This assignment is based on the issue of Cancer in London region of United Kingdom. Cancer is a deadly disease of human body. The disease of cancer can spread from one small to the whole parts of the body of a human being. As per the definition of NHS or National Health Service of United Kingdom, cancer is a condition where cell of specific part grows in a body and reproduce without any control. There are 200 different types of cancer in the world. However, it has been calculated that over 2.5 million people of United Kingdom are affected by several types of Cancer. In London, four most common types of cancer are breast cancer, prostate cancer, and lung cancer and bowel cancer. Around one in four (25%) people in UK face disability or poor health after getting the treatment of cancer. However, the population of London is dependent on high lifestyle. The number of population in London is increasing day by day. London is the smallest contributor of the economic output of United Kingdom. However, the incidents of crime in London is very high than the other regions of UK. Most common cancers among men are prostate, lung, colorectal. The most cancers among women are breast, colorectal and lung cancers within the premise of London (Londoncancer.org, 2016).
Most of the older people are affected by cancer in London. However, this disease can develop at any age of a human being. People who live in deprived areas can be affected by cancer. Smoking is a major factor of cancer in this region. The lifestyle affects everyone. In spite of lavish lifestyle, human being can be affected by several types of cancer. It has been discussed that nine among ten cancers are caused by external and environmental factors. External environmental factors are involved in drinking, smoking, air pollution and sun pollution in the London. However, lifestyle is one of the major factors that can affect people by cancer. A person can prevent cancer by cutting down the cigarettes (Cancer Research UK, 2015).
It has been stated that the practice and behavior as well as lifestyle have affected many people. Cigarette smoking and excessive drinking can become the cause of cancer. Men and women both can be affected by cancer.
Interest in cancer has grown during the last decade as infectious diseases have increasingly being controlled. The occurrence of cancer is increasing among the people in UK. Cancer is an accidental formation of tissue built in the same manner as any other part of an organism. Epidemiology is concerned with groups of people (Borak, 2012). These studies not only concern who have the disease but also those who have not. The epidemiologist is concerned with distribution of illness in the population. The occurrence of human cancer, noting differences between males and females, between people of different ages, between populations are studied (Boyle & Leong, 2012). Epidemiology tries to answer why some people are at greater risk than others. Epidemiologists search for a relationship between two factors. The first called exposure refers to any factor that can affect an individual's health, such factors include environmental agents. The second factor is itself the disease. Carcinogenic compounds have been identified in tobacco smoking by epidemiologists. Epidemiology is able to determine a cause and a means of prevention. Cancer, if detected in the early stages, is curable. However, if detected in the later stages is not curable. The doctors all over the world are in constant efforts to invent the relevant drugs for cancer. It has also been found that people residing in certain parts of the world are more prone to disease (Gration, 2014). There are many awareness programs to raise the level of consciousness among general people so that they do not commit mistakes in the future. London, the capital of UK, has witnessed rise in the level of cancer patients (Nhs.uk, 2016).
In UK however, it has been found that the risk of cancer is most profound between the ages 30 to 50.This is the time when people are most prone to the disease. The probability of survival of this disease is small (Palmer, 2012). Medical care cannot be solely relied upon in case of cancer. Cancer epidemiology aims at early detection of the disease. If the disease is not detected early, it signifies disaster in terms of health of the respective individuals. Controlled experiments are carried out by individuals who help in prevention of the disease. The impact of epidemiology has been profound. Various causes and effects of cancer are studied by epidemiology. The levels of application of occupational epidemiology are surveillance to describe illness occurrence, generation and testing of a hypothesis and evaluation of an intervention. Cancer is such a disease that is feared by most people (Poole, 2014). Use of tobacco is being banned by most young people in UK. Epidemiology is such a process which goes on to dominate the different aspects of persons’ health. The process always targets good health and cancer free world. Since the ultimate remedy of cancer has still not been discovered, efforts are being made to increase preventive measures. By increasing preventive measures, the sense of awareness had been increased among the people of UK which would lead to better life and health.
