ICTSUS601 Integrate sustainability in ICT planning and design project

UNIT INTRODUCTION

This resource covers the unit ICTSUS601 - Integrate sustainability in ICT planning and design projects.

This unit describes the skills and knowledge required to integrate sustainability concepts and policies into information and communications technology (ICT) planning and design projects. These projects typically involve upgrades of equipment hardware and software or new installations of next generation networks (NGN) using emerging technologies.

It applies to individuals who have high level specialist technical skills and knowledge in optical communications and IT networks using internet protocol (IP) systems.

No licensing, legislative or certification requirements apply to this unit at the time of publication.

About This Resource

This resource brings together information to develop your knowledge about this unit. The information is designed to reflect the requirements of the unit and uses headings to makes it easier to follow.

You should read through this resource to develop your knowledge in preparation for your assessment. At the back of the resource are a list of references you may find useful to review.

As a student it is important to extend your learning and to search out textbooks, internet sites, talk to people at work and read newspaper articles and journals which can provide additional learning material.

Your trainer may include additional information and provide activities, PowerPoint slide presentations, and assessments in class to support your learning.

About Assessment

Throughout your training we are committed to your learning by providing a training and assessment framework that ensures the knowledge gained through training is translated into practical on the job improvements.

You are going to be assessed for:

  • Your performance and knowledge using written and practical activities that apply to a workplace environment.
  • Your ability to apply your learning to the workplace.
  • Your ability to recognise common principles and actively use these on the job.

You will receive an overall result of Competent or Not Yet Competent for the assessment of this unit. The assessment is a competency based assessment, which has no pass or fail. You are either competent or not yet competent. Not Yet Competent means that you still are in the process of understanding and acquiring the skills and knowledge required to be marked competent.

The assessment process is made up of a number of assessment methods. You are required to achieve a satisfactory result in each of these to be deemed competent overall.

All of your assessment and training is provided as a positive learning tool. Your trainer/assessor will guide your learning and provide feedback on your responses to the assessment. For valid and reliable assessment of this unit, a range of assessment methods will be used to assess practical skills and knowledge.

Your assessment may be conducted through a combination of the following methods:

  • Written Activity
  • Case Study
  • Observation
  • Practical tasks
  • Short answer questions
  • Third Party Report

The assessment tool for this unit should be completed within the specified time period following the delivery of the unit. If you feel you are not yet ready for assessment, discuss this with your trainer/assessor.

To be successful in this unit, you will need to relate your learning to your workplace. You may be required to demonstrate your skills and be observed by your assessor in your workplace environment. Some units provide for a simulated work environment, and your trainer and assessor will outline the requirements in these instances.

ELEMENTS AND PERFORMANCE CRITERIA

1. Prepare to produce ICT architecture design

1.1 Obtain the client’s business specifications and business requirements from appropriate person

1.2 Review specifications and requirements to identify the type of ICT network and network specifications required

1.3 Consult with key stakeholders to identify their requirements

1.4 Assess business problems, opportunities and objectives, and confirm details with appropriate person

2. Produce preliminary ICT network architecture design

2.1 Ascertain technical requirements, including hardware, software and network elements according to specifications

2.2 Select software solutions to suit business platform

2.3 Develop preliminary physical network diagrams as a preface to architecture blueprint

2.4 Produce a document on the possible impact of the network design on the business requirements

3. Evaluate preliminary

3.1 Predict forecast traffic demands, and impact on

design and likely performance network design, from current and future demand using forecast demands requirements

  1. Finalise network design and obtain approval
    • Benchmark design using expected performance parameters
    • Review design’s likely performance profile
    • Determine costs involved with a range of supplier products
    • Produce an evaluation report on predicted performance and costs of the network architecture

design, addressing business specifications and recommendations

  • Review benchmarks, requirements and final design

proposed

  • Determine support and training requirements needed
  • Obtain latest technical specifications and pricing by contacting possible vendors
  • Document network design and present documentation to appropriate person for approval
  • Obtain sign off on final business solution

PERFORMANCE AND KNOWLEDGE EVIDENCE

This describes the essential knowledge and skills and their level required for this unit.

Performance Evidence

Evidence of ability to:

  • Adapt technologies to specified technical solutions
  • Use site design software and hardware
  • Evaluate client specifications against accepted industry practices
  • Produce technical designs from business specifications
  • Analyse feedback from client and make proposal adjustments
  • Apply design concepts to business solutions
  • Produce technical reports
  • Make recommendations and offer optimum design solutions.

Note: If a specific volume or frequency is not stated, then evidence must be provided at least once.

Knowledge Evidence

To complete the unit requirements safely and effectively, the individual must:

  • Summarise principles of the following technologies:
    • Access networks o Core networks
    • Information communications technologies (ICT) network topologies o Mobile cellular networks o Network protocols and operating systems o Optical networks and principles o Radio frequency (RF) technologies and principles
  • Radio frequency identification (RFID) hardware and software
  • Explain what is meant in the ICT sector by business processes
  • Explain compatibility issues and resolution procedures
  • Summarise configuration of internet protocol (IP) networks
  • Outline desktop applications and operating systems
  • Summarise security protocols, standards and data encryption.

ASSESSMENT CONDITIONS

Gather evidence to demonstrate consistent performance in conditions that are safe and replicate the workplace. Noise levels, production flow, interruptions and time variances should be typical of those experienced in the telecommunications networks engineering field of work and include access to:

  • A site for design work
  • Client functional requirements
  • Business specifications
  • Database software
  • Simulation software
  • Organisational guidelines
  • A network or computer layout
  • Site design software and hardware
  • Information on a range of ICT business solutions.

Assessors of this unit must satisfy the requirements for assessors in applicable vocational education and training legislation, frameworks and/or standards.

PRE-REQUISITES

This unit must be assessed after the following pre-requisite unit:

There are no pre-requisites for this unit.

Topic 1 – Prepare to produce ICT architecture design

Welcome to the unit ICTTEN611- Produce An ICT Network Architecture Design

This unit describes the skills and knowledge required to compile and evaluate business specifications from a client, and produce a set of architecture design solutions to cater for present and future forecast demands.

It applies to individuals working in the field who carry out design and implementation of technical solutions of information communications technology (ICT) networks, employed by telecommunications and information technology networking provisioning companies specialising in integrating converging and emerging technologies of ICT networks.

No licensing, legislative or certification requirements apply to this unit at the time of publication.

In this unit you will learn how to:

  • Prepare to produce ICT architecture design
  • Produce preliminary ICT network architecture design
  • Evaluate preliminary design and likely performance using forecast demands Finalise network design and obtain approval

Let’s begin!

Obtain the client’s business specifications and business requirements from appropriate person

When preparing to produce a suitable ICT architecture design for a complex business client it will be necessary to ensure that a range of information is obtained from the client in order to ensure that all designs will meet the client’s business specifications and requirements.

ICT network architecture design

An ICT network is a complete Information and Communications Technology system, network and framework for an organisation and will cover all communications systems technology, software and hardware across the organisation. It is essential that the ICT system for a particular organisation is matched specifically to a client’s needs and their related business requirements.

ICT architecture design is the design of the full framework of hardware, software and networking components to ensure that all business tasks and operations are able to be successfully catered for.

