000

2,000

-7,000

1,700

-11,600

1,200

-22,800

10,000

-4,000

10,000

-23,000

-3,000

-47,000

3

1,000

-2,000

2,000

-5,000

1,700

-9,900

3,000

-19,800

9,000

5,000

9,000

-14,000

6,000

-41,000

4

800

-1,200

3,000

-2,000

1,700

-8,200

4,000

-15,800

8,000

13,000

6,000

-8,000

6,000

-35,000

5

800

-400

3,000

1,000

1,700

-6,500

5,000

-10,800

7,000

20,000

6,000

-2,000

8,000

-27,000

6

700

300

4,000

5,000

1,700

-4,800

6,000

-4,800

6,000

26,000

6,000

4,000

12,000

-15,000

7

600

900

4,000

9,000

1,700

-3,100

7,000

2,200

5,000

31,000

4,500

8,500

12,000

-3,000

8

600

1,500

2,000

11,000

1,700

-1,400

8,000

10,200

4,000

35,000

4,500

13,000

14,000

11,000

9

500

2,000

2,000

13,000

1,700

300

9,000

19,200

3,000

38,000

3,000

16,000

14,000

25,000

10

500

2,500

2,000

15,000

1,700

2,000

11,000

30,200

-5,000

33,000

3,000

19,000

14,000

39,000

Following is the table of payback period:

Project

Pay-back Period

Rank

1

5.57

3

2

4.67

2

3

8.82

7

4

6.69

5

5

2.40

1

6

6.33

4

7

7.21

6

Therefore, based on the calculations, project 5 is the most viable project, as it has the lowest pay-back period of 2.40 years.

Solution 3:

Following is the table, which contains ranking of all the projects based on all the quantitative methods above:

Table of Ranking

Project number:

Based on Cash Flows

Based on NPV

Based on IRR

Based on Pay Back

1

6

6

5

3

2

5

2

2

2

3

7

7

7

7

4

3

3

3

5

5

2

1

1

1

6

4

4

4

4

7

1

5

6

6

Therefore from the above table we can see that based on cash flows project number 7 seems most viable (Rivenbark, Vogt, & Marlowe, 2009). But as we proceed with our quantitative methods we find that project 5 is the most viable under all other quantitative methods. This can be explained logically. In the capital budgeting decision the sum of cash flows do not matter individually. The timing of the cash flow, the required rate of return, the frequency of return, all aspects together help to take a proper decision. Under the NPV, IRR and pay-back methods of evaluation the cash flows are discounted and their present values are used in order to determine the viability of a project. This helps us calculate the benefit generated from each project in terms of value of today. This results in better comparability of various options. Hence helps us to take the correct decision. Therefore, this is the reason the ranking are not same under the methods. (Dayananda, Irons, Harrison, Herbohn, & Rowland, 2008)

Solution 4:

Based on our evaluation above we see that project 5, 4 and 6 are the top most projects with highest ranking under all the quantitative methods. But, since projects 4 and 5 are mutually exclusive; we can select only one form these two. Since project 5 is has better performance than project 4, we opt of project 5. Also, now we need to select the next best available option, which is project number 2. Therefore the three best projects that the company should accept are project number 5, 6 and 2.

References

Adelaja, T. (2015). Capital Budgeting: Investment Appraisal Techniques Under Certainty. Chicago: CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform .

Bierman, H., & Smidt, S. (2010). The Capital Budgeting Decision. Boston: Routledge.

Dayananda, D., Irons, R., Harrison, S., Herbohn, J., & Rowland, P. (2008). Capital Budgeting: Financial Appraisal of Investment Projects. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Menifield, C. E. (2014). The Basics of Public Budgeting and Financial Management: A Handbook for Academics and Practitioners. Lanham, Md.: University Press of America.

Peterson, P. P., & Fabozzi, F. J. (2012). Capital Budgeting. New York, NY: Wiley.

Rivenbark, W. C., Vogt, J., & Marlowe, J. (2009). Capital Budgeting and Finance: A Guide for Local Governments. Washington, D.C.: ICMA Press.

Seitz, N., & Ellison, M. (2009). Capital Budgeting and Long-Term Financing Decisions. New York: Thomson Learning.

Shapiro, A. C. (2007). Capital Budgeting and Investment Analysis. New Jersey: Wiley.

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