Five Points of Architecture is a manifesto of architecture that has been noted by Le Corbusier. The manifesto was authored in L’Esprit Nouveau and the book published by him Vers une architecture. The summary of the five points of architecture are
(1) Supports or Pilotis
(2) Roof gardens
(3) Free design of the ground plan
(4) Horizontal windows
(5) Free design of the façade.
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One of the examples of building in which the five points of architecture has been incorporated is Villa Savoye. The building was the perfect example using the five points of architecture. Five points of Architecture is taught in the schools of architecture all over the world. It must be followed by the architect to construct modern houses in order to provide a healthy condition for the inhabitants of the house. The architectural design portrays historical features. There is huge access to light , sterility , ergonomy and air. The designs are constructed in such a manner so that it serves as a corner store of modern art. The five points of architecture is based on five basic points. First point to be selected to construct a building by using five points of architecture is Pilotis. It is the method in which the buildings are erected. Reinforced concrete is used for erecting the buildings. It is a simple method for creating supports and slabs. The buildings were constructed in perfect order by organizing the pilotis in the form of a grid. There is reflection of classis architecture in architecture. It will bring classic qualities in the modern architectural design. The pilotis or the support of the building was constructed which raised the floor of the building around six feet above the level of the ground. The aim behind this type of construction is that the room’s does not remain in touch with the damp soil of the ground. The same method of construction has been used for the construction of Villa Savoye. But the bedroom constructed for the servants is not above the ground level. This type of construction is unique and interesting as according to other architects and old philosophies, the building will remain attached with the ground level i.e. the level of the earth. The experience of the soil will be on the building. But the five point architecture presents an unique feature of constructing the building few metres above the ground
Figure - Pilotis
Roof gardens were a measure by which the nature was brought closer to the house. Le Corbusier received inspiration from the streamliners. According to this design , the superstructure will be high above the level of the ground. It will provide clear view of the site. These views were applied by Le Corbusier. The roof of the buildings will be open. This will provide a direct view of the nature. An Arcadian atmosphere will be arranged.
Concrete frame construction led to the formation of Free Façade. The walls were made free from construction. This made the design free.
The free plan was developed as a result of construction. However the plan is not limited by construction and the design has become free.
The idea of open plan was formed by various movement of modernism. According to this view architecture does not only divide the space utterly but it allows the space to follow in between the composition of the structure. This form of idea is also known as “promenade architectural”. It is an important feature in which the building is constructed. According to this concept the building is constructed along the staircase. The floors are linked by the ramp which is divided by the staircase.
The effect of Free fracade is seen in the Horizontal windows. The Horizontal windows is considered as an important element of the Le Corbusier crusade. It is a crusade towards providing liberation to the people from the evil of historism. The horizontal windows provides access to big amount of light. It helps in lighting the interior of the house. The outside view can be easily framed with the help of the horizontal windows. This will help the exterior to the interior of the building. Five points of Architecture is taught in the schools of architecture all over the world. It must be followed by the architect to construct modern houses in order to provide a healthy condition for the inhabitants of the house. The architectural design portrays historical features. There is huge access to light , sterility , ergonomy and air.
Buildings were constructed by Le Corbusier for rich clients. The artistic people invested huge amount of money for the construction of house using this form of architecture. This was a priced possession for them which could be shown off to their friends. The ideas of Le Corbusier were put into practice for the construction of large number of villas.
Mimesis can be defined as a philosophical term that has various types of meanings attached to it. The meanings of mimesis are imitation, mimicry and it describes several elements that are non sensual in nature. The term mimesis was associated with the work of art. It was associated with the physical world. Plato interpreted mimesis in a different way. It was considered as a literary function of the ancient Greek society. Mimesis has also been defined as a philosophical term that carries wide range of meanings to it. It is a form of resembling and it is a form of expression. It has been said by Plato that all artistic creation is a form of imitation. It has real existence and it comes from God. Thus a painter, musician , architect are imitators. They imitate and apply their skills dexterously.
From the construction of the buildings by Le Corbusier it is evident that he had ideas of urban planning. His idea of urban planning gets reflected in the project of Voisin. It had a set of free standing towers along the landscape. The approach to this project was same as it was found in Villa Savoye. The Voison project was in a much reduced rate that the Villa Savoye. The reason behind the roof garden is segregation of the garden at the grade from the roof garden. The garden at the terrace is different from the garden at the landscape. Thus the Villa Savoye has interesting features which has been made after proper analysis. However the roofs are not new to the modern form of architecture. The use of roof top garden has been seen in the roof of Fiat Factory in Turin. It is important in the modern form of architecture. It broke from the social conventions of the 19th century. This is a point if manifesto and the point of realization that has been applied in Villa Savoye. The structural system that has been used in Villa Savoye is independent in nature. Apart from the several space that has been constructed by the public. The rest space has been created for the construction of residential area. The concept has been compromised to meet the needs of the households. The screen walls in the Villa Savoye that cannot bear load. This has created separation between the house and the physical landscape. The extension of the landscape of the house is to separate the house from the physical landscape.
Ching, Francis D. K, Architecture, Form, Space & Order (New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1979)
Corbusier, Le, 'Towards A New Architecture. Mineola, NY', Dover Publications, 1986
Hays, K. Michael, Architecture Theory Since 1968 (Cambridge, Mass: The MIT Press, 1998)
Le Corbusier, and Frederick Etchells, Towards A New Architecture (London: Architectural Press, 1946)
The New Zealand Herald, 'David Tsow: Skyscraper Was Ahead Of Its Time - Opinion - NZ Herald News', 2015 <https://www.nzherald.co.nz/opinion/news/article.cfm?c_id=466&objectid=10862664> [accessed 7 January 2015]
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