Client

Client may include:

  • External organisations
  • ICT company
  • Individuals
  • Internal departments
  • Internal employees
  • Service industry

Business specifications

Business specifications may include:

  • Budget allocation: This is the amount of money that the organisation has set aside for the creation of the ICT network architecture and its related designs.
  • Budget costs estimate: This is the estimated cost of the program and the information that was used in order to achieve this.
  • Current system functionality: It is important to have a strong understanding of the current ICT system including its challenges and benefits.
  • Future plan: Future plans in relation to ICT management, other business goals and requirements may need to be included in the ICT plan.
  • Growth forecast: This is the forecasted amount of growth that the organisation may be expecting.
  • Technical requirements: The technical requirements of an ICT network are the parameters of what the system is able to achieve and be used for.
  • Timeline: This is the amount of time and stages that the ICT network development and implementation program is expected to take.
  • User problem statement: This is a range of information that pertains to the problems and issues that users are having with their current system.

Business requirements

Business requirements may include:

  • Business application
  • Business plan
  • Existing system
  • Mission statement
  • Nature of the business
  • Network or people in the organisation

Model of business framework to be considered in network design:

i

Obtain information from appropriate person

When preparing to conduct designing and planning operations for an organisation it will be necessary that a range of research is conducted in order to allow for the identification of appropriate personnel that business information may be obtained from. It will be necessary to create a list of all of the information that is required and then make contact with the appropriate person in order to commence the systematic collection of this information.

Review specifications and requirements to identify the type of ICT network and network

specifications required

Once the range of business information, specifications and requirements have been collected it will be necessary to ensure that they are carefully reviewed in order to identify the type of ICT network and network specifications that are likely to be required in order to meet these needs.

ICT network

ICT network may include:

  • Access Network
  • broadband network
  • Core network
  • customer network
  • Internet
  • Intranet
  • Multimedia
  • Radio
  • RFID
  • Security
  • Switching
  • Telecommunications
  • Transmission
  • Voice, video and data

Review specifications and requirements to identify the type of network that is required

It will be necessary to conduct a systematic and methodological review of all of the collected business specifications and requirements and break them down one by one in order to enable efficient and effective planning of the ICT network architecture.

Analyse current actions against current needs

In determining and proposing the needs for the network you will need to collect and analyse a range of information from the organisation to determine the gap between the current situation and the desired situation.

Information will need to be collected on:

  • Current policies and procedures
  • Current risks and contingencies
  • Errors and issues arising from current policies and procedures
  • Quantitative Data Regarding Business performance
  • Qualitative data regarding business performance
  • Future Investment and Expenditure needs in relation to ICT

Once this gap has been ascertained then you can begin to develop options for how to close this gap. With all business options there will be costs, benefits and risks involved. To support effective change proposals, it is important to demonstrate that all of these factors have been considered information explaining them should be provided so that appropriate decisions can be made.

A well-written change proposal will contain the following sections:

  • An introduction and explanation of the key points
  • Reasons that the proposal is being made
  • Options to select from
  • Risks and contingencies
  • Impacts on business
  • Conclusions and recommendations

Consult with key stakeholders to identify their requirements

When developing an, ICT network architecture, it is important that a range of individuals from all stakeholder groups from the organisation are involved. It is important to ensure that a range of key stakeholders and groups are involved in the consultation process when ICT network designs are being developed that may be relevant to them or impact on them in some way.

This will enable a broad and varied view of how the company can most successfully reach its goals in relation to the management of technology and communication and will ensure that the network design meets the needs of the stakeholders and it tailored correctly to the company.

To create something that aims to meet the needs of a specific group without asking them what their key concerns and needs are would be putting the company at great risk of creating strategies or a network that may not meet these needs at all.

Stakeholders

Stakeholders may include:

  • Development team
  • Project team
  • Sponsor
  • User

It is essential that we understand each of the groups of people that the network architecture is designed to aid and assist. It will be necessary to consult in order to gain a range of different insights from different areas of the organisation.

Raw data related to matters of the ICT network should be analysed in consultation with key groups and other stakeholders to identify the companies’ current position on a range of different factors relating to the information and communications technology management within the organisation.

Target areas for the company will need to be decided upon and then objectives and goals will need to be determined. Only then can the actual network design begin to be developed. It is important to ensure that you also have a strategy for evaluating the success of each portion of the network design so that it may be implemented and then monitored successfully.

Consultation can take place in many different forms and should be varied to ensure that you are collecting the full breadth of the information. Your organisation should have a strategy in place for the consultation of stakeholders during ICT network design development and review. It is important that you are aware of these policies and procedures and that you follow them carefully at all times.

Methods for consulting key stakeholders may vary depending on the size of the organisation, the complexity of the network being developed and also the needs and characteristics of each of the key stakeholder groups.

For example, if you wanted to collect information on policy development from a worker group consisting of one thousand people then perhaps one on one consultation may not be a reasonable solution. But surveys could be disseminated and collected and advise on the issues at hand quite effectively.

On the other hand, if you have diversity specialists or human resources personnel within your stakeholder groups then a survey may not be sufficient in the collection of information from these groups as they will have a great deal of experience and knowledge related to the effective management of information and communications technology and should be included in a panel conducting detailed and extensive research and planning in relation to the network design.

When deciding on the methods that you will employ to consult the various groups available to within the organisation, it is advisable to conduct an audit of all of the different key stakeholder groups and write down their attributes and potential knowledge in the areas of ICT networks and plan a method of consultation that will be most beneficial in collecting the information that you need.

Data could be organised in a table similar to this:

Stakeholder Group

Key attributes

Type of knowledge

in relation to ICT network needs

Number of stakeholders in this group?

Number of personnel we wish to consult from group

Method of consultation?

A strategy for achieving for consultation can then be planned and timelines and members that will be involved in the consultation can be advised. A clear plan will need to be devised to ensure that consultation is conducted in a timely and thorough manner meeting all legislation and regulatory requirements.

Both formal and informal consultation methods can be employed to ensure a varied manner in the collection on information.

Formal consultation in the form of the sharing of extensive reports and statistics should be shared and information regarding these should be collected from each source.

Brainstorming sessions and meetings are a good way of troubleshooting and creating strategies.

Invite stakeholder groups to attend information sessions regarding the key needs of each of the target groups will assist in appropriate data collection to aid in the development of relevant strategies.

A series of one on one and group consultation meetings and surveys related to the topics are also appropriate means of consultation for ICT network design.

Assess business problems, opportunities and objectives, and confirm details with appropriate

person

It will be necessary to ensure that a range of business problems, opportunities and objectives are assessed and then confirmed with appropriate persons so that these details can be used for the planning of the ICT network architecture design.

Appropriate person

Appropriate person may include:

  • Authorised business representative
  • Client
  • ICT network administrator
  • ICT network manager
  • ICT support manager
  • Small or medium enterprise (SME) customer
  • Small office home office (SOHO) customer
  • Supervisor

Assess business problems

A range of business problems within the organisation may be able to be used to determine a range of further business needs and specifications that the ICT network may need to meet.

Business problems are those that need to be:

  • Amended

Fixed

Improved

Minimises

  • Removed

Assess business opportunities

Business opportunities are a range of circumstances or situations from within the organisation which may be able to be utilised in order to promote:

  • Growth
  • Expansion
  • Improvement
  • Efficiency
  • Profit
  • Entry into new markets

Assess business problems, opportunities and objectives through the use of the S.W.O.T tool

A SWOT analysis of the current situation and current strategic plans is an effective tool to be used during ICT network planning and business analysis.

