National Culture And The Adoption Assessment Answer

Answer:

Introduction

The competition in the market and expectations of the customers is strengthening the pressures of the competition on the organization. The organizations are looking forward in an innovative manner for the efficient methods to meet the customer's demand for the responsive products and services and prerequisite the customer services and products that meet the customer requirements. The ignorance to effectively and efficiently meet the demand of the customers can lead to the loss of a customer to the competitors in the domestic market. Nowadays, the organizations are intensifying by taking the benefits of the globalization in the areas with the most strategic benefit to point the established value chain activities. This comprises the establishment of the organization in different geographical areas. However, it is not required that the company should be in different geographical areas while adopting similar human resource management practices, even if the liberal market is economic in the retail market. The practices of Human Resource like other organizations matter in the performance of the employees and effectiveness of the retail firm. The firm in the liberal market economy is considered to be having more liberty when compared with those in different economies (Ferrell & Ferrell, 2011). To adapt different HRM practices as long as the companies follow the legal and political framework of the countries are involved in different firm practices that affect the organizational citizenship, satisfaction of the employees, the performance of the employee, and the commitment. That is, the cultural paradigms are not easy to deal with. The culture has been defined by the Hofstede as the action or process of the mind which distinct the people of a single entity or group of employees from another. It has also been argued by Hofstede that the value is contemplated as a core element of any culture which advances or promotes the state of affairs over others towards a prestigious position. The national culture has been defined by the Hofstede in five different dimensions known as masculinity versus feminity, power distance, individualism vs collectivism, uncertainty avoidance, and the short-term and long-term orientation. The main purpose of writing this report is to perceive the intended meaning or the concept of ‘poly-centric’, ‘ethnocentric’, and ‘geocentric’ approach to management in the retail market known as Wal-Mart. This report comprises of the impact on the ability of the manager in international terms and how the Retail Industry, Wal-Mart must change their approach to management to work efficiently and effectively across National cultures and distinct values (Nazarian, et al., 2013).

 

Background to the Company

Wal-Mart is a chain of supermarket and retail store and is very successful in the United States of America. Wal-Mart is successful in many different countries and has decided to sell its Holdings in Germany in July 2006. Wal-Mart had suffered a loss in the market of Germany. While establishing itself every year, Wal-Mart has been losing approximately $ 201 million. Thus, it is required by the Wal-Mart retailing industry to represent and bring the innovative and best practices in the supply chain management. The Wal-Mart has prospect which has been helping in transforming the retail Industry and supermarket outside of the local market. The Wal-Mart has decided to accomplish their goals and objectives in the Canadian, Mexican and U.S market and has been accredited to its earlier promotion. The Wal-Mart has faced the exit from the German market base which is of great interest to study and explore. The failure has contributed to enhancing the literature on the failure of Wal-Mart in expanding money with the expectation of achieving a profit by putting it into financial property, share, schemes, or by using it to develop of commerce in the international market. This is because the Wal-Mart has entered the global market like Germany without actually exploring the information on implementing the strategies that will help them to beat the competition in the global market through their existing company size and supply chain. The Wal-Mart includes approximately 1.3 million employees in the United States headquarter and is considered as largest in the nation. The retail industry, Wal-Mart has extended their stores in rural and suburban areas by entering into the new market. The Wal-Mart has entered into the market since 1990 using its control over Logistic and supply system while effectively maintaining the strategy of cost leadership. As a response to this, the Wal-Mart capability to expand and succeed outside the country that is the United States of America has become even more pertinent with the generation of revenues of the company. In 1990, the Retail Industry Wal-Mart has extended the German market as a stage of the international expansion strategy (Christopherson, 2007).

 


The Germany is considered as the third largest retail market in the Global world for which acknowledge for 15% of Europe after USA and Japan. The retail market Wal-Mart wants to implement the same strategies which the Wal-Mart has implemented in their domestic market to influence the market and enter into the International market. However, the Retail Industry, Wal-Mart has faced obstacles to enter into the third largest retail market in the world that is, the German market. The retail industry, Wal-Mart has faced comparatively lower position than in the US and has tried to expand by building the relationship with two comparatively weak chains of retail market known as Wertkauf and Interspar. It is difficult for the Wal-Mart to change the existing distribution system due to the market power and the Wal-Mart took on more cost associated practices to the wholesaling and inventory that the firm is able to achieve in the United States. The Wal-Mart has implemented the strategy of price based competition with the hope that they can conquer the German market. The most persistent issue faced by the Wal-Mart, which has been right from their corporate governance structure. US follows the  corporate driven governance system while Germany follows the corporate driven governance system. That is, there were correlations of corporate governance of both the countries (host and home country) industry setups and the standardization in the practices followed. Thus, WalMart had quit the German market. Also, there were beliefs that the employees of the German are having more manufacturing and application development skills. That is, Germany considers to have more engineering and technical skills which was in contrary with the counterparts of the US, which generally possess marketing skills. The other differences in the nations are the companies of German believes in putting more focus in the social interactions and less on generating the profits. German employees pay attention to the planet and the people which shows that the German workforce takes the responsibility for stakeholders rather than shareholders. That is, the German corporate governance pays attention to build long term business partnerships with the stakeholders and follows the insider system for the company performance. While the corporate governance is market oriented in the US markets. The competition of Walmart for the international expansion in the market of Germany is having an impact due to the institutional framework and the cultural values. The companies of German follow both the ethnocentric as well as ‘poly-centric’ approach for the management while the companies of US basically rely on the only ethnocentric approach (Zikargae, 2013).

