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Mba505-Concept Of Job Satisfaction Or Assessment Answer



The aim of this essay is to discuss the various theories associated with job satisfaction and motivation that the employees feel when they enter a company. This essay has discussed the concept of job satisfaction or dissatisfaction in detail. These concepts are supported by three most important theories like the Two-Factor Theory, Hierarchy Needs and Equity Theory of motivation. This essay has described all the aspects of personal experience in the job of production manager of a renowned international firm and discussed the demotivational factors leading to dissatisfaction of the job.

Concept of job satisfaction or dissatisfaction:

The concept of job satisfaction or dissatisfaction is a measure of the contended ness of the employees whether they like to work in that workplace or not and the individual aspects of job like the nature of the jobs or the supervision, job satisfaction is measured through behavioural, affective and cognitive components (Homberg, McCarthy and Tabvuma 2015). The researchers have pointed out that the meaning of job satisfaction is a positive and pleasurable emotional state that resulted from the appraisal of the job experiences. There are some facets depending upon which the employees’ job satisfaction provide positive or negative effect (Knutsson 2017). These facts include communication, appreciation, job conditions, fringe benefits, nature of the jobs, personal growth, organisation, process and policies of the companies, security, recognition and supervision (van et al. 2017).

There are different theories regarding job satisfaction or dissatisfaction. Among these the Two-Factor Theory, Hierarchy Needs and Equity Theory are most prominent theories of motivation. Two factor theory was proposed by Frederick Herzberg which attempts to explain the motivation and satisfaction in the workplace. This particular theory defines that there are only factors that manipulate the satisfaction and dissatisfaction factors. These two factors are motivation and hygiene factors (Åkerstedt and Kecklund 2017). This theory found that some of the aspects of the job cause satisfaction therefore, lead to motivation and another part leads to dissatisfaction hence demotivation. To the theorist, the demotivation does not always result in dissatisfaction but no satisfaction. Through proper understanding of the factors that make the employees motivated to do the job, the organization can create job design. The motivational factors include the aspects of jobs which make people influenced to perform and find satisfaction (Kühnel et al. 2018). On the other hand, the hygiene factors include the facets of work ambience such as the interpersonal matters, working conditions, organizational policies and much more like these. The positive factors that relate with the job satisfaction are the motivators. As found in the figure 1. these positive factors include achievements, recognitions, responsibility, opportunities and innovation scope.

Figure 1. Herzberg Two-Factor Theory

(Source: 2018)

Maslow’s Need Hierarchy Theory is based on the normal human needs. The theorist has identified five levels of need hierarchy which include physiological needs, safety needs, social needs, esteem needs and self-actualisation (Skogstad et al. 2015). The physiological needs are included in the basic needs of the human beings where the people need food, clothes, shelter, pure water and air. These are the factors associated with the human survival and lack of these elements, may tremendously influence their behaviour (Zhu et al. 2014). The safety needs include the security from mental and physical dangers along with the financial security. From financial insecurity originates the desire to work more which motivate the employees of the organizations (Ramin et al. 2015). The social needs include the people’s interest in the social interaction, belongings and companionships. This is the reason why the people of the organisations prefer to work in a group rather than working individually in a project (Coyne et al. 2017). In addition to this the old workers fee attracted to do job in their ex-companies. The esteem needs refer to the self-respect and individual reputation of the employees of the companies. In various organisational cultures, the parameters of achievement are different but the needs of respect and recognition is same (Bowling et al. 2015). These needs include the feeling of self-confidence, capability to grow more useful in the companies and grow strengths to achieve career development. As seen in the figure 2. self-actualisation needs refer to the feeling fulfilment which means that the human beings need to achieve actualisation in which they are potential. It is the motivation of transforming perceptions of the self in to the reality.

