The paper focuses on generating a discussion relating to different types of motivation theories like Maslow’s Need Hierarchy Model, Alderfer’s ERG Theory, Vroom’s Expectancy Model and McClelland’s Need Theory to evaluate the manner the managers and employers are required to motivate the staffs to generate needed performances and productivity. Empirical studies enabled through the use of books, journals and articles would be used to gain required inferences.
Abraham Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Theory can be effectively used in an organisation in terms of enhancing the workplace culture and also has needed impacts on the performances of the employees. It also has effective implications on the human resource management of the organisation. The Needs Theory of Abraham Maslow is reflected in the following illustration.
The theory can be effectively used by managers and employers to motivate the staffs and employees in terms of generation of rewards and benefits financial and non-financial, tangible and non-tangible in nature. The same is used by the managers and employers to contribute in effectively motivating the staffs to generate the right quality of performances. Similarly the Need Hierarchy Theory can also be used by the managers to help employees in earning self-actualisation in terms of understanding and evaluating one’s potential and skills to contribute in the generation of greater productivity (Jerome, 2013).
="text-align: justify;">The safety needs reflected in the need hierarchy pyramid can also be met by the organisational managers in terms of enhancement of workplace safety. Further the need hierarchy theory also contributes in cultivating the organisational culture such that the same helps in meeting the physiological and security related needs of the people. The meeting of the physiological and security related needs of the people rightly contributes in motivating the employees to generate effective performances in the workplace (Msoroka, 2013). Moreover the focus of the managers on development of employee potentials in terms of generation of training programs and also in development of interactions rightly contributes in meeting the social needs of the people. Taking care of the basic physiological and social needs of the people contribute in developing a sense of belongingness for the employees towards the organisation. It helps in developing a sense of loyalty for the organisation thus motivating the people to generate needed performances. Esteem needs of the people are addressed by the organisational managers in terms of recognising their potentials and in appraising such in the public (Kaur, 2013).
Alderfer ERG Theory evaluates that an individual is motivated based on three types of needs related to Existence, Relatedness and Growth parameters. Existence needs of an individual relate to the need for meeting the physiological and safety needs of the people while Relatedness needs of the individuals reflect on the social, interaction and interpersonal needs of the individual workers. Growth needs of individuals relate to their interest of excelling in their fields and thereby in earning due recognition and social status (Caulton, 2012).
The use of the ERG Theory in the workplace can be effectively done in terms of understanding the means to help in meeting the Existence related needs of the people in the workplace. Managers and employers are required to focus on generating effective rewards and benefits both financial and non-financial in addition to development of safety and employee welfare policies. The same contributes in sustaining the employees in the organisation. Existence related needs of the employees are also met by the organisational managers in terms of enhancing the level of job security of the employees in the workplace (Konrad et al., 2013). Similarly the generation of training and skill development programs and also in the encouragement of teamwork in the organisation effectively contributes in meeting the Relatedness needs of the employees can also be developed in terms of encouragement of informal communication in the organisation and also in development of interaction between the different levels of the staffs in the organisation (Konrad et al., 2013).
The Growth related needs of the employees and staffs in the organisation relate to the generation of increased opportunities for growth for the managerial staffs. It is evident that the managerial staffs are always in the lookout for better opportunities and thus tend to shift from one organisation to another in search for better opportunities. Organisations are thus required to develop a culture that helps in fostering a culture reflected needed innovation, empowerment and personal growth. The same would contribute in effectively reducing the attrition levels of the managerial workforce in the organisation. Managers and top executives aim to gain an effective organisational culture which would help them in taking the right quality of decisions and also in conducting of social experiments in the organisation to gain new and potential insights (Arnolds & Boshoff, 2002).
McClelland’s Theory of Learned Needs reflects three types of needs like the need for power, affiliation and also for achievement related to the organisational managers. The theory tends to identify three specific needs of individuals like need for power, need for achievement and also need for affiliation. Individuals seeking greater power in the organisation focus on governing and monitoring the action of others like the employees and subordinate staffs to help in meeting of departmental and organisational objectives. Individuals with a strong need for achievement focus on meeting goals and objectives in an effective fashion such that it helps them to earn potential success. Finally the individual seeking increased affiliation with others employees, managers and staffs in the organisation focus on developing effective relationships, associations and networks with others in meeting of stated objectives and goals (Napolitano, 2014).
The application of McClelland’s Theory of Motivation can be effectively exercised relating to an organisation. The staffs and managers reflecting increased need for gaining success and achievement are required to be rightly trained in that the same contributes in enhancing their skills and expertise in handling tasks and functions demanding greater responsibilities. Persons desiring increased achievement are observed to have an inclination of handling challenging tasks such that the meeting of the same contributes in generating an enhanced place in the organisation. Thus new and challenging tasks are needed to be offered to the persons desiring achievement and are also generated potential feedbacks from time to time to help in enhancing their skill base and potentials (Strycharczyk & Elvin, 2014).