A SWOT analysis will assess and determine the main STRENGTHS, WEAKNESSES, OPPORTUNITIES and THREATS that an organisation is currently facing and that the current ICT plan presents.

In order to correctly carry out a SWOT analysis it is important to define the problem you are trying to resolve of the situation that you are attempting to assess.

Typical opportunities and objectives and related plans will be related to items such as:

  • Increasing market share
  • Improving organisational image
  • Refining operations
  • Improving production
  • Improving operational systems

When performing a SWOT analysis, you will need to determine the parameters of exactly what it is you are measuring and what sections of the organisation are involved in each review.

Analysing the entire organisation as once is extremely difficult and will provide answers that are too broad to be helpful it is important to conduct a SWOT for each of the problems, strategies and related sections within the organisation.

You will then need to gather all of the information that will be used to determine each of the categories of the SWOT analysis. This information will need to be gathered in many different forms and from many different departments within the organisation.

A range of different market research and internal research techniques can be used to obtain quantitative and qualitative information from within the organisation and also external information regarding the market and competitors and their performance and these include:

  • Statistical research through marketing statistic collection companies and databases
  • Profiling competitors
  • Competitors websites
  • Engaging competitors
  • Customer surveys
  • Target Market surveys
  • Focus groups

Analysis of public information kept on companies

Stock market analysis

Internal documentation

  • Internal plans
  • Internal performance figures
  • Opinions of staff

Once you have gathered all of this information it is important to divide it into the four SWOT sections STRENGTHS, WEAKNESSES, OPPORTUNITIES and STRENGTHS.

Opportunities may include:

  • Cooperative ventures
  • Extending, expanding or otherwise changing an existing business
  • Franchising
  • Joint ventures
  • New products or services for existing markets
  • New products or services for new international settings or within other regions of existing international settings
  • Potential for greater penetration of existing markets with existing products or services
  • Strategic alliances
  • Improved productivity
  • Fewer complaints
  • Higher customer and staff satisfaction

Threats may include:

  • Competitors brand name
  • Competitors market share
  • Competitor products
  • Competitor alliances with other competitors
  • Competitor Price
  • Competitor marketing strategies
  • Competitor business plans
  • Competitor marketing plans
  • Poor internal productivity
  • Poor internal planning
  • Customer dissatisfaction
  • Price of production

Weaknesses may include:

  • Improvements that you need to make
  • Situations that you should avoid
  • Factors that threaten market shares
  • Factors that threaten business relationships
  • Factors that threaten alliances
  • Factors that affect your sales
  • Factors that affect your business image

Strengths may include:

  • Any advantages that your organisation has over the competition
  • Factors that make your company stronger than the competitors

Certain resources you may have that others do not

Your company image

Your market share.

All of this information can then be used to determine methods for utilising opportunities and strengths and managing threats and weaknesses.

This type of strategic analysis should be conducted on all strategic plans and will determine a list of potential developmental needs that your organisation has. These can be used to make new strategic plans and developmental plans to assist the organisation in achieving its overall goals and objectives.

Information from the SWOT analysis should be used to inform on the ICT needs of the organisation.

TOPIC 2 – PRODUCE PRELIMINARY ICT NETWORK ARCHITECTURE DESIGN

Ascertain technical requirements, including hardware, software and network elements

according to specifications

It will be necessary to ensure that all of the technical requirements of the ICT network architecture design are able to be ascertained from design plans and documentations in order to ensure that the network will operate as planned.

Ensuring that the foundation of the ICT plan meets business requirements and specifications

It will be necessary to ensure that an in-depth range of information is collected and assessed in order to enable the appropriate and effective planning of the ICT network architecture design.

Information may be collected from:

  • Consultations
  • Forecasts
  • Strategic plans
  • Current system analysis
  • Swot analysis of business needs

Technical requirements

Technical requirements of the ICT network architecture are the range of technical specifications and capacities that the network must provide in order to be sufficient.

Technical requirements may refer to:

Bandwidth

  • Hardware problems
  • Network growth
  • Network security
  • Network traffic congestions
  • New technologies
  • Power usage
  • Software problems
  • Transmission dropouts
  • Upgrades

Hardware

The hardware component is the network that the ICT network will be connected to and may include a range of existing external networks that enter the premises and need to be connected to.

Hardware may include:

  • Cabling network
  • Cellular phone network
  • Internet protocol TV (IPTV)

IT network elements

The IT network elements are the range of elements that must make up the IT portion of the network this will include the use of the internet and all digital communications.

IT network elements may include:

Gateway

  • Local area network (LAN) switch
  • Router
  • Server
  • Wireless network
  • Multimedia
  • Optical network
  • Radio network
  • RFID equipment
  • Switching equipment
  • Transmission equipment
  • Voice and data equipment

Software

Software is the range of applications that the organisation will require in order to meet all business requirements and specifications for the ICT plan.

Software may include:

  • Commercial
  • Customised software
  • In-house
  • Network management
  • Operating system
  • Packaged
  • Patches

Vendor propriety

Network elements

Network elements are the range of network accessories and components that are needed in order to enable the effective construction and use of the ICT network.

Network elements may include:

  • Add-drop multiplexer
  • Antenna
  • Base station
  • Dense wavelength division multiplexing (DWDM) unit
  • Encoder
  • IT network elements:
  • Gateway
  • LAN switch
  • Router
  • Server
  • Wireless network
  • Laser module
  • Optical unit
  • Protocol analyser
  • Receiver
  • RF unit
  • RFID unit
  • Splitter

Transmitter

Each of these sections of components, infrastructure and equipment will need to be carefully assessed and built as the ICT architecture is slowly built and tailored to meet the specific needs of the organisation.

Select software solutions to suit business platform

There are many different types of software that is available either as free source or by purchase or subscription. It is essential that the correct type of software that best suits the intended type of communication and information technology management and is selected for the ICT network architecture that you are seeking to apply.

Choosing the appropriate software for an organisation will come down to a range of factors including:

  • Suitability
  • Price
  • Accessibility
  • Configuration
  • ICT network and hardware needs
  • Organisational needs
  • Work tasks
  • Required features and functions

There are a range of different software types that the ICT network may need to utilise and these include:

Network management suites

Network management suites are independent edition and collections of software applications that can be used to configure, monitor, manage and control the hardware items that exist within the network.

Information management software

There are a range of applications which will operate at the desktop and server layers of the ICT network and will include a range of database and archive management software’s as well as software that can be used to store, share, record and manage the range of information that is held within the organisation.

Client relationship management software

There is a range of client relationship management software applications that may need to be utilised as a part of the ICT network design and is used to collect, record, store, share and manage a range of information that is used to manage client needs and relations.

Operating systems

The operating systems for the workstations and system servers and other devices will need to be assessed and selected based on:

  • The needs of the hardware
  • Organisational requirements
  • Network requirements

Communications management software

There is a range of software that may be used to aid in the communications between staff and other stakeholders and these may include:

  • Email servers and programs
  • Cloud-based communication and sharing systems
  • SMS systems
  • Digital and smartphone software

Assessing the network for required software

When assessing the network for the required range of software applications it will be necessary to consider:

  • All hardware
  • All networking devices
  • Network and device configuration
  • Features and functions of software
  • Abilities of software
  • Benefits and impacts of different software types
  • Cloud-based storage
  • Information storage and access
  • Communication requirements within the organisation
  • Communication strategies
  • Information management strategies
  • Forecast and projections for future needs

Selecting appropriate software

When selecting appropriate software, it will be necessary to assess and consider the following factors:

  • Features
  • Functions
  • Requirements
  • Compatibility
  • Security

Develop preliminary physical network diagrams as a preface to architecture blueprint

It will be necessary to ensure that a range of preliminary physical network diagrams are created so that they are able to be used to create future architecture blueprints.

