Foundation For Alcohol Research Education Assessment Answer

Answer:

Introduction

Liquor Amendment Act, 2014 was passed in the year 2014 on the 30th of January. The aim of the amendment was to bring reforms to the existing alcohol related regulations and tackle violence related to alcohol. The amendment was with the goal of restricting alcohol consumption and take away alcohol after the time of 10 pm. The Government was very adamant in implementing the law because there was a significant in the rise of alcohol related crimes. The adherence to the lock out rule has not received wide reception and the reasons have been difficult to point at one. The model law has been very strict in its application stating that there shall be a stop to consumption of alcohol after a specified time. The model law emphasizes on cessation of alcohol after 2 am and it shall be held all around the state and the amendment aimed to ban shots after midnight. The reason for imposing such strict recommendations for lockouts has been to stop alcohol related violence and also promote safety of women and men alike. The promotion of safety is at the backdrop of violence at pubs that had become very prevalent in Australia.

With the rise of small pubs and bars, there has been a rise in the alcohol fuelled violence. There have been many social media posts regarding Australia becoming a matter of joke and embarrassment. The method of curbing people’s entry to pubs saw a different side which was not anticipated by the Government (Sung, 2016). The fight to enter into pubs increased leading to mob violence which got out of hand to control. Melbourne and Sydney were considered 24/7 cities because the nightlife was what made the essence of the city living. With the ban on alcohol and adoption of the lock out rules, the people were made to succumb to the rules. The nightlife of Sydney was full of vigor which attracted tourists from all across the globe. With the lock down, the nightlife of Sydney has gone down the drain and has heavily impacted the economy of the pubs. The lord mayor of Sydney, Clover Moore has been very critical of the lock down rules calling it a “sledgehammer” to the buzzing nightlife and business of Australia. In the opinion of the government officials, the amendment has failed to address the real issue and has beaten around the bush. The amendment was aimed at the high end pubs to renew their license and also the state government arranged for some late night transport for youngsters. In the opinion of the media reports and the interviews of the citizen, the issue of alcohol fuelled violence was not resolved. The approach of the recommendation would have been to research on the areas of the pubs and recommend ways to find a better solution to the ongoing problem (Stockwell et al., 2017). Many people have criticized the new approach of the government in trying to curb the freedom of its citizens (Breetzke & Andersen, 2018).

According to the Medical Journal of Australia, the lock down has immensely helped the people of Sydney as alcohol related crimes have reduced and death arising out of drunk accidents and brawls in pubs have also declined (Homan, 2017). The New South Wales 2014 amendment was incorporated to put a dead stop to alcohol related crimes by reducing access to alcohol in the Sydney’s King Cross and CBD entertainment precinct (Donnelly, Poynton & Weatherburn, 2017) .One punch injury killings were a trigger for the enactment of this policy that wanted to give a fitting response to the assaults that caused death of the youngster (Roth & Angus, 2014). This policy has received criticism for being devoid of any coherent reformative policy in the criminal law (Giancaspro, 2015). The policy does not have any strong ground for the preservation of harmony and seems like a knee jerk reaction to the media campaigns that wanted to restore law and order in the society (Morriss & McCormack, 2016). The legislation delivered a strong message by giving out 16 points that could help combat alcohol fuelled crimes that started striking terror in the hearts of the citizens of Australia. The new one punch law obligates the legislation to give a maximum of 25 years of imprisonment in cases of any assault or accident arising out of intoxication of drugs or alcohol (McKetin et al., 2014). The “assault causing death” is a stringent provision that makes any person guilty of an offence that causes injury or death (Foster et al. 2017).