The health is considered as the mental, physical, and social state. In defining health, Nakaya (2014) mentioned that the maintenance of the mental, social, and physical well-being is very much difficult. The study is reflecting the influence of the bio-psycho social factor on cancer patients in London. The health disease usually gives rise to the physiological stress of the human being (Step et al. 2013). It is to be noted the role of the hypothesized personality is much significant in determining the health of the cancer patients (Jones, 2012). The potential personality trait of the cancer patient usually deals with the psychological stress, which signifies the growth or the development of the disease. In the year of 1962, the first modern study survey has been conducted by Kissen and Eyesenck regarding the personality traits of the cancer patients (Cancerresearchuk.org, 2016). The report obtained from the conduction survey highlights that the patients who have been suffering from the lung cancer are mainly extravagated rather than neurotic. In keeping concentration on such aspect, it has been seen that the risk of the cancer development is much higher on extraverts (Guzys & Arnott, 2014). These people are at the risk of higher level, which seeks stimulations and usually suffers from stress. On the other hand, the decreasing standard of the neuroticism can increase the chances of the cancer development (Butow et al. 2012). The reason behind the increasing rate of the cancer disease is the patients usually tend to possess several emotional attributes, which eventually accumulate the emotional stress. The stressful emotion consumes the immunity factor and endocrine function of the patients’ body.
It is to be indicated that the stress can cause an enormous number of health issues. However, the influence of the bio-psychological stress plays the most significant role in developing the cancer disease. In the year of 2007, the research survey conducted by the team of London Assembly Investigation group has informed that almost 280,000 people in UK are diagnosed with cancer each year. Most of the women of the population have been suffering from breast cancer in London (Mockford et al. 2012). The research programs have been conducted with the assimilations of clinical trials. Previously, cancer was considered as the cause of death, and the chances of survival from such disease were very less. However, the survival rates have become steady since past few years (Pintoâ€Gouveia et al. 2014). It is to be indicated that the relation between the psychological stress and cancer disease has been much in concern since past few decades. The psychological factors usually create the significant in diversified patients (Puts et al. 2012). The significance of such influence is mainly affecting the age, social circumstances, personalities, factual ignorance, and other attributes of the patients (Step et al. 2013). The imagination that the patients usually get during the period leads them towards unpleasant zones (Mockford et al. 2012). It is evident that the term ‘cancer’ is much terrifying for the human being, and many of the people consider the term as the death sentenced. However, in this revolutionized world, the imagination is quite illogical (Pintoâ€Gouveia et al. 2014). Those who have been suffering from such disease eventually start getting several mental blockages as soon as they are aware of their illness. Therefore, it is very much important to appoint the skilled physician who can anticipates and deals with such factors wisely.
It has been seen that the common area and the age of the patients are the most important aspects considering the effects of psychological attributes. When the patient gets to know about their illness due to the cancer disease, the secrecy and low mentality take place within the mind of the patient (Jones, 2012). Moreover, when women become the victim of breasts cancer, they usually hide the illness due to shame. The psychological boundaries work here as the pullback, which creates the serious nature among the patients (Step et al. 2013). On the other aspect, age-related matters are considered as one of the major areas that are affected by the bio psycho social factors. The interaction between the health care professionals and the elderly patients is needed to be much in concern (Butow et al. 2012). It is to be indicated that the societal stigma can cripple the self-esteem of the elderly patients and brings changes in their behavior. Old people usually depend on the visual and aesthetic markers (Puts et al. 2012). In most of the time, the old people get several health offenses like frailty, hearing acuity, vocal tremors, and poor eye sights. In such cases, the misinterpretation of their health condition can be embarrassing for both the patients and doctor.
During the emergence of the misconceptions, the advice of the doctors is misinterpreted, as the family of the patients expects to be polite. However, the self-advocacy is one of the best solutions to avoid such misinterpretations. The cooperation with the health professionals can address the issue more accurately and accordingly can be resolved (Guzys & Arnott, 2014). The abrupt imagination may occur during this period, but it can be dealt with the positive attitudes. Cancer is a disease, which can be diminished and the patients can live a long life. The conflicts of the psychological hazards can lead the patient towards more mental and physical traumatized situations (Nakaya, 2014). Therefore, it is very much important to consult the physicians who can wisely deal with the matter and inspire the patients for their speedy recovery.
Cancer is the biggest cause of death in London. It is recorded from the previous record that the number of people died in London every year because of cancer is about 280,000. The risk of occurring disease is mostly seen in the communities and the deprived families. The survival rate in the deprived families is lowest among the others. The amount of information required to be provided to the communities, families regarding cancer prevent, and treatment is not sufficient in London.