Symbols and icons

A range of ICT symbols and icons will need to be used as a part of the creation of preliminary physical network diagrams and these may include:

ii

ICT Preliminary network diagrams

ICT preliminary network diagrams are diagrams using a range of symbols and lines in order to demonstrate the connections and information flows that will be represented throughout the system. These are designed to provide an overview and plan of the system and not to provide a working document that can be used for the installation.

ICT network architecture diagram:

iii

Architecture may include but is not limited to

Carrier network architecture

Carrier network architecture may include:

  • Access
  • billing
  • broadband
  • broadcasting
  • Core
  • data
  • optical
  • wireless

Network architecture configuration

Network architecture configuration:

  • large memory model
  • requests per second
  • small memory model

Database software

Database software may include:

  • Informix
  • Ingres, DB2
  • Microsoft SQL server
  • mSQL
  • MySQL
  • Oracle
  • SQL server
  • Sybase

Operating systems

Operating systems may include:

  • Linux
  • Mac OS
  • Novell NetWare
  • Windows

Network architecture blueprint

A network architecture blueprint is a reproduction of a technical drawing which is used to document an architecture or engineering design. Blueprints will be developed on light sensitive sheets and allow for the rapid and accurate reproduction of documents as required.

Blueprints will contain a range of information including:

  • All components
  • All connections
  • Detailed layout information

Produce a document on the possible impact of the network design on the business

requirements

As a part of the ICT network architecture design it will be necessary to ensure that a range of impacts, benefit and challenges that the ICT network architecture may result in is assessed, documented and reported to allow for effective planning and decisionmaking processes in relation to the ICT plan.

Impact

The impact of the ICT network architecture is the range of changes and circumstances that are likely to be caused by its implementation. Impact may refer to:

  • Fewer downtimes
  • Improved efficiency
  • Improved response times
  • Increased return on investment
  • Lower operational costs
  • More 'user-friendly' network

Effective management of information and communications networks can provide competitive advantages for all organisations. The benefits from implementing, carefully planned network architecture can impact on the entire organisation.

By using the range of data and assessment collected on the current system and organisational requirements and specifications in relation to the ICT network architecture design it will be possible to assess and categorise the potential impacts that are likely to result.

Potential impacts of ICT network architecture may include:

  • Increase in Productivity: Effective information and communication management techniques allow all individuals within the workforce to work to their full potential without conflict; increasing productivity.
  • Increase in Creativity and Problem-solving: A well-equipped workforce will be made up of a diverse set of skill and knowledge, and an effective ICT system will enable supported collaboration and information sharing will result an increase in creativity, innovation and problem-solving.
  • Better team building and communication: Effective sharing and management of information and communications through the ICT network will allow better collaboration and team unison.
  • Increase profitability and the bottom line: More productivity and less complaints and conflict will result in a more efficient business which will in turn increase the overall success and profitability of the organisation.
  • Decrease in complaints: When issues of information management and communications are handled well there will be a decrease in complaints and an increase in overall employee satisfaction.
  • Increase in skills: A better-equipped workplace will have a more varied set of skills which will increase overall business success.

It is important that when you are presenting information to demonstrate the impacts of the ICT network architecture design data is shown that demonstrates trends in success in relation to good practice and highlight the negative impact that occurs when best practice in relation to matters of information technology and communication are not achieved.

Correct analysis of qualitative and quantitative data collected regarding ICT design policies and strategies within the business can be mapped against these benefits to demonstrate the success of the current ICT networks.

Information from competitors that may be managing their ICT networks in a more effective manner than the organisation in question can also be used to demonstrate impacts.

Case studies showing how business performance and overall bottom line have been improved due to the implementation of a well-structured and thought-out ICT network architecture have been effective in other businesses can be used to demonstrate how effective management of ICT networks has a direct link to organisational goals and objectives.

Business objectives may include:

  • Business goals and plans
  • Future directions statements
  • Vision or mission statements

It is important that all ICT impacts are identified and mapped directly to the business objectives so that stakeholders can realise the importance of ICT network architecture implementation within the organisation.

TOPIC 3 – EVALUATE PRELIMINARY DESIGN AND LIKELY PERFORMANCE USING FORECAST DEMANDS

Predict forecast traffic demands, and impact on network design, from current and future

demand requirements

It will be necessary to conduct a range of evaluations on the preliminary ICT network architecture design and to in order to predict forecast traffic demand and the impact of these forecasts on the ICT network design. These predictions and forecasts should be based on a range of current and future demand requirements on the network.

Predict and forecast traffic demands

Forecasting techniques may include:

  • Delphi techniques: Is a strategic forecasting technique that involves a structured interaction between a group of experts on a topic. The experts will make a range of estimations and decisions based around a series of questions that they will answer on a specific issue.
  • Model building: This required the use of historical data to build a model situation that new and varied data can be measured against to determine how the new data is expected to behave within the confounds of the model built.
  • Projection: This is a commonly used method where the patterns and trends of historical data are mapped and then applied to new information to project how the same set of variables applied to new figures will behave into the future.
  • Scenario planning: Is a forecasting method that does not intend on predicting the future but intends on exploring different probable options and scenarios and forecast the likely impacts to the organisation should that scenario become factual.
  • Surveys of intentions: This is a forecasting method which relies on surveys of customer intentions and buying patterns in order to determine the possible actions of the target market into the future. This technique can be used to determine the expected increase in traffic and the impact that this is expected to have on the ICT system.

All of these different methods for forecasting a extremely useful for determining different aspects of the ICT system requirements. In most instances the organisation will use a combination of these methods in order to make up its entire forecasting portfolio.

Predict the impact that these projected and forecast traffic increases could have

It will be necessary to ensure that a

These may include factors such as:

  • Delays in communication
  • Errors
  • Overload of the system
  • Server errors
  • Authentication errors
  • Mismanagement of information and communications
  • Unsatisfied customer
  • Loss of competitive advantage
  • Loss of customers
  • Loss of market share

Benchmark design using expected performance parameters

It will be necessary to ensure that a range of benchmarks are created and applied to the ICT network architecture design according to the expected performance parameters that have been applied throughout consultation and planning for the ICT network architecture.

Performance parameters

Expected performance parameters are the range of specifics and statistics that the ICT network is expected to be able to maintain. It is essential that these performance parameters are assessed and used to create a range of specific benchmarks that the ICT network must meet in order to be measured and deemed to be successful.

Performance parameters may include:

  • Attenuation
  • Bandwidth
  • Bit error rate (BER)
  • Congestion
  • Data security
  • Distortion
  • Dropouts
  • Interference
  • Latency
  • Packet loss
  • Phase jitter
  • Polarisation
  • Quality of service - QoS
  • Transmission data rate

Benchmarks

Benchmarks are pre-set and measurable quality standards that are set in order for the ICT network architecture to achieve. In order to be successful benchmarks should be written using the SMART acronym.