Background behind the legislation

The legislation seemed like a knee jerk reaction to the media outrage behind the sentencing of Kieran Loveridge for the death of Thomas Kelly. The media outrage intensified and created a stir in Australia. The sentencing catapulted into a strict legal action which again garnered immense reaction from the family, public and the State Government. The proposed bill seemed like a rhetoric that emphasized on the strictness of law and enforceability of the same. The penal populism came up as a concept that spoke at length about how the Government without considering the effects of a law in its entirety, owing to the growing media distrust came up with legislation (Carpenter & Dobkin, 2015). As a critique of penal populism, it is often averred that the media distorts facts and does not deliver the required news that is needed in administering proper laws that have a punitive prevalence. Not only public and media outrage, the family of the affected and the victim have been very vocal about their claims. The family of the victim started a strong campaign against alcohol fuelled violence and how innocent lives are lost due to the failure of the Government to implement laws to safeguard human lives. Among the media houses running campaigns, the Sydney Morning Herald and The Telegraph were in the forefront forcing the NSW Government to act on this immediate crisis (Fileborn, 2016). These one punch laws have been triggered by media houses, especially The Sydney Morning Herald with the heading “Where’s Wally” that wanted to pressurize the Government to implement law and order provision in their legislation.

Relationship between alcohol, drugs and crime

Since time immemorial, theorists and analysts have tried to draw a parallel between drugs and crimes and have come up with various theories to prove that drugs, alcohol have a direct bearing on human behavior (Kypri, 2016).

Selective disinhibition- this theory states that alcohol has a direct bearing on the inhibitions on a human’s psychology. Anyone who is antisocial and refrains from social interaction becomes disinhibited and starts social interaction after intoxication (Zanto & Gazzaley, 2016). This theory was introduced by Robert Parker in the year 1993. Intoxication has a reaction on human brain which constrains them from thinking straight. These constraints can be both active and passive. Active Constraint is when a situation suggests that a human act in offensive ways but does not resort to violence because he has applied active constraint. Passive constraint when resorting to violence does not product any advantage to the person and therefore he finds it more advantageous to resort to antisocial behavior and finds violence an easier option. Cognitive disinhibition is a way a human is deceived into believing that someone’s behavior reflects on their behavior. According to Parker, violence and drugs are directly related. He says that humans take violence as a symbol of status and power. People plan to get drunk so that they can take out the violence, therefore concluding that violence is intentional and planned.

Goldstein’s theory of drug and financial crisis highlights the fact that crime is directly related to financial need and people motivated to purchase alcohol or drug and who are not financially well of resort to violence (Felson & Staff, 2017). According to Gary Becker, addiction is a rational choice because a prudent man is aware of all the reactions that alcohol will trigger and being very well aware of the same, indulges in intoxication. Systemic crime occurs as a result of drug dealing or comes as a result of possession of drugs.

Drugs are crime facilitators the psychopharmacological aspect of drug triggers violence which result in date rape or victim intoxication. Drugs impose violence on others making them act in ways that harm others. The Parker and Cartmill article on drug induced violence says that drugs act as the motivator of crime and make people act in violent ways. This theory is famous as Criminology of mobility (Pickerings, Bosworth & Aas, 2014)

Enrich Goode has researched intensively on the enslavement model and therefore has effectively drawn a parallel between crime and drugs. The enslavement model says that humans becomes slaves to drugs and as a result become violence in cases of withdrawal or lack of alcohol. After becoming addicted to drugs, they become dependent on those and as a result of that they become prone to addiction and violence (Goode, 2016).

Alcohol has a direct bearing on the cognition of humans and it also enhances serotonin and dopamine production leaving them in a condition of confusion. The dopamine functions in a different way inducing the brain to think that drinking is rewarding.  Alcoholics perceive drinking as a reward. Not only alcohol, but marijuana as a drug creates havoc in the minds of people making them believe that human emotions can be controlled and that alcohol induces a feeling of ecstasy (Goode, 2017). Marijuana has psychotropic effects that prove as an impediment to human emotions and also act as an interruption to natural emotions. Opiates try to block pain and also stop humans from feeling any emotions like happiness or sadness. The opiate receptor sites act as receptor of emotions and pain which are blocked by the opiates. Intoxicated behavior has a long history even before it became famous in its potent form. The intoxicated behavior is caused a result of reinforcement of negative behavior.

EXPECTANCY THEORY

The expectancy theory says that humans associate some expectation from drugs. When these expectations are not met, they tend to deviate from normal behavior and get embroiled in violence (Akers, 2017). This expectancy of violence as a result of alcohol drugs has been very profoundly explained.

Therefore, the relation between drug use and violence has been etched in history since time immemorial. There has been an emerging trend in trying to understand crime with age and it has been seen that the ones who have started early have seen the effects of violence in their adulthood. One way to reduce drinking is to attach regret with deinking, so that whenever anyone starts to drink, they associate it with regret and slowly start to dissociate themselves from alcohol.

