The globalization has many facets and the different schools of sociology focus on them in either positive or negative light. The sociological approach differs from one school to another and they can be categorized in three main varieties. These are based on the positive, negative and neutral views on the changes wrought in the sociological order. The schools that see the globalization in positive light are called the hyper globalists. The ones who focus on the negative perspectives of the globalizations are called the sceptical. The ones who view it as an unstoppable change neither positive nor negative are called the transformationalist. Therefore, according to Macionis and Plummer (2012) these “three ways” are the basic features of the different sociological approaches that differ in their opinions and features and focus on globalization.
This perspective is the view that sees globalization as a positive change in the sociological dynamics of the world. According to Macionis and Plummer (2012), the features of this school of thought are that they see the globalization as an unstoppable positive force and the benefits of the global economy over the limited ones that are imposed upon the citizens of the different nation states. This school of thought predicts the demise of nation states as more and more of the economic boundaries set by the nation states are being destroyed by the inclusion of the different nation states in the global economy (Nash, 2000).
As for the benefits and downfalls of the approach, the hyper globalist support the thought that some countries will benefit more than the others in this new economic structure but even the losers in scenario according to them will be better off that they were before as all countries will have competitive advantage over the others in some way and no matter how insignificant it is, it will benefit them in the long run (Macionis and Plummer, 2012).
According to Held and McGrew (2003) the sceptical have cause to worry as the new order of society rising from the globalization is more fragmented and regionalised and in one way no different than before. Only the boundaries are being redefined in this approach. In their opinion the golden age of globalization is long past and the current approach is a general regionalization at best (Macionis and Plummer, 2012). The example is given by them is the third world and their exploitation which is becoming even more marginalised in the new economic structure.
The globalization approach is based on the global capitalism which is defined by the rise of multinational corporations but this statement is also disputed by the sceptical (Macionis and Plummer, 2012). In their opinion the multinational corporations and their benefits are tied closely to their home states and their benefits gained from other regions provide more support for their home states than the others.
Social epidemiology is the branch of epidemiology that defines the determinants of the effect of social structure on the health of the population. This is the connection between social conditions in a specific society and the health of the society where the reasons of a specific health condition can be determined by the social condition and other factors (Macionis and Plummer 2012).
The absolute poverty is based on the absolute level and does not depend on the level of income in the society and this remains the same for all the countries and does not change over time. The relative poverty, on the other hand is determined by comparing the average wealth or income of the society and below that level by a set margin is caller relative poverty (Macionis and Plummer 2012). This relative poverty is different for different societies as the level of income and social standard is different in different locations and also change over time.
Environmental racism is based on the economic condition of the people and the definition says that the title is self-explanatory. This kind of racism does not degrade or take away rights of the people of a particular group. They are forced by the economic conditions to live in environmentally degrading conditions and the effect is evident on their health. As per the opinion of Macionis and Plummer (2012), this type of racism is based on the forcing people through economic means to deprive them of their rights to live in a healthy environment so this is compared with racism.
Banchoff, T. (2008). Religious pluralism, globalization, and world politics. New York:
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Held, D. and McGrew, A. (2003). The global transformations reader. Cambridge, UK: Polity
Macionis J.&Plummer K, (2012) Sociology: A Global introduction,5th edition Education,
Macionis, J. and Plummer, K. (2012). Sociology. Harlow, England: Pearson/Prentice Hall.
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