The current treatment of cancer is very much difficult to identify, as it is different in various stages. However, there are several types of cancer in the world, and it cannot be told that which type of cancer will affect the people in which of the time. The process of the cancer diagnosis depends on the stage and type of cancer. Most of the cancers those are diagnose in London are takes place according to the symptom. The primary care is the most complex diagnosis process than others in the cancer treatment. Department of Health’s Cancer Reform Strategy and Early Diagnosis Initiative take the interest in supporting several types of research, in the current years regarding the diagnosis of cancer in the previous stage. The Royal College of General Practitioners that provides the primary care for the cancer diagnosis conducts some programs. These programs become so much useful for the people of the lower community and the predicted families in case of getting the information diagnosis of cancer in a very primary care.
General practitioners (GP) of London collect detail information from the cancer treatment regarding the ongoing care and the needed care in different hospitals. Among all of the information gathered by GP, one-fifth will get the special care from the specialists and the others information are regarding the late effects. The advices that are given by the professionals to the cancer patients in the primary stage are different from person to person. For example, 51% of advises given by the specialists results in side effects; philological symptoms have taken place to 56% of advice; and the lifestyle has been affected regarding 55% of help. There is very few (30%) number of information that concerning the finance and work of the people. GPs are mostly capable of providing the advice for changing and improving the lifestyle of the people and very less confidence in the case of providing advises regarding the work and financial activities of the people.
There are several communities those are engaged in health care activities in London. These communities are such as health-care forums, service user networks, trained programs (Dudley Primary Care Trust’s Expert Patients Program) and volunteering. The community engagement has been involved with the different evaluation of services. Different courses are provided by the Commonwealth involvement in the case of improving health care service in the country and reducing the effects of health issues. The information that is supplied by the Commonwealth relationship is different for the different level of cancer. The information that is provided to the people is about how they can plan their lifestyle. Some options and ideas are also given to them, and the feedback regarding the ideas is taken to provide the better process of training. The fund that is generated for the community and health care activities are by collecting money from the public and organizations. These methods will improve the awareness of the London population regarding the events and symptoms of cancer and provide them the options for preventing the health issues.
On the other hand, it can be stated that every government and non government organization should provide effective websites for the common mass. The website should contain proper information about the cancer. People can get adequate information about the cause and effect of cancer from the website. In the age of technology, one should utilize the effective sources of internet.
Health Inequalities Intervention Tool present in London is responsible for reducing the inequalities in the country and provides all the information of cancer to the people for every status. This tool collects all the information of the population and the members present in their families, provide them the information about securing their health and prevent various diseases. Moreover, the moral and birth weight of all of the people are collected by the community and provide powerful medicines and required resources that may help them in the case of keeping them secure in the unhealthy environment. Regular treatments of cancer are also provided by the Health Inequalities Intervention Tool to the lower community people and take a good care of their health.
Two cancer system such as London Cancer Alliance (LCA) and London Cancer (LC) are integrated into London and are responsible for providing efficient care to the cancer patient of the country. Both of these services together take the responsible for the London trust and the cancer services. It is also noticed that most of the patients in London are from the inadequate facility that the other patients of England. There are about 63 trusts in London and among all of the London trusts; performance of 10 of the trusts is lowest among all. The results had fallen to 20% of those ten trusts among all. Furthermore, it is also noticed that among the lowest 10, one is from the capital. On the other hand, the result that is collected from the Cancer Patient Experience Survey, states that according to the survey conducted from 97% of total respondents i.e. 71,793, 54% has reviewed the service as excellent, 34% has given right, and 34% has given well. Therefore, in all total it can be told that the services provided by the communities and hospital present in London take a good care of all of the people in the country. Every organization should provide effective information about the characteristics and symptoms of cancer.
From the above study, it can be concluded that cancer is a deadly disease. The effect of the illness is very terrible for a human being. The number of population is increasing day by day in London. With the growing population of London, the rate of cancer is also increasing. There are different factors those can affect the people of London to become a victim of cancer. Especially, the lifestyle has become the cause of cancer among men and women of London. Excessive rate of smoking and drinking have become the most significant reason for cancer. However, there are many initiatives from the side of government and nongovernment organization. Different types of websites have also been introduced to communicate with the people regarding the cause and effect of cancer. Various groups have also taken the initiative to talk with the people regarding cancer for providing the better condition of health and wellbeing of people. However, it has also been noticed that different communities are engaged in the aspect of care among the population of London. It has been noticed that with the help of the various websites and information people can get adequate information about this deadly disease.
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