Aslinger in the year 1937 tried to find a correlation between human temper and drugs. He claimed that people who were accustomed to the use of marijuana and consumed it on a daily basis went into a delirious daze and were more potent to violent temper. He was of the opinion that after the intake of marijuana, people lost control of their senses and temporarily was filled with rage and anger. With the administration of marijuana, humans are more liable to violence and can commit more crime and inflict terror. Mental deterioration can be a result of prolonged use of narcotic substances and can also affect the cognition of humans. Antisocial behavior, failure to mix well in the society, inability to think logically are a few results of drugs and can also take away the normal thinking habit of humans.

Legislature has always taken drug crimes seriously and has worked in that direction to find ways to curb the violence. The Narcotics Act of 1956 was one of the most stringent and strict piece of legislation that wanted to put a stop to drug related crimes. The laws were so strict that parole was allowed for first offenders and even death sentence became a norm in cases when minors were injected with narcotics. The need for strict legislature was felt not only in Australia but also in countries like Australia. Nixon in his speech had said that drug abuse is the first enemy recognized by the people America that is capable of ruining lives. In Nixon’s opinion, there was only one way to deal with this hazard and it was to nip the enemy at the bud and create laws that drug abuse becomes a thing of the past. To reduce this war, the journey has to start from home. Every youth needs to be made aware of the ill effects of drug abuse and overdose and to truly achieve success, it is imperative to come up with strong legislations that eradicate this substance of abuse from the roots. Taking the words of Nixon forward and applying the theories above mentioned it is easy to understand the chain of events and see how drugs trigger violence in people.


In understanding the impact of drugs on human psychology, it is important to examine the nexus between the etiological effect of drugs and creation of violence. There are three ways to examine the relation between drugs and violence- the psychomarcological, as en economical compulsion and the systemic (Goldstein, 1985). When drug misuse and criminal behavior is studied, it is done so keeping in mind one or two drugs but the true interrelation should be done by studying various types of drugs and understanding what one type of drug can impose on the minds of a person. Disaggregated data and drug misuse have a serious effect on the psychology of a human mind (Bennett & Holloway, 2005). This article has a different take on drug consumption and societal labeling that is casually attributed to drug users. The article talks at length about the method of survey that is undertaken by Government authorities as this is a flawed method that does not yield accurate results. With the stigmatization of drug users do not ensure them to self report themselves (Stevens, 2008) This article promotes alcohol policy believing that it is an important and essential tool in prevention of crimes related to drug misuse. Concurring with the already existing views of scholars that link alcohol abuse and violence, the author is of the opinion that alcohol is a causal element in violence and has a very strong impact on human psychology (Parker, 2004). State intervention with the help of strong legislative measures has the potential of becoming effective violence control tools. The author after conducting intensive research and recounting personal experiences of survivors have come to the conclusion that alcohol has a big role to play in promoting violence and that the only way to deal with it is to come up alcohol policies that will serve as a shield against violence (Parker & Auerhahn, 1998).

Therefore understanding 2 am lock out and one-punch legislation in the backdrop of the nexus between alcohol and violence, the relation has been made aptly clear by scholarly authors. The theme underpinning this legislation is the correlation between alcohol and crimes and how they are directly proportional in their relation. The theories revolve around reducing the conflicts and accidents that arise out of alcohol inflicted violence. The aim of the state legislature is to put a restriction on alcohol consumption to ensure the safety of drinkers in Australia. In the aftermath of the violence in pubs that claimed the life of a young guy, and resultant media outrage, the collective view of the legislature was to regulate alcohol consumption and bring safety. Relying on the above mentioned theories that propagate the same view of an inter-relation between alcohol and violence, it seems justified that the steps taken are towards putting a restriction to alcohol consumption because that seems the only prudent recourse to stop violence resulting from alcohol. Though the critics point towards the inconsistency of the legislation with criminal law principles and states that the basic purpose is not meant regarding safety, the intention of the legislation has to be kept in mind. The intention is to ensure state accountability and promote a safe and healthy environment.

Reference

Akers, R. (2017). Social learning and social structure: A general theory of crime and deviance. Routledge.