Benchmarks written using the SMART acronym will be:

  • Specific: plans have a much greater chance of successful completion than general tasks or goals. For a task to be considered specific, it will need to answer the six “W” questions. Who, What, Where, When, Which and Why.
  • Measurable: plans are those that specify the criteria on which success is determined. Detailed criteria must be clearly communicated to ensure that the benchmark can be achieved as required.
  • Attainable: it is important to set out steps that make the plan attainable. If a plan has a clear explanation of how it can be achieved, it is more likely that they will be successful.
  • Realistic: to be considered realistic the plan must be realistic. All steps in the plan, including timeframes need to be reasonable.
  • Timely: the action plan should contain specific start and end dates, as well as measurable milestones. So, that progress towards the completion of the action plan can be successfully measured, and so that all personnel are aware of when the goals of the plans should be achieved by.

It is essential that the benchmarks that are created for the ICT network architecture design meet the performance parameter requirements that have been set for the specific plan.

There are three typical forms of measures that would be suitable for evaluating the suitability of the benchmarks that have been set and these include:

  • Efficiency measures: These measures are cost and productivity measured as a percentage of inputs vs outputs. Examples of efficiency measures include measurements of job tasks and time taken to achieve them.
  • Outcomes measures: These measures show if targets have been reached and show the benefits and impacts that an ICT has made.
  • Quality measures: These measures show the effectiveness of expectations and an improvement in accuracy, reliability, competence, responsiveness and compliance.

Review design’s likely performance profile

It will be necessary to ensure that a range of reviews are conducted on the ICT network architectures likely design performance profile in order to determine whether the proposed design is likely to be sufficient according to expected performance parameters and benchmarks that the design is required to meet in order to be considered successful.

Performance profile

A networks performance profile is made up of a range of expected statistics and performance figures that are based on the design and its potential capacity. It will be necessary to consider a range of factors such as the range of performance parameters that have been pre-decided.

Review designs performance

It will be necessary to conduct a range of reviews on the designs expected performance based on:

  • Performance parameters
  • Benchmarks
  • Performance profiles

Use a range of review and analysis tools

It will be necessary to use a range of review and analysis tools when reviewing the likely performance profile that the network design is able to provide:

  • Comparative analysis: Comparative analysis is a type of appraisal which can be conducted on two similar factors from similar networks are compared and the data is used to the determine an estimation of how the network should perform in the current business environment based on these comparisons.
  • Competitive analysis: In order to determine how the network will perform in a particular circumstance it is important to determine the performance, strengths and weaknesses of other networks.

Record the results of the performance review

It will be necessary to ensure that the results of the performance review on the network in order to provide expected network performance profile recorded and presented in order to provide clear projected information on the expected performance of the planned ICT network and all of its components.

Determine costs involved with a range of supplier products

It will be necessary to ensure that all expected and projected costs that are to be involved with a range of supplier products are able to be determined in order to contribute to the evaluation report that will predict the overall costs of the network.

Determine costs involved with a range of supplier products

The costs that are involved with a range of supplier products that have been included as a part of the network architecture will need to be determined through the process of:

  • Conducting research
  • Making comparisons
  • Obtaining quotes
  • Liaising with suppliers

Assess purchasing data and information

Purchasing data and information is a range of information and data held within the organisation in relation to purchasing plans and projections including:

  • Purchasing contracts
  • Supplier’s lists
  • Statistical data in relation to pricing patterns
  • Quality information
  • Errors and returns
  • Financial records and information
  • Complaints
  • Communications
  • Invoices
  • Receipts
  • Inventory information
  • Current policies and procedures
  • Current strategy if it exists
  • Competitor information

Determine unit amounts for supplier products

Units are components that resources will be calculated in the type of unit may vary depending on the resource for example:

  • Per hour
  • Per Day
  • Per Item

It will be necessary to select a unit type for each of the different resource types that will be used throughout the network installation so that costs can be calculated for each unit, this will allow calculation and identification of total costs for each resource type for the network.

Process for calculating unit and total costs for each supplier

When calculating the unit and total cost for each supplier product within the network it will be necessary to undertake the following steps:

  • Determine and list each product type
  • Allocate a unit type for each product type
  • Calculate the base cost for each product type
  • Calculate all add-on and overhead costs for each product type and apply to each unit

Calculate the total unit cost for each product type

Produce an evaluation report on predicted performance and costs of the network architecture design, addressing business specifications and recommendations

It will be necessary to take the range of data and information that has been compiled and assessed throughout the production of the ICT network architecture plan and analyse it so that an evaluation report is able to be provided on the predicted performance and costs of the complete network architecture design. It is essential that this evaluation report will address the business specifications and recommendations for the network design and explain how these needs have been successfully met in the design plan.

Analyse data and information

It is essential that all information and data that is collected from within the organisation is carefully analysed so that a full understanding of the projected ICT network is able to be effectively identified.

Analysing information is the systematic process of examining the data collected in a way that illustrates the correlations, interrelationships and in patterns in data. It is important that analysis is conducted so that trends and developments that are shown in the information that you have collected about a subject can be reported on. These trends and developments can then be used to advise on issues and support strategic decision making. Understanding the intended use of the information is important when analysing and presenting raw data so that it can be formatted and delivered in a way that best suits the needs of the area that the information is intended to advise on.

Careful analysis of information can provide:

  • The answers to certain problems
  • The relationship between two or more different factors
  • Why events have occurred
  • The probability of an event occurring
  • Information that leads to new ideas

Supporting information for an existing theory

  • Information related to performance

Evaluation reports

Evaluation reports should include a range of sections including:

  • Scope of the overall project
  • Business requirements overview
  • Business specifications overview
  • Budgeted amounts and how these are to be met
  • Network architecture framework
  • Expected impacts of the proposed ICT plan
  • Projections and forecasts
  • Vendor and supplier products and costs
  • Performance parameters

Reports may be required in order to:

  • Explain outcomes of the research
  • Present recommendations to appropriate bodies
  • Inform on impacts of the research

Effective report writing

When conducting effective report writing procedures it will be necessary to ensure that the following considerations are made:

  • Objectives of the report: In order to be able to effectively create a useful report it will be necessary to ensure that the objectives of the report are known so that it will be able to be written in an appropriate manner.

User audience: It will be necessary to ensure that audience that will be reading the report is considered in order to ensure that the following factors are appropriate: o Language o Format o Inclusions o Confidentiality requirements

  • Templates: Depending on the use of the report a range of different templates from within and outside of your organisation may need to be used it will be necessary to investigate these requirements prior to the commencement of the report writing.
  • Detail: Depending on the use and agency that the report is going to a range of different levels of detail may be required within the report, in order for the report to be fit for the purpose that it was intended it will be necessary to ensure that the correct level of detail is included in the report.
  • Presentation of information: When writing reports, it is essential that all of the information that is included is presented in a manner that is:

o Readable o Informative o Clear o Appropriate for the information presented

quality of information included in reports

It will be necessary to ensure that all of the information that is included within the report is:

  • Suitable: the information must be appropriate for the task it is intended for.
  • Accessible: the information must be able to be easily obtained and available to the people that need it within the timeframes that it is required.

Current: the information must still be current meaning that it is not outdated due to changes in the environment or more recent information becoming available.

  • Reliable: the information must be able to be relied on or depended on, as for accuracy, honesty, and achievement in its goals.

TOPIC 4 – FINALISE NETWORK DESIGN AND OBTAIN APPROVAL

Review benchmarks, requirements and final design proposed

It will be necessary to ensure that a range of reviews on the benchmarks, requirements and final designs in order to ensure that all agreed parameters are met by the plan.