The significant and continuous process of the retail Industry, Wal-Mart has faced aggressive losses due to the rising competition, which is responsible to mark the expansion of the Wal-Mart as ‘failure’. In Germany, the Wal-Mart has lack success, which was associated with resources that Wal-Mart has hired to extend in the German market, and its inability to evaluate the benefits of those resources which is very different from the circumstances of the USA.

 

Understanding the concept of an ‘Ethnocentric’ versus ‘Polycentric’ and ’Geocentric’ approach to Management

The retail Industries like the Wal-Mart and small and medium-sized organizations expand in the international market due to the advancement in the technologies and increase in globalization. This International expansion includes setting up production facilities and sales offices in international countries. The types of the approaches of staffing policy implemented by the organization in international human resource management are geocentric staffing, ethnocentric staffing, and poly-centric staffing. The organization may be persuaded to adapt the ethnocentric approach to human resource practices to avoid the identified risks in the new setup in the international market or while building the new ventures. The ethnocentric organizations like Wal-Mart hires the expatriate to implement the rules and practices in international market to make it match with their domestic or local market. The ethnocentric approach is best acceptable by the organizations when the employees from the home country are sent to the new geographical areas to help and direct the resources in international countries due to their experience and professional skills. The ethnocentric approach is contemplated as the staffing policy that is utilized by the firms that has cost strategic orientation relevant to the international market. The ethnocentric approach is generally implemented by the headquarters of the company by sending the employees from home or parent country (MacDonald, 2017). The main advantage of ethnocentric approach is that it provides assurance that the employees at the higher level management or top level are skilled and professional enough in the retail market. This helps in matching the goals of the organization by providing the part of the continuous sequence of operations of the extension of Walmart in different country like Germany, where Germany does not have better suited skilled and professional employees for staffing and authority set operations of the retail market like Walmart. This policy makes sure that the unified culture is followed by the organization instead of the diversified culture. The drawback of the ethnocentric approach is that it does not have adequate availability of the assistance to transfer the skilled knowledge of the local market to the international market. This approach may also build a barrier in the home nation from promoting in the organization (Whitehead, 2017).

Poly-centric approach is the policy for the management of the global market, which is integrated in hiring and promoting the employees who are actually the citizens of the host country in which the organization want to offer the services. The approach and policy are best matched to maintain the lowest cost. The firm may continue to run smoothly and the communication between the employees and the organization is easier due to the fact that the employees are all related to their home or geographic location. The poly-centric approach is having control for maintaining the employees of the organization from the same geographical areas. The poly-centric approach main benefit is that it assist in the learning of the firm in the home nation. This policy also brings the opportunities for home country employees to upgrade and enhance their careers to get promoted. However, the poly-centric policy does not comprise of the central positions or Corporate positions and is just limited to the key positions. The main drawback of the poly-centric policy approach is that it may bring a gap between the managers in the host country and managers in the home country due to the professionalism in the knowledge and skills (Nanda & Kumar, 2012).

The geocentric approach is implemented by the organizations like the retail market, Wal-Mart when they are required to implement a transnational orientation. The employees are selected in the geocentric approach regardless of their geographical location rather than perpetuating the group of people from their home nation to the host nation. In the geocentric approach, the skilled and professional resources are selected by building a strong unifying network management. The Walmart should follow the immigration policy and must take this into consideration to recruit the resources from distinct countries. In the geocentric approach, the locations and laws are the key factors in the approach to expand in the international countries. The distributing and assigning of the job positions to the employees who are having skills are the best match for the proposed designation regardless of the background of the employees country culture or country origin. The main advantage of the geocentric approach is its flexibility which assists in enhancing the knowledge related to cultural traditions of the organization and about the market and different countries. The main disadvantage of geocentric approach and policy is that it is difficult and complex to implement. The educational cost of a worker diversity management and immigration policies may build pressure on the international Human Resource Management (Minor, 2012).

