Meat Industry

1 Chapter 1: Introduction

1.1 Introduction

This research proposal is designed to develop deep understanding about the Potential of Meat

Industry in India and the repercussions of beef ban. Centre of this academic research is just to investigate that how repercussions of beef ban has been affecting the potential meat market of India. Indian meat industry has been playing an imperative role in Indian economy (Parikh and Miller,. 2019). It has not been only providing meat but also providing by-products for human consumption. In India this industry is equally important unlike other industries as it is a livelihood security of millions of workers. India has lots of animal species which has been contributing towards meat industry. In the case of cow, scenario is indeed different. The new beef ban has been created stir in two industries of India that is meat and Leather (Nomani and Salman,. 2016). The introductory chapter includes a brief background of the topic and the organisation as well as provides the aims, objectives, limitations of the study.

1.2  Background and Scope of the Research Project

Indian food processing industry can be divided into two parts that is agro-based industries and animal based industry. We have been clearly aware that animals are the sources for food products like meat, milk, eggs, cheese and yogurt. In the case of meat, things are not complicated till the cow is not clearly mentioned in the species which has been contributing towards meat production. Beef is a culinary name given to meat which is being consumed all over the world. India is a largest beef exporter which has been accounting for 97% of the total exported meat (APEDA.., 2015). Currently, India is exporting beef to 15 countries but now paradoxical relation of India with beef has been got stuck into new controversy. The sacredness of the cow in India can be estimated from the fact that it is a divinely figured for Hindus. Cow slaughtering was always an illegal in most of the states of India but this time new livestock market rule has been broadened the definition of cattle. As per the new rule 2017, the word cattle has been including bulls, bullocks, buffaloes, steers, heifers, calves, camels as animals which cannot be sold out for slaughtering. This new law has been not only affected the livelihood of millions of butchers or vendors but also brought the leather industry on the verge of turmoil. Along with prohibiting of sale, there are number of various compliances that need to be met by all state of the India. This ban has been initiated a nationwide debate over the slaughtering of cow. However this has been also kept the various contentious and emotive issues at forefront. Another aspect of this discussion is that whenever any government impose any law has some effect and affect on the different sectors of the economy. Just looking at the one aspect of the law, objectives of the research cannot be achieved otherwise it will be a biased research. Motive of this research is just to draw an unbiased picture about how the beef ban has been affecting the potential meat industry of India.

1.3 Rational Of the Research

Some of the people has the view that beef ban has been severely affecting the lives of cattle farmer. As per their view, it has not been only killing the thriving buffalo meat processing trade but also upsetting the beef trade at global level by choking the supply. There is a demand of Indian beef at global level because of its lean and organic nature. Price in the global market has been got raised for the beef as Indian government has posed the ban on slaughtering of cattle. Secondly they have been claiming that slaughtering of buffalo must not be banned as there is no social taboo over it. This is a one aspect of the scenario. The other aspect says that there are various reason for which India must impose beef ban in the country. First reason for this is that cow is a venerated animal in India. Its slaughtering may cause distress among people. Secondly it has been found in many cases that cows are being often slaughtered with buffalo at most unofficial abattoirs. Their meat is being mixed in order to meet the market demand. Thus the rational of the research is to analyse the repercussions of beef ban in India

1.4 Problem Of The statement

Problem associated with this research topic is that beef ban has been directly and indirectly affecting the different industries of the country.  Leather industry and meat processing industry are the one which are getting killed directly. Milk industry is the indirect one which is getting affected due to beef ban. This is because India is exporting beef because here lot of milking animals are there. These animals are being sold to livestock market when they no longer produce the milk (Ahuja, and Prakash., 2017). On similar front this is truly inhuman to be turning blind to the cruelty and trauma through which cattle are going through in unlicensed and ill-equipped slaughter houses. Therefore, the present research will focus on that how repercussions of beef-ban have been affecting the potential meat trade of India at national and global level. Earlier also various researches have been carried out on the same topic but still gaps are prevailing in them. Therefore this research will assist in getting clear understanding that is the decision of the government sensible or not.

1.5 Research Question

The primary question of the research paper is presented below:

“How the repercussions of the beef-ban have been affecting the potential meat market of India?”

The research question helps in examine the relationship between repercussions of the beef-ban and potential meat market of India.

1.6 Research Aim and Objectives

The various objectives of the research have been determined in association with the research question considered. The objectives are as follows:

  • To critically analyse the social, political and cultural repercussions of the beef ban in India.
  • To critically analyse the impact of notification over the different sector.
  • To explore the possible reasons for the notification by the ruling party

1.7 Layout of the research:

The structure of the research has been followed by the researcher is explained below. This layout has been helping the researcher in conducting the research in appropriate manner and leading it in right direction while giving due importance to every section of the paper. 