Final proposed design

The final proposed design of an ICT network may include:

  • Diagrams
  • Drawings
  • Implementation schedules
  • Training schedules
  • Change management schedules
  • Data transfer requirements
  • Budgets
  • Timeframes
  • Technical specifications
  • Network architecture
  • All other relevant information

Review benchmarks

When the ICT network design parameters were developed and implemented there will have been a range of benchmarks set in order to successfully measure the success of the proposed design.

These will have been specific to the different sections within the plan. It will be necessary to ensure that a range of tools are developed that can be used to effectively measure the final design proposed against the pre-set benchmarks for the business ICT network and related information.

Tools that can be used to measure benchmarks may include:

  • Risk assessment
  • Internal Audit
  • Analysis of data
  • Analysis of performance
  • 360 analysis
  • Budget review tools
  • Risk analysis
  • Performance review tools
  • Productivity analysis
  • Efficiency measurements tools
  • Validation of processes
  • Validation and assessment of process maps
  • Process review
  • Risk monitoring tools
  • Performance monitoring tools
  • Quality management tools

Focus of reviews

There are a range of factors that should be focused on during the reviews process and these may include:

  • Review of challenges
  • If projections for costs and benefits are still in line with projections and forecast
  • Reasons for deviations to the plan
  • Additional actions that could be taken in order to get the plan back on track
  • Implementation issues
  • Integration issues
  • Uptake of the policy
  • Conflicts with other policies

Reviews should also include general management items such as:

  • Are all the related action plans and strategies being conducted as planned?
  • Do any interventions or contingency plans need to be actioned?
  • Budgets
  • Benefits
  • Performance

Determine support and training requirements needed

When any new system, policy or framework is implemented into an organisation there may be a range of training and support that personnel may require in order to enable:

  • Effective implementation
  • Timely and smooth change over to new networks
  • Change management strategies
  • Resource management and allocation

Strategies for change management

Change management strategies should be based around the uptake and planning for the changes to ensure that the recovery processes and positive direction changes within organisations can be successfully managed.

Change management strategies may include:

  • Setting goals
  • Looking to the future
  • Putting action plans in place
  • Assessing the need for change
  • Planning for change
  • Implementing change

Support through information dissemination

In order to successfully implement new ICT networks into the organisation it is essential to ensure that all personnel involved in the implementation have access to all of the information that they will require in order to do so.

Information required may include:

  • ICT network architecture design outline
  • Implementation structure information
  • Policies and procedures
  • Management structure information
  • Resource allocations
  • Approvals and requirements
  • Change management procedure information
  • Implementation strategies

Provide support through training

It will be necessary to ensure that all relevant personnel receive the training and support that they require in order to effectively implement the ICT network design into the organisation in a compliant and efficient manner.

Required training may include:

  • Risk management
  • Strategy implementation
  • ICT network design framework
  • Roles and responsibilities
  • Internal control
  • Communication strategies
  • Change management

Provide support through resources

It is essential to show support to all relevant personnel throughout the ICT network architecture design implementation by ensuring that personnel have access to the resources that they require to ensure that all tasks can be completed as required, to the level of quality required and within required timeframes.

Resources required may include:

  • Human resources
  • Physical resources
  • Financial resources

Provide support through specialist advice

It may be necessary to ensure that personnel have access to specialist advice as required throughout the ICT network architecture design implementation process within the organisation.

Specialist advice may be in relation to:

  • Risk management
  • Change management
  • Implementation strategies
  • Legal advice
  • Human resources
  • Financial advice
  • Specialist network architecture
  • Other specialist requirements

Provide support through regular opportunities for collaboration

It may be necessary to further support personnel in implementing ICT network architecture design by allowing them structured time to collaborate with each other and upper management. Collaboration is an essential business action that drives motivation, innovation and a supportive environment for personnel and strategies to flourish within.

Opportunities for collaboration may include:

  • Team meetings
  • Working together on projects
  • Consultation
  • Planning meetings
  • Support groups
  • Training sessions

Provide support through allocation of time

It is essential that all tasks are allocated to be completed within reasonable and appropriate timeframes; implementation should be efficient but not rushed.

Methods for ensuring that relevant personnel have the time that they require to complete implementation tasks may include:

  • Workload reallocation
  • Job redesign
  • Extra support staff
  • Scheduling
  • Time allocations away from other tasks
  • Use of the Acronym “SMART” to ensure time managed and measurable goals and tasks are consistently set

Ensure support provided is sufficient

When supporting relevant personnel to successfully complete ICT network architecture design implementation tasks into the organisation it will be necessary to ensure that regular communication is conducted so that the personnel will have the opportunity to make requests for further support that they may require. It will be necessary to ensure that support provided is reviewed and updated as the needs of personnel and stakeholders change throughout the different stages of the implementation process.

Obtain latest technical specifications and pricing by contacting possible vendors

It will be necessary to ensure that the latest technical specifications and pricing for the range of equipment and software requirements that the specific ICT network architecture design may have and these can be obtained through the contacting of possible vendors.

Contact possible vendors

It will be necessary to conduct a range of research into the approved vendors by the organisation and the range of other vendors that may meet a range of quality standards for items and ensure that they contacted in order to confirm pricing and latest available technical specifications.

Pricing

The pricing of items may be based on a range of factors including:

  • New or emerging technology will be more expensive
  • Purchasing power
  • Relationships with clients
  • Contracts negotiated

Technical specifications

Technical specifications are a range of technical information and parameters that pertain to the items that is to be used within an installation.

Technical specifications may include:

  • Technical capabilities and limitations and these will depend on the type, build, size and power of the machine or software application, it is essential that all equipment is used only within its limitations and capabilities and these can be obtained from manufacturer’s instructions.

Technical capabilities and limitations and specifications may include:

  • Speed
  • Load
  • Capacity
  • Application
  • Power
  • Connections
  • Requirements
  • Abilities
  • Allowable configurations

A typical technical specification will include the following sections:

  • Scope of the information contained in the specification
  • Standards, Codes, specifications and legislation
  • Definitions and Terminology
  • Materials and Construction
  • Design information
  • Mechanical elements
  • Guarantees
  • Testing and Inspections that have been carried out
  • Documentation that pertains to the items

Verify technical specifications for equipment items

It is essential that all of the technical specifications for the equipment items that are to be included in the installation are verified against:

  • Technical specifications for individual items
  • Technical specifications in network plans and instructions

It will be necessary to determine the range of materials that will be required in order to complete the job tasks. All workplaces will then have a range of techniques and established procedures for accessing these materials, it is essential to ensure that all established workplace procedures are followed at all times.

Identify components and equipment required

It will then be necessary to assess all of the plans and work specifications in order to analyse the components and equipment items that will be required to carry out the job tasks successfully and appropriately.

It will be necessary to check all safety standards in relation to the selection of the appropriate sized component types and other materials in order to ensure electrical safety. All materials used on the work site must be of the Australian Quality standards.

Calculating amounts

It will be necessary to calculate the required amounts of each of the components and equipment that have been identified from planning documentation. Each of the components and equipment will then need to be priced and ordered from a variety of different suppliers. All workplaces will have a set of policies and procedures related to the assessing of material requirements.

