Part 1: Layering and the Internet Model
Imagine that a technology organization has been in business for decades, and that the organization developed its own method of computer-to-computer communication. Because this method of communication only occurs within this organization, it is not layered, but rather is designed to operate as quickly and efficiently as possible on the custom hardware by using the least amount of overhead possible. The organization continues to create its own communication hardware and software that works with modern computers, but the CTO of the organization is considering replacing this custom communication solution with the adoption of the Internet Model in use today, along with its technologies. With this scenario in mind, address each of the topics below.
Topic 1: The Advantages of a Layered Model
Identify and describe the advantages that a layered solution would offer the technology organization when compared to its non-layered solution.
Advantages of layered model:
FitzGerald, J., Dennis, A., Durcikova, A. (2014). Business Data Communications and Networking, 12th Edition. Page 7
Topic 2: The Disadvantages of a Layered Model
Identify and describe the disadvantages of a layered solution when compared to the organization’s non-layered solution.
Disadvantage of using layered model is that it is somewhat inefficient because there are several layers, each with its own software and protocol data unit, PDU, sending a message involves many software programs (one for each protocol) and many PDUs. (FitzGerald, Dennis & Durcikova, 2015)
In our case, since organization has developed many communication hardware and software, depend on level of service/level that will be switched to, may need to modify existing systems to work with new infrastructures. And also, organization may need to train its employee to manage/support new system and infrastructure.
FitzGerald, J., Dennis, A., Durcikova, A. (2014). Business Data Communications and Networking, 12th Edition. Page 13
Topic 3: The Layers of the Internet Model
Identify the layers of the Internet Model, and explain what functionality each layer would provide for the organization, if adopted.
The Physical Layer: The physical layer is the physical connection between the sender and receiver. Its role is to transfer a series of electrical, radio, or light signals through the circuit. The physical layer includes all the hardware devices (e.g., computers, modems, and switches) and physical media (e.g., cables and satellites).
The Data Link Layer: The data link layer is responsible for moving a message from one computer to the next computer in the network path from the sender to the receiver.
The Network Layer: The network layer performs routing, in that it selects the next computer to which the message should be sent.
The Transport Layer: The transport layer performs two functions. First, it is responsible for linking the application layer software to the network and establishing end-to-end connections between the sender and receiver when such connections are needed. Second, it is responsible for breaking long messages into several smaller messages to make them easier to transmit and then recombining the smaller messages back into the original larger message at the receiving end. The transport layer can also detect lost messages and request that they be resent.
Application Layer: The application layer is the application software used by the network user and includes much of what the OSI model contains in the application, presentation, and session layers. It is the user’s access to the network. By using the application software, the user defines what messages are sent over the network.
FitzGerald, J., Dennis, A., Durcikova, A. (2014). Business Data Communications and Networking, 12th Edition. Page 9 - 10
Topic 4: Other Advantages
Are there advantages, for the organization, to adopting the Internet Model beyond those mentioned in Topic 1? If so, describe them.
In layered model, software and hardware can be developed to provide the functions of each layer separately, it will be easier to perform an upgrade compare to current system and stay up to date. Since servers could be on vendor side, most likely, organization may not need to perform any hardware upgrade for the physical layer in future.
Part 2: Application Architecture
Assume that an organization’s employees have each been given a computer to perform their work. Each computer accesses the organization’s applications via a powerful mainframe computer in the server room. When an employee types a key, the keystroke is sent to the mainframe, which in turn decides what action to take, and transmits that action back to their computer. Every keystroke is sent to the mainframe, and all decisions are made by the mainframe. Each employee’s computer acts only as an input and display device. The CTO is considering switching from its current architecture, to another architecture. With this scenario in mind, address each of the topics below.
Topic 1: Architecture Identification
Identify the application architecture in use by the organization, and explain the basic mechanics of how that architecture works.
It is host-based architecture. The basic mechanic of this architecture is the clients (usually terminals) enabled users to send and receive messages to and from the host computer. The clients merely captured keystrokes, sent them to the server for processing, and accepted instructions from the server on what to display.
FitzGerald, J., Dennis, A., Durcikova, A. (2014). Business Data Communications and Networking, 12th Edition. Page 28
Topic 2: Switching to Client-Server
Identify and explain three issues the organization would need to address if it would like to switch from its current architecture to a two-tier, client-server architecture.
Topic 3: Advantages and Disadvantages of Client-Server
Identify the advantages and disadvantages, for the organization, of switching from the organization’s current architecture to a client-server architecture.
Part 3: Digital Communication Rates
Imagine that we need to digitally download the text of a paperback book at the rate of 40 pages per minute. The number of lines per page is 25, and the number of characters per line is 65. With this scenario in mind, address each of the topics below.
Number of bits used to encode each character
Unicode 16 bits
R = b/t
where R is the bit-rate, b is the number bits, and t is the unit of time.
Number of pages: 40
Number of line per page: 25
Number of char per line: 65
b = 65 x 25 x 40 x 16 = 1040000 bits
R = 1040000/60 = 17333.3333 bits/sec
Bit per symbol: 1
Symbol Rate = (1 symbol/1 bit) x 17333.3333 bits/sec = 17333.3333 symbols/sec
As circuit encodes one bit per symbol, symbol rate is same as bits rate calculated in #4.
256-QAM sends 8 bits per symbol.
Symbol Rate = (1 symbol/8 bit) x 17333.3333 bits/sec = (2166.6666 symbols/sec) x 60 = 129999.9997 symbols/min
To get rate of 40 pages per min:
Symbol Rate = (2166.6666 symbols/sec) x (60 sec/1 min) = 129999.9997 symbols/min
Per Shannon’s formula C = B * log2(1 + S/N), channel and bandwidth are proportional. Hence, when bandwidth of circuit is tripled, capacity of the circuit will be triple as well.
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