Chapter 1: The research aims, objectives, questions and significance of the research are the few of the topics that have been included in the introduction section of the research. The scope and a brief background about the topic have been mentioned in this chapter.

Chapter 2: In this section researcher has been summarizing the data related to research questions and objectives that already exists in the previous literature. 

Chapter 3: The methodology chapter has been explaining about the methods and techniques that are to be adopted by the researcher in its research so that research work can be conducted appropriately.

Chapter 4: The data analysis chapter is going to evaluate the data that has been obtained through data collection technique. This data is being analysed and simplified in the form of charts in order to recognize the common pattern for the conclusion.

Chapter 5: It is the last section of the dissertation in which conclusion of the research is concluded as well as recommendation for the research will be suggested

2 Chapter2- Literature Review

2.1 Beef Ban In India and Possible Reason to Impose

Before collecting the various data regarding repercussions of beef ban, there is a sheer need to about the legality of the notification. This means that what has been notifies in this rule which has been initiated the spate of reactions from every corner of the country. After the announcement of notification by union government, various kinds of protests have been got their place in the national headlines. Researcher Chakrobati (2017) has been mentioned in its article that this new law has even disappointed the die-hard supporter of the government. In its article researcher has been asked that was it really necessary to pose the ban on slaughtering of cattle. In order to find out the reality researcher has been deeply explained about the new market rule that is prevention of cruelty to animals (Sunder., 2019). As per the researcher, environment minister under the Prime Minister Narendra Modi has imposed the ban on buying and selling of cattle for slaughter. This one is just a overview of the notification. It has not been representing the legal manoeuvre of this law. Researcher has been stated that as per the constitution of India, legal policy control over the cattle slaughter has been under the judiciary of the state. That is why in India different cow protection laws have been applicable in different states (Mahendra ., 2016).

Similarly other researcher has also explained this notification in its article. He has told that in this notification, government has clearly defined the word cattle. For instance cows, buffaloes, oxen, calves, bulls, heifers and camels are the animals which has been included in the name of cattle (Sharma., 2020). Earlier cattle were used to be traded in the local fairs and weekly markets. Earlier loose definition of cattle has been giving opportunity to animal traffickers to take advantage. As per the law, two committees have been formed to have animal market registration and for market management at local level. Main motive of this law is to ensure that only healthy animals are being sold for agricultural purposes. Many people have been got outraged that government has meddled with people’s food choice. Another motive of this law is to stop the illegal sale and trafficking of the livestock (Sarkar and Sarkar., 2016). Researcher has been added further that government has not been imposed a blanket ban on cattle slaughtering. Even with the passing time government has been diluting the rules on cattle sale.

2.2 Effect of Beef-Ban

Khan et al., (2016) has been discussed in its journal that government has been taken the initiation with a motive to modernize the supply chain of meat industry. So that whenever any quality issue pop up then back tracing can be done for the meat across the nation. However it is also fact that imposition of this act has been stuck the business of various industries like leather industry, milk industry and meat industry itself. It is a fact that not only Muslim but Christians as well as scheduled tribes have also been forced to look for alternatives (Natrajan., 2018). This is because buffalo meat has been rich source of protein which is available at cheap price as compared to others.

Another direct repercussion of beef ban is being faced by the people who have been working in the meat industry. Most of these people working in this industry has been belonging to minority or backward classes. Farmers, workers, retailers, middleman are the just few example of same. Following figure has been showing the meat value chain of buffalo.

Researcher Omer et al (2018) stated that government has not been provided any alternative for them for earning their livelihood. Cattle procurement, its processing, deboning, packing are the parts of supply chain which has been got affected due to implementation of beef ban in India. Another aftermath of this ban is that farmers have to make double expenses for looking after these unwanted cattle. Researcher Omer et al (2018) included that along with beef exporter, India is a largest milk producer of the world but this industry is being also affected by this regulation (APEDA .,2015). This is because an unproductive cow really becomes burden on the farmers.

Along with economical impact, this regulation has been causing social and cultural impact over the society. Researcher has been accepting that government has not imposed the regulation to outrage the religious intention of the people. Otherwise government has not been included camel, bullocks and steer in the definition of cattle (The Guardian.,2020). But still environment has been got vitiated due to the increasing cases of cow vigilantism and lynching murders all across the nation. States like Rajasthan, Gujarat, Jharkhand, Haryana, Delhi etc. has imposed this regulations strictly and has been reported the higher incidents of lynching in their states (Khan et al.,2016).