Checking against job requirements

Checking against job requirements may include checking:

  • Quality requirements
  • AS wiring rules requirements
  • Legislation
  • Protection requirements
  • Rating requirements
  • Load requirements
  • Control and power circuit requirements
  • All additional requirements for different types of job installations

Document network design and present documentation to appropriate person for approval

It will be necessary to ensure that a range of documentation and network designs are created and presented to an appropriate person for approval.

Document network design

When documenting network design it will be necessary to ensure that the following information is documented:

  • Technology
  • Hardware
  • Layout
  • Connections
  • Software
  • Configuration requirements
  • Capabilities and limitations

Documentation

Documentation may include:

  • Audit trails
  • Client training and satisfaction reports
  • Costing details
  • Design report
  • Evaluation report and recommendations
  • Implementation plan
  • International standards
  • International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC)
  • Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) standards
  • Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) standards
  • International Telecommunications Union (ITU) standards
  • Australian standards
  • Naming standards
  • Version control

Submit the final copy of the design and supporting documents to relevant personnel for approval

When submitting the final copy of the design and supporting documents to relevant personnel for approval it will be necessary to ensure that:

  • Submission is made within required timeframe
  • Submission is made to the appropriate person
  • All materials are presented in an organised manner in the correct format
  • All explanatory notes required are included
  • Include a copy of the initial brief
  • Include a statement of purpose for the document to be assessed against

Obtain sign off on final business solution

It is essential on completion of the creation and development of an ICT network architecture design that formal sign off is able to be obtained in order to allow for the planning and preparation stages for the actual completion of the job tasks.

Final business solution

The final business solution that is put forward is the completed ICT network design and all related documentation that has met and passed all other requirements throughout the process.

Sign-off

Sign off is the formal acceptance by authorised personnel of a particular design or proposal that is required prior to allowing for the commencement of the next stages of work. There are a range of actions that should be conducted when attempting to obtain approvals and these may include:

Notifying supervisor of completion of work

There are a range of methods that can be used when notifying supervisors of completion of work tasks and these can include:

  • Verbal notification
  • Written notification
  • Phone call
  • Job completion submission in jobs system
  • Job completion reports
  • Quality reports

Job completion reports

Job completion reports may be required upon completion of some tasks and the information that may be required for these reports includes:

  • Task outline
  • Actions conducted
  • Further actions required
  • Improvement options
  • Safety measures taken
  • Quality control measures taken
  • Reporting on issues or errors
  • Other requirements dependent on organisation

Obtaining job sign off

It will be necessary to ensure that all of the required sign-offs are obtained for the specific job tasks. It will be necessary to approach the supervisor and ask for sign off, a job inspection may be required to sign off being granted. Sign off may be required on:

  • Workplace reports
  • Workplace documentation
  • Permits for access
  • Re-energisation or connection approvals
  • Job completion

Obtaining sign-off on ICT network architecture design

When setting out to obtain sign-off on ICT network architecture design it will be necessary to ensure that a range of information and documentation is compiled and submitted for formal approval and these may include completed:

  • Completed documentation
  • Diagrams
  • Budgets
  • Explanatory notes
  • Any other important information

Methods for obtaining final sign off

There are a range of actions that will need to be taken in order to ensure that final sign off is able to be obtained and these may include:

  • Send a request for final sign off to all personnel involved
  • Create paperwork
  • Assess the process for obtaining final sign off
  • Submit the application with any paperwork and information

TOPIC 5 – REQUIRED KNOWLEDGE

Produce an ICT network architecture design

Summarise principles of the following technologies:

Access networks

An access network is a network which connects users of a telecommunications company to the service provider and thus to the services that are provided.

Core networks

Customers of a service provider gain access to a provider’s core network via the provider access network. A core network is the portion of a telecommunications network that provides various services to its’ customers. The normal function of a core network is to route telephone calls across Public-Switched Telephone Network (PSTN).

Information communications technologies (ICT) network topologies

Information communications technologies (ICT) network topologies are the arrangements of ICT networks. The arrangement is referred to in the forms of connecting lines and nodes, which are also known as network geometry.

There are two ways in which network geometry is defined:

Physical

Physical topology is the geometric layout of workstations (nodes) and connections.

Physical topology examples may include:

  • Bus – Each workstation is connected to a main bus cable making it so that all workstations are connected directly to each other.

Logical

Logical topology refers to the signal path that is followed throughout the network. Physical and geometric are often the same shape, but it is important to realise that this is not always the case.

Mobile cellular networks

A mobile cellular network is a cellular network that is accessed using mobile devices such as mobile telephones.

Cellular network

A cellular network is a network of radios that are distributed in fixed locations across a landmass. The radio cells are referred to as base stations. The base stations are situated so that their effective areas overlap with nearby base stations to form large coverage areas with as few gaps as possible. Mobile devices are able to continuously remain connected to the network while passing between the coverage area of individual base stations. Subscribers are granted access to cellular networks by their service providers. The providers track the location of each mobile device on their network using Strong paging channels and transmit information to and from the devices using strong dedicated control channels.

Network protocols and operating systems

Network protocols

Network protocols are the rules and conventions that govern the communication of devices on a network. Network protocols may govern the following facilities on networks:

  • Identification of devices and naming conventions
  • Formatting rules for data that is transferred throughout the network and to other devices.
  • Acknowledgement of messages being sent and or received.
  • Compression of data for the sake of increasing speed and reliability.

Network operating systems

An operating system is a central collection of applications and programs that work together as one software system that organises and manages all function that takes place within a network. Network operating systems use network protocols to manage all facilities and housekeeping aspects of a network.

The facilities that a network operating system manages may include:

  • File sharing conventions
  • Printer sharing
  • Common files systems and databases
  • Application sharing
  • Network security
  • Management of all names on a network

Optical networks and principles

Optical networks are data communication networks that are built using optical fibre technology.

Principles of optical networks

The principles of optical networks are essentially the use of light to transmit data. Data is created or translated at a node then converted into electrical energy. The electrical signal is sent to an optical transmitter device where it is translated into pulses of light. That light is transmitted long distances along fibre optical cables until it reaches either a repeater device that replaces weak signals with more powerful ones or it reaches its destination on the network. When it reaches its destination, another optical transmitter transfers the light back into electrical signals, which are then converted into date. The method of data transfer is much faster than using traditional means, such as copper cables. Light travels faster and there are few external factors that can impede the movement of information through fibre optic cables.

Radio frequency (RF) technologies and principles

Radio frequency technologies are based on particular frequencies of radio waves that can be used for a range of different technologies dependent on the allocated spectrum limits for use.

Within each country there will be a range of spectrum limits and allocations which will ensure that all frequencies will be used for a specific purpose ensuring the safety and organisation of the use of all of the available frequencies on the spectrum.

See the example spectrum allocation and limits guide below:

iv

Radio frequency identification (RFID) hardware and software

RFID or radio frequency identification is a technology that uses electromagnetic or electrostatic coupling in the RF frequency range in order to identify objects, animals or people. RFID may be used as a part of authentication and tracking of processes and items within the ICT network architecture. The RIDF system consists of three main components and these are:

  • Antenna: This is a hardware component that is used to send and receive data.
  • Transceiver: The transceiver is made up of both hard and software components.
  • Transponder: This is the tag that can be placed on the items in order to ensure that they are able to be identified.

Explain what is meant in the ICT sector by business processes

Business processes within the information and communications or ICT industry are the actions that will be taken by the organisation in order to conduct work tasks. These may be within or outside of the ICT network architecture.

