One of the most studied aspects of psychology today is the attachment theory. The common references to the attachment theory models are Ainsworth’s and Bowlby’s attachment theory. The behaviour of an infant towards their attachment figure during reunion and separation times is explained in the attachment design. The attachment behaviour, which is formed in the infancy, becomes the base of the attachment that occurs in a relationship as adults. Psychologist like Field and Harris has a different viewpoint. According to Haris, the parents must not be too much emphasised upon as the peers also influence the behaviour of the child and accordingly it can be told that nature and nurture both plays a significant role in the attachment behaviour of an infant.
Ethological Attachment theory: The strong bond that develops between the caregiver and the infant provides the infant with an emotional security. Persons taking care of the infants get attached to it when it reaches the second half of the first year. The survival or adaptive value of behaviour along with its evolutionary history is concerned with the concept of Ethology. Imprinting is the most well-known concept of this theory where the behaviour of baby birds to stay close to their mother to stay protected and be fed were observed. According to this theory, babies biologically tend to stay close to their caregivers, which are naturally inculcated among them. For evidence, the behaviour of infants were judged in strange situations and it was observed that they tend to move towards their caregiver for protection, hence this theory shows the nature perspective of the attachment theory (Christofides et al. 2015).
Early childhood environment theory: Among the various methods of nurture, this is one of the main theories. This theory creates a profound impact on the child’s psychological aspect. If, in this development time there exist any kinds of disturbance among the parent-child relationship then it causes a long-term effect on the child. Every child moves towards the opposite sex parent according to the classical psychoanalytic. Not all the development theories employ psychoanalytic language. The loss of the parent-child relationship may be disturbed because of the divorce or death of the parent of the individual. The early childhood environment theory is the main theory that is related with the attachment theory and is connected to nurture theory. For the evidentiary aspect, some children were subjected to situations where their parents were quarrelling, there it was observed that it primarily affected them because of their attachment to both of them (Blute, 2015).
By discussing the concept of nature, the genes are referred along with the other hereditary factors that influence the individual to a greater extent ranging from the personality to the physical appearance. Just like everything has their exception, nature affects the attachment process but it is not void of exceptions, for example, many characteristics of an individual depend on the genes but the environment also influences the physical features of the individual. Hence, this concept refutes the nature perspective while explaining the attachment process (Badcock, 2015).
The concept of nurture is concerned with the variables present in the environment, which affects an individual. It builds up the individual based on their raising, their social relationships, and their cultural mix-ups. The exception to the nurture theory could be described by the example that, if a child with genetically low height is trying to get more height in the way of nurture, then his height would get increased but up to a certain limit and the nurturing process would not be of much value. This evidence refutes the perspective of nurture while explaining the attachment process (Gadjev, 2015).
The nature theory deals with the natural traits of an individual, which is inherited by him or her whereas the nurture theory believes that the environmental factors also play a significant role in the development of a person and moulds his attachment behaviour accordingly. Both the factors play an important part in the attachment theory and contribute to it as wherever nature gets attached to the attachment theory there it builds up an attachment between the individual and caregiver. Similar is the case of the nurture as it also helps to develop an attachment with the caregiver of the infant. Both nature and nature perspective is vital for attachment theory.
Badcock, C.R., 2015. Nature-Nurture Controversy, History of. Wright, James D. International Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral Sciences, pp.340-344.
Blute, M., 2015. James Tabery: Beyond Versus: The Struggle to Understand the Interaction of Nature and Nurture. History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences, 36(3), pp.464-465.
Christofides, L.N., Hoy, M., Milla, J. and Stengos, T., 2015. Nature or Nurture in Higher Education? Inter-generational Implications of the Vietnam-Era Lottery (No. 9046). Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
Gadjev, I., 2015. Nature and nurture: Lamarck's legacy. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 114(1), pp.242-247.
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