MODULE 1 - Information Systems (Ch.1)
Information vs. Data
Three activities of info systems
Feedback from Output is returned to appropriate members of organization to help evaluate or correct input stage
Computer/computer program vs. info system à computers and software are technical foundation and tools of info system, similar to the materials and tools used to build a house
Dimension of Info Systems
The Link Between Information Systems and Corporate Strategy
Today, most firms will need to significantly invest in information technology in order to achieve their business objectives, as there is a growing interdependence between using IT and achieving corporate goals. Firms need to invest heavily in information systems to achieve six strategic business objectives, specifically:
Business perspective on Info systems – helps make better decision, adds value, decrease costs. Info systems call attention to organizational and managerial nature of info systems. Awareness of the organizational and managerial dimensions of information systems can help us understand why some firms achieve better results from their information systems than others. The answer lies in the concept of complementary assets. Information technology investments alone cannot make organizations and managers more effective unless they are accompanied by supportive values, structures, and behavior patterns in the organization and other complementary assets.
Approaches to Information Systems
Technical - emphasizes mathematically based models to study information systems as well as the physical technology and formal capabilities of these systems.
Behavioral - arises in the development and long-term maintenance of information systems. Deals w/ issues such as strategic business integration, design, implementation, utilization, and management.
MODULE 2 – Global E-Business & Collaboration (Ch.2)
How info tech improves business processes?
How do systems serve the different management groups in a business?
A business firm has systems to support different groups or levels of management.
How Information Systems Can Be Used to Link the Entire Organization?
One department often feeds into another and may be dependent on information and resources which are processed from other areas. Whereas TPS, MIS, DSS and EIS serve specific people at different levels of the organizational "food chain", there are some systems that need to be used by everyone in the organization. These systems are called enterprise applications and they seek to link the different areas in the enterprise. Enterprise applications can be four distinct types:
MODULE 3 – Ethical & Social Issues in Information Systems
Ethics are principles of right and wrong that individuals, acting as free moral agents, use to make choices to guide their behavior. Ethical behavior requires:
Ethics is easily managed in small groups because the group itself tends to control the individual’s behavior. It's referred to as “self-policing. The larger the group, the harder it is to manage the actions of individuals. Hence societies make laws to identify what is right and wrong and what is expected of its citizens. This expands the boundary of ethics by defining the concepts of:
The ethical principles listed in the textbook are deeply rooted in cultures around the world:
Privacy is the right to be left alone, to have control over your own personal information and possessions, and not to be observed by others without your consent.
Confidentiality is the assurance that messages and information are available only to those who are authorized to view them. Like they do with many rights of individuals, governments try to protect privacy through legislation.
Intellectual Property (IP) à is defined as intangible property of any kind (such as a piece of art, music or writing) that is created by individuals or a corporation. Ethical behavior requires the identification and protection of intellectual property. Intellectual property can be protected in three ways:
ETHICAL CONCERNS THAT INFORMATION SYSTEMS RAISE
Information systems raise new ethical questions because they create opportunities for intense social change, wealth, crime, power and influence. The social, ethical, and political issues raised by technology must be dealt with on the individual, social, and political levels.
***SEE MODULE FOR LIST COMPANIES WHO HAD INFORMATION SYSTEMS ETHICAL ISSUES***
Key Technology Trends that Raise Ethical Issues and their Impact
The digital nature of information makes it easy to copy (music), thereby infringing on the property rights of other individuals
Most information systems individuals and organizations use these days depend on the internet infrastructure. Most web pages people use for doing business transactions use simple software called “cookies,” which identify the browsers that are used to access the site, and track visits to that site. The idea behind these cookies is to save frequent visitors or those who go from page to page within a site from having to enter the same information over and over. However; such information about users may also be used for purposes such as behavioral targeting (trying to approach individuals with certain offerings based on their recorded online behavior) that jeopardizes user privacy.
A similar dilemma exists about software called “web beacons” used for identifying individuals for targeted advertising, which is supposed to be convenient for customers and effective for businesses. Likewise, people’s search behavior on services like Google or Amazon can be used for targeting people with individualized campaigns, which is a threat to privacy. To partially avoid this, a good practice is the opt-out vs. opt-in model, where opt-out allows collection of personal information unless the consumer requests otherwise, while opt-in requires the consumer to take action to approve collection and use of personal information.