Explain compatibility issues and resolution procedures

Compatibility issues may arise between both hardware and software components of the servers and the computers and their applications that are seeking to access and use them. It is important to understand that a range of different aspects may cause compatibility issues and then consider a range of methods that can be used to resolve these issues.

There is a process that can be used to test and assess compatibility issues and resolution procedures and this is:

  • Inventory: Determine all of the components and applications that will be used as a part of the system.
  • Analyse: Each of the components and applications are assessed to determine what is causing the compatibility issues.
  • Test: A range of testing is conducted to ensure that all components and applications behave as expected.
  • Mitigate: A range of steps are taken to resolve compatibility issues such as updates, upgrades, recoding, and changes to authentication protocols.

Example mitigation process:

Domain name server (DNS) resolution

All hosts and the web servers that they connect to will have a unique IP or Internet protocol address. (Internet protocol is the format of all of the data that is shared across the internet.) These IP addresses will be in text form and the DNS resolution process will be the translation of this address into numbers that can be recognised as an IP address such as 207.142.131.248.

During the process of a DNS resolution a web crawler will contact a particular DNS Server and then use a range of other servers in order to complete the process.

Summarise configuration of internet protocol (IP) networks

Configuration of internet protocol or IP networks can be achieved through the completion of the following actions:

Node configuration

Nodes are the range of devices, switches, bridges or hubs a part of the communication network. These nodes are able to communicate with each other as a part of the network, gateways will provide an access point between one part of the network and another. When connecting to the internet it will be common for a computer to be connected to the internet via a gateway and a modem, in this instance the gateway would be assigned to the modem.

This type of gateway is called a default gateway this is the type of gateway that will be able to forward and send packets of data onto other networks when they have not been specifically assigned to another gateway type.

In a network, such as a TCP/IP network, nodes such as computers, workstations and servers will have a default gateway path, in this instance the gateway is essentially a router.

Assigning nodes to a specific gateway

All nodes on the network will have connectors and gateways assigned to them so that they are directed to use the correct path. The node will need to be configured to detect the ID of the specific gateway and how to interact with this gateway. The gateway and the node will both need to be configured in order to achieve this.

The computers and nodes within the network will need to be configured to a range of network parameters including:

  • IP address
  • Subnet mask
  • Gateway address

Types of nodes that will need to be configured may include:

  • Workstations
  • Printers
  • Wireless access points
  • Network storage devices
  • Servers

Commonly the workstations that are a part of the network will be assigned dynamic IP addresses while the other devices within the network will be assigned with static IP addresses and it is important to have a clear understanding of both.

Configure nodes to dynamic ip addresses

Network nodes that need to be assigned to dynamic IP addresses will need to have a DHCP or Dynamic Host Control Protocol server that is available and has been configured and made available for each IP subnet.

DHCP servers will required the configuration of the following parameters:

  • Unique IP address
  • Network mask
  • Gateway IP address
  • DNS server IP address

Once configured a dynamic IP address node within the network will send out a broadcast containing a request for the it’s IP configuration, this request will be sent out during the boot up process of the node and the assigned DHCP server which will be constantly monitoring the network for this type of request will then respond with the assigning of an IP address from its list of unused addresses and send the configuration details back to the requesting node.

The node can be configured from the network utilities system of both the node and the DHCP server.

Configure nodes to static ip addresses

There usually will be at least one network node that required configuration to a static ID on each network and this is often a gateway, wireless access point or print server. The gateway in this scenario will have been already configured and the other components within the network will need to have their configurations set manually.

It will be necessary to log onto the nodes that need to be configured to static IP addresses as an administrator with the ability to alter the network settings. The settings of the node will need to be configured in order to ensure that they can be set to the specific static IP address.

Outline desktop applications and operating systems

The desktop operating system is the operating application that is used to control and communicate with the computer or device that the system is installed on.

Examples of desktop operating system include:

  • Windows
  • Macintosh
  • Linux

Desktop applications are those that are installed onto the particular operating system that is installed on the desktop computer or device and this may include applications such as:

  • Work processing applications
  • Web browser applications
  • Specific program applications

The desktop applications are the range of applications that will be used by the end user to complete work tasks and to access a range of items across the network. These are the software components of the system that are used by the end user to complete work tasks and business processes.

Summarise security protocols, standards and data encryption

Security must be across multiple platforms and may include the following security protocols, standards and data encryption requirements:

  • Authentication, authorisation and access control: Setting authentication methods and a range of parameters that must be met in order for access to the integrated server and its files and directories needs to be set. Common methods for this include Kerberos or LAMP.
  • Directory server security: It will be necessary to ensure that the servers

which contain the directory and file locations is protected through authentication, authorisation and access control. It will be necessary to set a range of permissions and user requirements for the directories.

  • Encryption: Servers may be protected with encryption software that enables the encryption of passwords, authentication requirements and the data and information that is stored on the server itself.
  • Kerberos security, such as pre-authentication and ticket validation: Kerberos security is a type of encryption based authentication types and may be used for both pre-authentication and ticket validation.
  • Network share permissions: It will be necessary to ensure that a range of rules and requirements for the sharing of network directories, accesses such as printers and individual files are set.
  • Password security: Password security is the setting of username and password combinations that may be used for users to gain access to files and directories through password authentication processes. Passwords may be alphanumerical or encrypted. Unencrypted passwords that are used over the internet are not a very secure option for server protection requirements.
  • Secure socket layer (SSL) certificates: A secure socket layer or SSL certificate is a security protocol that is used to send encrypted items between web servers and browsers allowing for secure sign in and access to servers.
  • Transport layer security (TLS): This is a type of security certificate and protocol that is used in order to allow for the safe and effective handshake and access requirements for a range of items.

SUMMARY

Now that you have completed this unit, you should have the skills and knowledge to compile and evaluate business specifications from a client, and produce a set of architecture design solutions to cater for present and future forecast demands.

If you have any questions about this resource, please ask your trainer. They will be only too happy to assist you when required.

REFERENCES

Radio frequency Retrieved: 23 Aug 2019 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Radio_frequency

RFID (radio frequency identification) Retrieved: 23 Aug 2019

http://internetofthingsagenda.techtarget.com/definition/RFID-radio-frequencyidentification

Business process modeller Retrieved: 26 March 2017

Information and Communications Technology Strategic Planning Process – Information Sheet

Retrieved: 23 Aug 2019 https://www.finance.nsw.gov.au/sites/default/files/policydocuments/ICT%20SP%20Process%20Information%20Sheet%202011.pdf

Configuring TCP/IP networking

Security protocols Retrieved: 23 Aug 2019 https://www.techopedia.com/definition/29036/network-security-protocols

List of performance analysis tools Retrieved: 23 Aug 2019 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_performance_analysis_tools

Beginners Guide to Performance Profiling Retrieved

ihttps://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/d/d0/NIST_Enterprise_Architecture_Model.jpg ii http://kingofnetworking.weebly.com/uploads/7/8/7/4/7874226/215281.png?872 iii http://www.agileict.co.uk/wp-content/uploads/2013/12/networkdiagram.jpg

  • https://encrypted-tbn0.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcRIMSWsA7qfxhmJuLbeqSOl-so1ADqcA_BUukn8O7HMIAprdKF
  • https://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/library/ee449434(v=ws.10).aspx vi http://www.tcpipguide.com/free/t_DNSNameResolutionProcess-2.htm
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