Figure 2. Maslow’s Need Hierarchy Theory

(Source: Ozguner and Ozguner 2014)

The equity theory defines how the persons view fairness in regard to the social connectivity (Junare and John 2015). The employees of an organisation identify the amounts of input for the relationships and compare them with the output thus produce an input output ratio. Then they compare this ratio with the ratio of the other people or their co-workers and measure whether they have an equitable relationship (Bhave and Glomb 2016). According to this theory, if people find that there is an inequality among the two or more social groups, they lead to get distressed by the unequal ratio between input and output. The later psychologists have pointed out that the equity theory has three specific behavioural responding patterns to every situation of apparent equity or inequity. These three types are equity sensitive, entitles and benevolent. These three types always affect the suspect of motivation, job satisfaction and job performance (Bowling et al. 2015). The benevolent employees of the organization get satisfied when they remain under rewarded in comparison to their co-workers, the equity sensitives believe that each of the employees must be fairly treated and awarded and entitled employees believe that each and everything they actually receive from the organizations are just due to them.  

Figure 3. Equity theory

(Source: Junare and John 2015)

Description of personal experience: 

I was connected with a small company of Australia which used to operate in the automobile parts manufacturing industry of the country. The role and responsibility in the organization I used to play was of a higher division employee. In this position I was responsible to take care of the production of the two team of employees working under me. In this regard I had to monitor an all-inclusive growth of the employees working under me. I had to make them understand about the important and effective polices and regulations of the organization and the organizational objectives efficiently so that they can remain motivated all the time and help the organisation to reach the desired goal (Bowling et al. 2015). The employees of those teams however had no such compliant against the policies and wages hence looked to be satisfied with what the company is doing.  However, as an employee of that automobile parts manufacturing company, I was not very satisfied with my job. In this regard I can refer two different factors that demotivated me from remaining attached with that particular company.

The automobile parts manufacturing industry of Australia was much advanced with highly advanced technological support. However, like other companies operating in this particular industry, my company was a subsidiary branch of an international automobile parts company which has its head quarter situated in the United Kingdom. This is the reason why the company has both the expatriate employees as well as the locals. Most of the lower division employees in the teams are associated with the direct production of the car parts and have local background. Some of the line managers like me also have Australian background but all the high-level managers were from UK. This is the reason why some case of discrimination on the basis of cultural background took place in my organization.

There were two factors that demotivated me in getting attached with this company were associated with the poor communication with the higher-level authorities and the lack of recourse for poor performance. As a medium level manager in the company, I take care of the two most important teams in the organization (Judge et al. 2017). Therefore, I need to have a lot of information about the regulations and decisions of the company. This is due to the fact that I work with the grass root level employees and come across various questions and challenges. In this regard, I cannot serve my fellow workers with all those elements they need for developing themselves and support the production of the company. The communication gap between me and the higher-level expatriate employees of the firm was much wider and its intensity was gradually growing with time. The employees therefore, ended up guessing things, confused and at last frustrated. My inability to answer them effectively increased my dissatisfaction hence I felt demotivated thus I failed to motivate my fellows effectively. Lack of communication with the higher-level management, I felt gradual deterioration of clarity among the employees as this lead to have a timely response of all the issues. This also led to achievement of healthy environment and thus effective advancement of the employees in the organisation. 

In addition to this, the lack of recourse for poor performance was another aspect of my dissatisfaction with my job. Every one of the employees wanted to be rewarded for their jobs or whatever he of she has contributed for the upliftment of the organization. On the other hand, the companies need to take more care to either provide trainings for developing skills to the mediocre employees or take initiative to terminate them so that the environment of the workplace remains motivated (Ruggiero and Redeker, 2014). In my company, the reward system was good though showed slight partiality with the local employees but the initiatives to reduce the number of mediocre outputs from this branch was not present in my company. This is the reason why I found some of my co-workers reluctant to utilise their potential completely hence provided middling result in their jobs. By referring to them, the lower level employees also started to get demotivated to produce high quality output despite they used to be strong performers once (Homberg, McCarthy and Tabvuma 2015). This method of doing worse jobs and getting same treatment with others are the demotivating factor present in the workplace which compelled some of the employees as they did not find this place for effective career development.

Three theories of motivation:

As mentioned above, the two-factor theory of motivation has far reaching effect on the job satisfaction of the employees. This can be related with my case. Bothe the motivation as well as hygiene factor was partially present in my corporation. The payment system of the company was highly satisfying but the working condition where the employees used to work under tremendously unhealthy condition. Moreover, the management did not take care of changing the policies with time hence there were problems and confusion among the lower level employees. The motivation factors like promotion opportunities, recognition and achievement for the lower level employees are not much managed hence various issues emerged (Figuer 4).