On the other hand, the managerial individuals seeking power can be delegated to departments where there is increased competition and thereby requires the effective monitoring and governance of the staffs to contribute in the meeting of desired objectives. Managerial staffs reflecting increased need for affiliation can be encouraged to work based on a team based culture in that the same would contribute in meeting their needs for conducting the tasks in an associated and network driven environment (Worth, 2013).
The expectancy theory developed by Victor Vroom is essentially based on three different variables like value, expectancy and also instrumentality. Value relates to the significance generated to the outcome related to a specific situation. Expectancy relates to the linking of success of the situation gained by an individual to the outcome or result emanating from meeting the situation. Finally the level of instrumentality is related where the expectancy of the outcome earns effective linkage to the outcome resulting from the situation. Motivation is observed by Vroom as the product of the Value, Expectancy and Instrumentality such that Motivation = E x V x I (Burn, 2011).
The implication of the Vroom’s Expectancy Theory in the workplace is devised based on the following model.
The expectancy parameter can be exercised by the managers in terms of making the staffs and employees understand their potential and efforts would lead to generate effective performances. The same can be done by managers in terms of evaluation and selection for the right type of individuals with required skill and knowledge in meeting the objectives and specifications related to a particular job. Further the individuals can be effective trained to contribute in enhancing their skills, know-how and potentials to gain needed confidence and solidarity in meeting the job expectations. Similarly the organisational managers are required to assign needed infrastructural and resource based support to the employees to assist them in meeting of task objectives (Bernstein, 2010). Similarly the organisational managers are continually required to interact with the staffs to contribute in gaining of needed feedbacks from them to enhance the job environment and also take part in problem-solving activities to rightly contribute in meeting of tasks in an enhanced and effective fashion. Change of job roles and also assigning employees greater and complex tasks based on training rightly contributes in increasing the confidence levels of the employees to proactively meet the job or task expectations (STEERS et al., 2004).
In the second place, the Vroom’s expectancy model can be used by the managers to make the employees believe that conducting the right type of performances would contribute in generating the right type of rewards. The same is conducted by the managers in terms of conducting job performance and evaluation of the staffs and thereby in generating rewards based on the performances generated. Historical comparisons can also be generated in terms of highlighting the manner employees have been rewarded for like performances. Thus the rewards desired by the staffs are required to be effectively linked to the performances required of them by the business managers. Effective compensation systems are needed to be set related to the performance levels of the employees Development of incentive plans and piece rate systems are made by managers in terms of linking the volumes sold or produced by the staffs to create needed motivation (Martinko et al., 2002).
Finally the managers are also required to enhance the value of rewards generating from desired level of performances. Thus it is required for the managers to decide on the rewards desired or expected by the employees before aligning such with the performances desired or expected of them. It is observed that where some employees desire of earning promotions others focus on gaining of potential monetary and non-monetary incentives as a part of the incentive program. Some other employees also focus on earning of effective recognition and appraisals in terms of the performances conducted by the superiors and managers in the organisation (Hughes, 2012). Some companies have thus focused on the development of different types of incentive and benefit plans to encourage the employees in selecting such to be rewarded to them in terms of the performances conducted. The employees are however required to satiate the job and organisational objectives rather than to focus on the meeting of the group norms. The group norms are observed to require the staffs to generate minimal effort to generate lesser value where the job objectives and the organisation require the employees to generate increased or enhanced performances (Lunenburg, 2011).
The above discussion thus reflects the manner in which Vroom’s Expectancy Theory can be rightly implemented by the managers in the business organisation to rightly motivate the staffs in generating greater performances.
The paper effectively analyses different motivation theories like Maslow’s Need Hierarchy Model, Alderfer’s ERG Theory, Vroom’s Expectancy Model and McClelland’s Need Theory to understand and evaluate the fashion in which the organisational managers can effectively use such in motivating the staffs to generate needed performances. Both empirical and practical discussions are carried out through the use of secondary research based on the use of books, journals and articles to essentially reflect on the fashion the motivational tools are used and strategically employed to contribute in generating greater productivity and performances related to the different departments and the organisation as a whole. It also reflects on the timeless use of such motivation models and theories related to the motivation of staffs at their respective workplaces.
The use of the Maslow’s Need Hierarchy Model reflects the process in which the managers can effectively design motivational strategies to contribute in meeting of the different types of needs of the staffs to generate needed performances and productivity. Similarly the ERG Model of Alderfer also reflects the fashion in which the Existence, Relatedness and Growth parameters can be rightly addressed by the organisational managers to motivate the people in generating needed performances. Vroom’s Expectancy Model in use also reflects the mode of formulating motivation strategies based on meeting the parameters of expectancy, value and the instrumentality parameters to enhance the motivation levels of the staffs. Likewise the McClelland’s Theory is depicted to be used in meeting the needs of the staffs related to power, achievement and affiliation to thereby encourage them in meeting production and performance objectives.
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Kaur, A., 2013. Maslow’s Need Hierarchy Theory: Applications and Criticisms. Global Journal of Management and Business Studies, 3(10), pp.1061-64.
Konrad, A.M. et al., 2013. Temporary Work, Underemployment and Workplace Accommodations: Relationship to Well-being for Workers with Disabilities. British Journal of Management, 24, pp.367-82.
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