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LIN200 Assignment 2 Phonology

LIN200 Assignment 2: Phonology/Morphology (40 points)

Phonology problem (20 points)

Consider this data-set from Québec French. Determine whether the sounds [d] and [ʣ] are different phonemes or allophones of the same phoneme in this language and dialect.

If they are different phonemes, explain how you know and what gives it away. If they are allophones of the same phoneme, list the environments, explain your reasoning briefly, and work out which allophone is the underlying form (the better label for the phoneme) and which one is derived from it.

(Note on additional phonetic symbols: [ʣ] is a voiced alveolar affricate, [y] is a high front rounded tense vowel, [ø] is a mid front rounded tense vowel, and [œ] is a mid front rounded lax vowel. and a tilde over a vowel can be safely disregarded – it just means the vowel has a bit of nasalization added to it.)

[akademɪk]     'academic'                                          [dõ]                  'of which' or 'whose'

[ʣifisɪl]           'difficult'                                            [miʣi]             'noon'

[ʣɪsʊt]            'dissolved' (feminine)                       [dø]                  'two'

[ineʣɪt]           'unpublished' (feminine)                  [ʣy]                'some'

[duʃ]                'shower'                                              [dœ]                'of'

[vãʣy]             'sold'                                                   [vɪd]                'empty'

 

Morphology warm-up: Bontoc (4 points)

Bontoc is an Austronesian language spoken in the Philippines. It derives verbs with an extra meaning of ‘become’ (from nouns or adjectives) as follows:

Word form

Meaning

Word form

Meaning

fikas

‘strong’

bato

‘stone’

fumikas

‘becomes strong’

bumato

‘becomes stone’

1a. Assume that the process above is entirely regular, then fill in the blanks. (1 point each)

Word form

Meaning

Word form

Meaning

fusul

‘enemy’

 

‘red’

 

‘becomes enemy’

kumilad

‘becomes red’

1b. How many morphemes does bumato contain? Explain. (2 points)

 

Morphology problem: Kashaya (16 points)

Here are some different forms of verbs in Kashaya (an indigenous language spoken in California). Use the evidence you have to fill in the blanks (2 points each). Be careful with the diacritics!

Note: The forms with exclamation marks after them are imperatives (i.e. ways of ordering someone to do something, as in ‘give me that!’).

Note: One of the morphemes is tricky in that its spelling changes across words. See if you can work out the pattern, then follow that rule when you need to for the verb forms.

Verb form

Meaning

Verb form

Meaning

bahcúw

‘to jump’

kelci

‘peek!’

 

‘after peeking’

bahcubedu

‘always jumps’

kelcíw

‘to peek’

cahci

 
 

‘always sits down’

cahcíw

‘to sit down’

mobahcúw

‘after jumping’

coqo

 

bahcu

 

mocahcíw

‘after sitting down’

mocoqów

 

kelcikedu

 

coqocedu

‘always shoots’

coqów

 
/Morphology (40 points)

Phonology problem (20 points)

Consider this data-set from Québec French. Determine whether the sounds [d] and [ʣ] are different phonemes or allophones of the same phoneme in this language and dialect.

If they are different phonemes, explain how you know and what gives it away. If they are allophones of the same phoneme, list the environments, explain your reasoning briefly, and work out which allophone is the underlying form (the better label for the phoneme) and which one is derived from it.

(Note on additional phonetic symbols: [ʣ] is a voiced alveolar affricate, [y] is a high front rounded tense vowel, [ø] is a mid front rounded tense vowel, and [œ] is a mid front rounded lax vowel. and a tilde over a vowel can be safely disregarded – it just means the vowel has a bit of nasalization added to it.)

[akademɪk]     'academic'                                          [dõ]                  'of which' or 'whose'

[ʣifisɪl]           'difficult'                                            [miʣi]             'noon'

[ʣɪsʊt]            'dissolved' (feminine)                       [dø]                  'two'

[ineʣɪt]           'unpublished' (feminine)                  [ʣy]                'some'

[duʃ]                'shower'                                              [dœ]                'of'

[vãʣy]             'sold'                                                   [vɪd]                'empty'

 

Morphology warm-up: Bontoc (4 points)

Bontoc is an Austronesian language spoken in the Philippines. It derives verbs with an extra meaning of ‘become’ (from nouns or adjectives) as follows:

Word form

Meaning

Word form

Meaning

fikas

‘strong’

bato

‘stone’

fumikas

‘becomes strong’

bumato

‘becomes stone’

1a. Assume that the process above is entirely regular, then fill in the blanks. (1 point each)

Word form

Meaning

Word form

Meaning

fusul

‘enemy’

 

‘red’

 

‘becomes enemy’

kumilad

‘becomes red’

1b. How many morphemes does bumato contain? Explain. (2 points)

 

Morphology problem: Kashaya (16 points)

Here are some different forms of verbs in Kashaya (an indigenous language spoken in California). Use the evidence you have to fill in the blanks (2 points each). Be careful with the diacritics!

Note: The forms with exclamation marks after them are imperatives (i.e. ways of ordering someone to do something, as in ‘give me that!’).

Note: One of the morphemes is tricky in that its spelling changes across words. See if you can work out the pattern, then follow that rule when you need to for the verb forms.

Verb form

Meaning

Verb form

Meaning

bahcúw

‘to jump’

kelci

‘peek!’

 

‘after peeking’

bahcubedu

‘always jumps’

kelcíw

‘to peek’

cahci

 
 

‘always sits down’

cahcíw

‘to sit down’

mobahcúw

‘after jumping’

coqo

 

bahcu

 

mocahcíw

‘after sitting down’

mocoqów

 

kelcikedu

 

coqocedu

‘always shoots’

coqów

 

hihi

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