 

Impact on the international manager’s ability

There are various cross cultural problems in the business management. The major challenge is the ambiguity in which culture stipulate the employees with different methods of thinking, like the ways of growing, listening, and interpreting the international market. The ambiguity is generally related to the actions and procedures of communication when the employees do not fully consider the circumstances of the culture of the domestic country as well as the culture of the host country. This is caused due to the difference in the languages and thus, the potential for misunderstandings increases (Vella, 2018). Therefore, the employees may frequently behave in a particular way to assume different things due to the difference in the cultural values and unaware of the language and the communication style that they don't take the tension on awareness of the standard system or the principles of the other cultures. This communication arises a situation where the employees may fail some elements of the communication which needs to be effectively delivered. Cultural paradigms come with inflexible stance to neglect and experience the exposure. This brings an outcome of introvert behavior and the mindset which results in the impression that the host country employees may not be expecting the principles of the Walmart. This also leads to missing out adjustments to the experience about the new culture search for behavior which may deteriorate the relationship and may dampen the group of employees consciously or unconsciously. Thus, the employees need to be aware of their perceptions, values, behavior, belief depending upon the cultural basis, so that to allow them to come the cultural perspective (Erlbeck, 2009).

The cross cultural communication is considered as the most pertinent challenge. The ethnocentrism is contemplated as unconscious behavior which is difficult to avoid in advance. It is the supposition that culture of the home country is rational and  right, and the other countries in the international market are inferior. When the ethnocentrism is challenged and confronted with different culture, the employees try to judge it well with their own beliefs and values and do not try to identify the culture from the viewpoint of the host country. The specific point of this is also exemplified by judgement, selective listening value, which affect the quality of the communication (Lee & Kang, 2016). Also, the distinct culture comprises of distinct perspectives with important workplace problems like respect for authority, teamwork, time management, and the responsibility. The other problems are the conflicting ethics or methods of communication to receive interpretation of transparency and give feedback to the employees work on the diverse belief systems along with the conflicting stance which are responsible for creating the barriers. These barriers need to be avoided so as to work effectively and harmoniously to meet each employee value. It is important to address all the problems. Thus, the managers need to work effectively with the employees who are from different cultural paradigm and the managers must know how the cultural impact on other employees and need to be aware of their own culture. The manager need to comprehend the style of communication as per the culture and the Hofstede dimension in which the manager or top level management or the higher authorities interacts with society comprising of politics, religion, beliefs, and family, etc. The higher authority or managers also need to build right competence, cultural flexibility, tolerance for ambiguity, and reduced ethnocentrism by gaining the exposure to culture paradigms in international countries and enabling the active feedback which is important to build the above mentioned competencies (Malik, 2015).

Change Management

The management is required to change their strategies by working across different values and national culture. The Retail Industry, Walmart needs to change the management as it is considered as one of the identified reasons behind the incompetency of the Retail Industry, Walmart in the Germany despite of being successful in the US market. The behavior of the employees is associated with expatriates to the substitution of the managers and the forcible implementation of values on both the host country and the expatriate managers. These implementations come out as an outcome in the process of legal actions in the court of German due to the violation of human freedom rights. The incompetency or failure of the Walmart in the Germany was due to the outcome of ignorance and invertible cross cultural management of retail Industry. Due to rigid behavior of Wal-Mart for not adjusting to the practices which are suitable in the German market, WalMart has failed to create sustainability even after 10 years of operations. Also, to setup the business in the German market, the Wal-Mart was unable to get enough familiarity (Ijose & Iossifova, 2015).

Thus, the Walmart needs to practice the innovative strategies of the business by developing a business plan and restructuring the competitive market of the German. As the Walmart has faced numerous failures in the Germany due to the cultural differences and institutional differences, which are considered as the external environment in Germany and the US, the human resource managers had not contemplated the setup of adoption and cultural values of the local employees and had just tried to practice the remote implementation in Germany. Thus, to eliminate such problems in the future and eliminate the failure in the future, the top management and the higher authorities of the retail Industry Walmart need to modify the practices of the organization and must go for prudent investigation and evaluation of the market in the Germany according to the environment of international market. Although, the corporate culture and company are almost same, but even then the Retail Industry can have the effect of national culture like Walmart US culture so that the culture of the US can be transformed easily with the stance of German culture. The other pertinent factor is the unionization of the organization or the firm in the German market so it should not have eliminated or ignored the resources of the German who are delineated as collectivist society. The managers should be authorized for the process for the promotion and process of unionization to avoid the legal process (Darsow, 2005). Also, the pertinence must be given to the human freedom along with the ethical values of people residing in German. The Walmart must also employ distinct hiring ways in the domestic Nation so as to get the positive attitude of the German people for replacement of the nationals with expatriate who should be completed as an important requirement. The Walmart industry should not also neglect or underestimate the other country in the international market like the German country or any other host country by planning for the international business. The Walmart must give a series of action plans and should give a consistent importance to the activities or exercises to the domestic employees in order to make the international expansion in the new market instead of the exercises and standardization of the activities in the environment. The Walmart should adopt the local setups and must consider it as a better option which is totally different in the host country as well as domestic country.