Bennett, T., & Holloway, K. (2005). Disaggregating the relationship between drug misuse and crime. Australian & New Zealand Journal of Criminology, 38(1), 102-121.

Breetzke, G. D., & Andresen, M. A. (2018). The spatial stability of alcohol outlets and crime in post?disaster Christchurch, New Zealand. New Zealand Geographer.

Carpenter, C., & Dobkin, C. (2015). The minimum legal drinking age and crime. Review of economics and statistics, 97(2), 521-524.

Donnelly, N., Poynton, S., & Weatherburn, D. (2017). The effect of lockout and last drinks laws on non-domestic assaults in Sydney: An update to September 2016. BOCSAR NSW Crime and Justice Bulletins, 12.

Felson, R. B., & Staff, J. (2017). Committing economic crime for drug money. Crime & Delinquency, 63(4), 375-390.

Fileborn, B. (2016). Reclaiming the Night-Time Economy: Unwanted Sexual Attention in Pubs and Clubs. Springer.

FOSTER, J., HARRISON, A., BROWN, K., MANTON, E., WILKINSON, C., & FERGUSON, A. (2017). ANYTIME, ANYPLACE, ANYWHERE?. Addressing the physical availability of alcohol in Australia and the UK. London and Canberra: Institute of Alcohol Studies and the Foundation for Alcohol Research and Education.

Giancaspro, M. (2015). Late night lockout laws: Evaluating responses to alcohol-fuelled violence. Alternative Law Journal, 40(2), 118-122.

Goldstein, P. J. (1985). The drugs/violence nexus: A tripartite conceptual framework. Journal of drug issues, 15(4), 493-506.

Goode, E. (2016). Deviant behavior. Routledge.

Goode, E. (2017). Marijuana. Routledge.

Homan, S. (2017). Lockout’laws or ‘rock out’laws? Governing Sydney’s night-time economy and implications for the ‘music city. International Journal of Cultural Policy, 1-15.

Kypri, K. (2016). Science, politics, and the play of chance in recent Australian drinking law changes. Drug and alcohol review, 35(6), 657-660.

McKetin, R., Livingston, M., Chalmers, J., & Bright, D. (2014). The role of off?licence outlets in binge drinking: a survey of drinking practices last Saturday night among young adults in Australia. Drug and alcohol review, 33(1), 51-58.

Morriss, G., & McCormack, J. (2016). Golden gavel: NSW young lawyers golden gavel 2016: Survival of the funniest. LSJ: Law Society of NSW Journal, (23), 38.

Parker, R. N. (2004). Alcohol and violence: connections, evidence and possibilities for prevention. Journal of Psychoactive Drugs, 36(sup2), 157-163.

Parker, R. N., & Auerhahn, K. (1998). Alcohol, drugs, and violence. Annual review of sociology, 24(1), 291-311.

Pickering, S., Bosworth, M., & Aas, K. F. (2014). The criminology of mobility (pp. 382-395). London: Routledge.

Roth, L., & Angus, C. (2014). Liquor licensing restrictions to address alcohol-related violence in NSW: 2008 to 2014. NSW Parliamentary Research Service.

Stevens, A. (2008). Weighing up crime: The overestimation of drug-related crime. Contemporary Drug Problems, 35(2-3), 265-290.

Stockwell, T., Zhao, J., Sherk, A., Callaghan, R. C., Macdonald, S., & Gatley, J. (2017). Assessing the impacts of Saskatchewan's minimum alcohol pricing regulations on alcohol?related crime. Drug and alcohol review, 36(4), 492-501.

Sung, H. E. (2016). alcohol and crime. The Blackwell Encyclopedia of Sociology.

Zanto, T. P., & Gazzaley, A. (2016). The term attention is multifaceted and often refers to a set of cognitive processes that transcends a single definition or overarching theory (Parasuraman, 1998). The goal of this chapter is to review aspects of selective atten-tion and its neural substrates in the context of changes that occur with normal aging. Selective attention refers to goal-directed focus on task-relevant information while ignoring other irrelevant information. This chapter is subdivided according to the type of information that .... Cognitive Neuroscience of Aging: Linking Cognitive and Cerebral Aging, 207.

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