BIG DATA - The Internet, along with mobile devices, sensors, social media networks, etc. has led to the era of big data where larger volumes of data in various forms (e.g., numeric, text, video, etc.) is produced today at a rate thousands of times higher than what was possible even a decade ago. Big data by itself would be of limited use if not for the advances in techniques that can process and analyze such data, i.e., analytics. They help us by saving our time when they recommend us products or services we would probably prefer or when they route us through less trafficked highways or when they help us with treatment options better suited to our genetic make-up. However, there is also a dark side to big data and analytics. For example, businesses like Progressive and Deloitte Consulting LLP use predictive modeling to identify individual customers that fit certain risk or vulnerability profiles. At a larger scale, organizations use nonobvious relationship awareness (NORA), which combine data from multiple sources to find obscure hidden connections that might help identify potential criminal behaviour. However, such profiling can also lead to false alarms, and have serious consequences for individuals, at least by depriving them of opportunities that they would otherwise have.
Five Moral Dimensions of the Information Age
Candidate Ethical Principles
READ TEXTBOOK FOR MORE INFO ON THIS CHAPTER
MODULE 4 – Case Discussions
IT Infrastructure and Emerging Technologies
Defining IT Infrastructure
○ Computing platforms providing computing services
○ Physical facilities management services
○ IT management, education, and other services
○ More accurate view of value of investments
Evolution of IT Infrastructure
Technology Drivers of Infrastructure Evolution
○ Computing power doubles every 2 years
○ The amount of data being stored each year doubles
○ Value of power of a network grows exponentially as a function of the number of
○ Exponential growth in size of the internet
○ Technology standards
■ Specifications that establish the compatibility of products and the ability to
communicate in a network
■ Unleash powerful economies of scale and result in price declines
Components of IT Infrastructure
Computer Hardware Platforms
○ Desktop PCs, laptops
○ Mobile computing: smartphones, tablets
○ Desktop chips vs. mobile chips
○ IBM mainframe
○ Digital workhorse for banking and telecommunications networks
Operating System Platforms
○ Windows server
○ Microsoft windows
○ Android, iOS, windows 10
○ Google’s chrome OS
Data Management and Storage
○ Apache Hadoop
○ EMC Corporation
○ Windows server, linux, unix
○ Cisco, juniper networks
○ Telecommunications, cable, telephone company charges for voice lines and
○ at&t, verizon
○ Web-hosting services
○ Cabling or wireless equipment
○ IBM, Dell, Oracle, HP
○ Microsoft (visual studio and .NET), oracle-sun (Java), adobe
Consulting and System Integration
Current Trends in Computer Hardware Platforms
○ Tablet computers
○ Digital ebook readers
○ Wearable devices
○ Forces businesses and IT departments to rethink how IT equipment and services
and acquired and managed
○ Uses quantum physics to represent and operate on data
○ Dramatic increases in computing speed
○ Allows single physical resource to act as multiple resources
○ Reduces hardware and power expenditures
○ Facilitates hardware centralization
○ Software defined storage
○ On demand computing services obtained over network
■ Infrastructure as a service
■ Software as a service
■ Platform as a service
○ Cloud can be public or private
○ Allows companies to minimize IT investments
○ Drawbacks: concerns of security, reliability
○ Hybrid cloud computing model
○ Practices and technologies for manufacturing, using, disposing of computing and
○ Reducing power consumption a high priority
○ Data centers
○ Multicore processors
○ Power-efficient microprocessors
Current Computer Software Platforms and Trends
○ Produced by community of programmers
○ Examples: apache web server, mozilla firefox browser, openoffice
○ Java virtual machine
○ Web browsers
○ HTML and HTML5
○ Ruby and Python
○ Web services
○ XML: extensible markup language
○ SOA: service oriented architecture
■ Set of self contained services that communicate with one another to
create a working software application
■ Software developers reuse these services in other combinations to
assemble other applications as needed
○ Software packages and enterprise software
○ Software outsourcing
○ Cloud based software services and tools
■ Service level agreements: formal agreements with service providers
Dealing with Platform and Infrastructure
○ Ability to expand to serve larger number of users
○ New policies and procedures for managing these new platforms
○ Contractual agreements with firms running clouds and distributing software
Management and Governance
■ Central IT department makes decisions
■ Business unit IT departments make own decisions
Making Wise Infrastructure Investments
○ Security requirements
○ Impact on business processes and workflow
Total Cost of Ownership Model
○ Use of cloud services, greater centralization and standardization of hardware and
Competitive Forces Model for IT Infrastructure Investment
Midterm Exam Review
○ You want to make sure every record in the database has a linkage somewhere
What is an info system
Objectives for Information Systems
Ebusiness vs e commerce
Earn back money you have spent on downloaded sample
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