Conclusion

This report scrutinizes that the national culture is contemplated as a pertinent factor of the conception and adoption of the efficient practices of Human Resource Management, but has prescribed an appropriate field to study the effect on cultural forces as well as organizational practices as the particular way in which the culture and employees help to perceive the intended meaning of organizational practices. The influence between the cultural dimensions and organizational practices assist us to comprehend the role which the cultural plays. This interaction helps us to suggest that the adaptation of the practices of the organization is entirely not a unilateral top-down process, but is lacking the effect of national culture. This study also suggests that natural culture plays a pertinent role in understanding the diffusion and adoption of the activities of the organization that the Walmart need to focus on. It has also been identified in this report that the strategic plans of successfully effectuating the practices of the firm should include the evaluation that employees bring their cultural ethics and norms with them to the organization even in the particular process of political transformations and in the economics. The intrinsic or indispensable nature of the organization does not make it uncomplicated for the retail Industry Walmart- US based to move their practices to the subsidiary of the German. It has also been analyzed in this report that the cultural traditions may have an intense impact on the practices of the organization than in the political events, organizational field, economic systems and government institutions.

 

References

Christopherson, S., 2007. Barriers to ‘US style’ lean retailing: the case of Wal-Mart's failure in Germany. Journal of Economic Geography, 7(4), pp. 451-469. [Accessed 10 May 2018].

Darsow, I., 2005. Implementation of Ethics Codes in Germany: The Wal-Mart Case, Available at: https://www.upf.edu/documents/3885005/3888709/DarsowGermany.pdf/17405cfa-0f4e-494f-8839-d2252be6123b [Accessed 14 May 2018].

Erlbeck, G., 2009. Diversity Management in German-Based Business Organisations, Available at: https://www.diversity-institute.eu/wp-content/uploads/pdf/Thesis_Erlbeck_DivMan.pdf [Accessed 14 May 2018].

Ferrell, O. & Ferrell, L., 2011. Organizational Culture vs. National Culture, Available at: https://danielsethics.mgt.unm.edu/pdf/Culture%20DI.pdf [Accessed 10 May 2018].

Ijose, O. & Iossifova, A., 2015. National culture and the adoption of organizational practices: evidence from a global company’s call centers in two market economies. Journal of International Business and Cultural Studies, pp. 1-11. [Accessed 13 May 2018].

Lee, J. & Kang, N., 2016. A Study on The Moderating Effects of National Culture on International Human Resource Management Strategy and Knowledge Transfer. Advanced Science and Technology Letters journal, Volume 126, pp. 128-132. [Accessed 14 May 2018].

MacDonald, L., 2017. In What Ways Does an Ethnocentric Approach Affect HR?, Available at: https://smallbusiness.chron.com/ways-ethnocentric-approach-affect-hr-66946.html [Accessed 13 May 2018].

Malik, S., 2015. How to Overcome the Major Challenges in Cross Cultural Communication, Available at: https://www.linkedin.com/pulse/how-overcome-major-challenges-cross-cultural-iim-shillong-pgpex [Accessed 13 May 2018].

Minor, M., 2012. The Ethnocentric or the Geocentric Global Corporation: The performance question, Available at: https://www.myucwest.ca/attachments/a.farrell/files/MBA522_Minor_Mike.pdf [Accessed 14 May 2018].

Nanda, S. & Kumar, A., 2012. International staffing: factors, issues and alternatives. Journal of Human Resource Management, 2(2), pp. 56-64. [Accessed 12 May 2018].

Nazarian, A., Irani, Z. & Ali, M., 2013. The Relationship between National Culture and Organisational Culture: The Case of Iranian Private Sector Organisations. Journal of Economics, Business and Management, 1(1), pp. 1-5. [Accessed 10 May 2018].

Vella, D., 2018. How to Manage Cultural Diversity in the Workplace, Available at: https://www.businessmanagementdaily.com/partner/40943/how-to-manage-cultural-diversity-in-the-workplace [Accessed 11 May 2018].

Whitehead, S., 2017. Staffing Policy & HRM Issues in International Business, Available at: https://panmore.com/staffing-policy-hrm-issues-in-international-business [Accessed 11 May 2018].

Zikargae, M., 2013. The Impacts of Ethnocentrism and Stereotype on Inter-Cultural Relations of Ethiopian Higher Education Students. Online Journal of Communication and Media Technologies, 3(4), pp. 1-23. [Accessed 12 May 2018].

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