2.3 Effect Of Ban on Industry  

Details of the above figure have been depicting that before beef ban country was accounting for 1/5th of the global supply of beef (Wilkes., 2020). Quantity of export has been got plunged in last two years. It has been found that India has been achieved exponential growth rate in export of beef in the global market due to unconventional export of the government. Before current government of India, Government has been allotting subsidies in various fields to improve the business further. Transportation and modernization of the plant are the example of same. Scenario has been got change for the country with the imposition of beef-ban. The following table has been showing that India has been got slipped to second position in beef export. Before Beef ban it was a leading player in the global market in this sector (Banerjee ., 2020).

Above discussion was just a global perspective of a beef ban. While moving to other prospective of beef ban is that it has been affecting meat industry as well as leather industry of India. Researcher Ghosla (2017) has been mentioned in its article that beef ban has been creating ripples through   various global brands lie Zara, Marks & Spencer and Prada. Companies have been enquiring their suppliers for checking stock availability in order to meet their commitments. Along with this, researcher has been added that due to the ban on cattle slaughtering in India exporters have been opting for Bangladesh leather market (Ghosal ., 2020). This may causes great set back to Indian leather industry.

2.4 Literature Gap

There have been various researches conducted in relation to repercussion of beef ban in the potential meat market of India. Still there have been very few studies which are including every facts and figures that are related to topic. The traditional reviews were based on the single factor that present government has been making efforts just to protect religious sentiments of majority section rather than protecting the breed. Most of the studies have been presenting the one aspect of the law. That is what the aftermaths of this ban are? No one has been discussing about the facts that why this ban has been imposed and what are the intentions behind the implementation?. Therefore in this study will try its best to make deep investigation about the repercussion of beef ban and will try to draw clear and unbiased picture about the economic and social impact of the bills.

3 Chapter 3: Research Methodology

3.1 Research Design and Approach:

Exploratory research design is the type of research design which has been adopted by the researcher in these papers. This type of research design will assist the researcher in exploring the research topic related to the potential of meat industry in India and the repercussions of beef ban and the research paper will not give any conclusive or final answers to the research questions. Therefore the users will take advantage of the opportunity to utilize the concerned study for deep exploration about the effects of beef ban over the Indian meat industry (Morgan, 2013).

Researcher has been utilized an inductive approach in the research. With the help of this approach the researcher will collect the data for the study purpose which is relevant for the topic of interest. Conclusion for the research will be drawn with the help of  existing theories. General observations will be presented rather than making conclusive pieces of evidence.

3.2 Research Method

Different researchers have been putting their best efforts to carry out their research. In this paper, data has been collected through qualitative method of data collection. In this study, different theories and journals have been referred by the researcher in order to investigate and analyse the research topic. That is why for this topic the qualitative method of data collection has been adopted by the researcher. In this type of methods, data is being collected through scientific observation techniques Umanailo et al (2019). The data collected through this method is not in numerical form. It is in the form of depth information which the researcher has to interpret which assist further in decision making. Surveys, interviews, focus group are the few examples of tools that are being used in research. In this research data will be collected through questionnaire

3.3 Data Collection and Analysis

Primary as well as secondary data collection techniques have been adopted by the researcher in this particular paper will be associated. The various journals, newspapers, articles and other publications will be utilized to collect the relevant information. In order to collect the primary data researcher will be using survey questionnaire method in this research. This method will help the researcher in collecting fresh and relevant information in order to draw the conclusion for research (Brannen, 2017). The data collected in the form of  response of the survey questionnaire will assist in gathering the information. The data analysis will be concerned with graphical analysis. It will be presented with the help of graphical charts and graphs in order to make it easier to be understood by the users.

3.4 Research Ethics

The ethics followed in this research work will be associated with primary collection of data as well as secondary data. Researcher is bound to follow these ethics to ensure that data has been sourced from creditable and authenticity resources. As per the research ethics, it is the duty of the researcher that the personal detail of the participants must be kept anonymous

3.5 Time-line

Activities in the research process

June

July

Aug

Sept

Oct

Nov

Dec

Identification of aims and objectives

             

Investigating the gaps in the exiting literature work

             

Designing and structuring the research

             

Introduction Chapter of the research

             

Conducting the literature review

             

Collection of primary data (questionnaire survey)

             

Collection of secondary data (secondary sources)

             

Analysis and Interpretation

             

4 Conclusion

From above it can be concluded that mixed method od approach has been adopted by the researcher in order to measure and evaluate the effect of beef ban over the potential meat industry of India.  The current study will help us understand the potential that lies within the sector and how adequate government policies and a positive outlook towards the industry can help it grow and provide the boost that the current Indian Economy requires.