From the perspective of equity theory, I am an equity sensitive person as I cannot bear the inequality of recognition among the employees with similar potential. There are problems of showing partiality to the employees with high social or cultural background. In addition to this, the management not always support the highly potential employees with proper reward and recognition which has created dissatisfaction among the employees of the lower level. In my case I have seen this similar initiative take against me where less attached or responsible line manager gets priority and recognition. This is the reason why I felt demotivated and gradually left the company.

Figure 4. Job satisfaction and rewards

(Source: author’s creation)

The hierarchy need theory also support my position and thought process (Leder et al. 2016). The more people need, the more they work but, in my case, I initially tried to fulfil my need of esteem hence worked with more effort. However, gradually I found the demotivating factors I the company increasing hence failed to keep myself motivated and achieve the esteem needs.


Therefore, it can be concluded that the job satisfaction depends upon various factors which can be understood through proper understanding of Two-Factor Theory, Hierarchy Needs and Equity Theory. There are different levels of motivation which are directly connected with the job satisfaction. The dissatisfying personal experience has been discussed descriptively with examples. This dissatisfying job experience led to demotivation which is perfectly supported by three of these motivation theories. 


Åkerstedt, T. and Kecklund, G., 2017. What work schedule characteristics constitute a problem to the individual? A representative study of Swedish shift workers. Applied ergonomics, 59, 320-325.

Bhave, D.P. and Glomb, T.M., 2016. The role of occupational emotional labor requirements on the surface acting–job satisfaction relationship. Journal of Management, 42(3), pp.722-741.

Bowling, N.A., Khazon, S., Meyer, R.D. and Burrus, C.J., 2015. Situational strength as a moderator of the relationship between job satisfaction and job performance: A meta-analytic examination. Journal of Business and Psychology, 30(1), pp.89-104.

Bowling, N.A., Khazon, S., Meyer, R.D. and Burrus, C.J., 2015. Situational strength as a moderator of the relationship between job satisfaction and job performance: A meta-analytic examination. Journal of Business and Psychology, 30(1), pp.89-104.

Coyne, I., Farley, S., Axtell, C., Sprigg, C., Best, L. and Kwok, O., 2017. Understanding the relationship between experiencing workplace cyberbullying, employee mental strain and job satisfaction: a dysempowerment approach. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 28(7), pp.945-972.

Homberg, F., McCarthy, D. and Tabvuma, V., 2015. A meta?analysis of the relationship between public service motivation and job satisfaction. Public Administration Review, 75(5), pp.711-722. (2018). WileyPLUS - Herzberg's two-factor theory. [online] Available at: [Accessed 3 Sep. 2018].

Judge, T.A., Weiss, H.M., Kammeyer-Mueller, J.D. and Hulin, C.L., 2017. Job attitudes, job satisfaction, and job affect: A century of continuity and of change. Journal of Applied Psychology, 102(3), p.356.

Junare, S. O. and John, P. G., 2015. A Study on Importance of Employee Satisfaction for Employee Loyalty and Controlling Employee Turn-Over in Pharmaceutical Industry. Asian Journal of Research in Business Economics and Management, 5(1), 1-11.

Knutsson, A., 2017. Mortality of shift workers. Scandinavian journal of work, environment & health, 43(2), 97-98.

Kühnel, J., Sonnentag, S., Bledow, R. and Melchers, K. G., 2018. The relevance of sleep and circadian misalignment for procrastination among shift workers. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 91(1), 110-133.

Leder, S., Newsham, G. R., Veitch, J. A., Mancini, S. and Charles, K. E., 2016. Effects of office environment on employee satisfaction: a new analysis. Building Research & Information, 44(1), 34-50.

Ozguner, Z. and Ozguner, M., 2014. A managerial point of view on the relationship between of Maslow's hierarchy of needs and Herzberg's dual factor theory. International Journal of Business and Social Science, 5(7).

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