The study will also highlight the factors that led to the implication of the beef ban and how it not only affects the country on socio-cultural grounds but also the economic front. How some policies by the government can lead to a bias against some minorities and harm their right to equality leading to feelings of suppression and mutual hate.

This will also highlight how before taking any step based on their personal ideological convictions, the political leaders should keep in mind that beef is a cheap source of protein and nourishment for India’s minority and the lower section of the society and is one of their staple sources of livelihood. 

The study will add to the collection of scholarly writings accessible as it will give new viewpoints on how the social and cultural policies of the government can affect the country at the economic front along with disrupting the secular nature of the country

5. References

Parikh, A. and Miller, C., 2019. Holy Cow! Beef Ban, Political Technologies, and Brahmanical Supremacy in Modi's India. ACME: An International E-Journal for Critical Geographies18(4).

Ghosal, S., 2020. Cattle Slaughter Ban Making Global Brands Like Zara, Marks & Spencer And Prada Jittery. [online] The Economic Times. Available at: <https://economictimes.indiatimes.com/industry/cons-products/fashion-/-cosmetics-/-jewellery/cattle-slaughter-ban-making-global-brands-like-zara-marks-spencer-and-prada-jittery/articleshow/58901369.cms?from=mdr> [Accessed 17 June 2020].

Sharma, N., 2020. Government Dilutes Rules On Cattle Sale In Animal Market. [online] The Economic Times. Available at: <https://economictimes.indiatimes.com/news/politics-and-nation/government-dilutes-rules-on-cattle-sale-in-animal-market/articleshow/63690408.cms> [Accessed 18 June 2020].

Banerjee, P., 2020. Meat Of The Matter: How Beef Ban Affects Leather, Exports And Chemical Industry. [online] Hindustan Times. Available at: <https://www.hindustantimes.com/india/meat-of-the-matter-how-beef-ban-affects-leather-exports-and-chemical-industry/story-q6qLCPfV2hpijG0xSHQNGJ.html> [Accessed 18 June 2020].

Tommy Wilkes, M., 2020. Cattle Slaughter Ban Ripples Through India’S Leather Industry. [online]Livemint.Availableat: <https://www.livemint.com/Politics/3duNgW1a0MFb29Hl412UJL/Cattle-slaughter-ban-ripples-through-Indias-leather-industr.html> [Accessed 17 June 2020].

DHADF, Department of animal husbandry, Dairying& fisheries, Ministry Of Agriculture, Government of India, New Delhi Annual Report, 2016-17

Khan, M., Nomani, A. and Salman, M., 2016. Impact of Beef Ban on Economy and Meat Processing Industry of India: A Complete Value Chain Analysis. Management Studies and Economic Systems54(4144), pp.1-10.

Nomani, A. and Salman, M., 2016. Impact of beef ban on economy and meat processing industry of India: A complete value chain analysis. Management Studies and Economic Systems2(4), pp.325-334.

Sunder, J., 2019. Religious Beef: Dalit Literature, Bare Life, and Cow Protection in India. Interventions21(3), pp.337-353.

Mahendra, S.K., 2016. Ban on beef and the politics of food: An intercultural analysis. New Life Theological Journal6(1), pp.84-94.

APEDA. (2015). Export of agro and processed food products including meat and meat products. Agricultural and Processed Food Products Export Development Authority. Ministry of Commerce, Government of India.

The Guardian. 2020. Indian Beef Ban Will Cost Jobs And Harm Economy, Warn Critics. [online] Available at: <https://www.theguardian.com/world/2015/mar/23/india-beef-ban-jobs-economy-maharashtra-cows> [Accessed 24 May 2020].

Sarkar, R. and Sarkar, A., 2016. Sacred slaughter: An analysis of historical, communal, and constitutional aspects of beef bans in India. Politics, Religion & Ideology17(4), pp.329-351.

Vaishnav, M., 2019. Religious nationalism and India’s future’. The BJP in Power: Indian Democracy and Religious Nationalism, pp.5-12

Natrajan, B., 2018. Cultural identity and beef festivals: toward a ‘multiculturalism against caste’. Contemporary South Asia26(3), pp.287-304.

Ahuja, J. and Prakash, P., 2017. Cow Vigilantism in India: Modi’s Dilemma or Legacy?.

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