Lack of proper knowledge and skills in the healthcare workforce has disastrous implications over the health and well-being of the millions of people. Scaling up the educational programmes will help to deliver multidisciplinary healthcare service. This multidisciplinary service will address the healthcare need of the community in a comprehensive way (World Health Organisation, 2018). The following assessment aims to draft an educational program underlying the use personal protective equipments for infection control. The main target population of this educational program will include trainee healthcare workers. The assignment will mainly follow the ADDIE (Analyse, Design, Develop, Implement and Evaluation) Model, a five-phase approach for building effective learning solution (Davis, 2013).
Healthcare acquired infectious (HCAIs) or nosocomial infection is defined as spread of infection between the patients and the healthcare workers during the process of care in hospital or other healthcare facility. The spread of HCAIs mainly spreads due to lack of proper infection control strategies undertaken by the healthcare workers and lack of proper knowledge about the medium of spread of infection and consequences of the spread of infection. This lack of knowledge and skills is known as competency gap. Due to this competency gap there is a high risk of spread of HCAIs (Iliyasu et al., 2016). Spread of HCAI cause increased rate of morbidity and mortality among the healthcare services users and healthcare workforce. It also delays the over process of care, increase in the length of hospital stay and increase in the overall cost of care. Moreover, when the infection affects the healthcare professionals, it increases the turnover of the healthcare workforce and this further increases the overall cost of care (Iliyasu et al., 2016).
Desired outcome of the successful completion of the course will help the healthcare workers to earn and understand the principles of infection control and risk assessments in order to guide proper infection prevention practices (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2018).
The main target audience for this curricula development include trainee healthcare workers working for infectious disease prevention in the community healthcare settings. The existing knowledge of the trainee healthcare workers about the spread of infectious disease is extremely poor. The majority of the trainee healthcare workers fail to identify the importance of the infection prevention measures, risk factors associated with the patients and the mode of disease transmission via close contact (Alsahafi & Cheng, 2016). The trainee healthcare workers also lack desired kills in effective use of the personal protective equipments (PPE) in the domain of infection control. The experience level of the healthcare trainee is 0 to 1 years. They are however proficient in English language and are motivated enough to work diligently for the proper infection control. According to McClung et al. (2017), healthcare workers perceived patient safety and clinical outcomes as the main motivators to reduce HCAIs. Proper leadership engagement and data driven interventions with periodic feedback of performance can also be regarded as important facilitators of HCAIs prevention.
The PPE will be used as resources for the educational program to generate awareness about HCAIs among healthcare trainee workers. The content technologies that will be used to deliver the educational program include power-point presentation. This power-point presentation will be delivered under small group workshop. Proper user guide will be used via poster showcasing the instructions manual of each and every HCAIs.
Figure: Projecting poster planning as an user manual for PPE
Source: Created by author
Learning outcomes can be defined as statements that will be able to describe the significant and the essential knowledge that the learners have learned and can reliably demonstrate at the end of a session. It is useful to identify what the learner will know at the end of a program or the course. A learning outcome can be developed on the basis of three domains of learning such as- Cognitive, affective and psychomotor domains (Adams, 2015). In this assignment the learning outcomes that has been considered is i) Students will be able to describe the importance of using PPE in health care settings (ii) Students will be able to demonstrate the use of the personal PPE after the completion of the teaching session. (iii) Students will be able to understand the importance of the using PPE in a clinical setting to prevent any hospital acquired infections.
The initial educational objective belongs to affective domain of the Bloom’s taxonomy because it is the learning that is based on our perception, feelings or attitudes. Similarly the second outcome requires hand on activities of kinesthetic learning. In order to achieve the outcome the student requires considerable practice (Adams, 2015). The third learning outcome is based on learning and knowledge and the development of the intellectual skills that complies with the cognitive domain of the Bloom’s taxonomy.
Domains of learning
Source: (Davis, 2013)
This stage determines the goals, tools to gauge the performance, various tests, planning, subject matter analysis, planning and resources (Davis, 2013). The design and the actions should be systematic with a logical process of identification, development and the evaluation of the strategies that will help in the attainment of the objectives.
In order to provide education to the interns about the use of PPE in clinical settings, study group workshops can be conducted. Students are taught with audio-visual aids demonstrating the different hazards taking place at the hospital premises. PowerPoint presentations can be used to show the uses of the different personal PPE. An educator should be present at the event to demonstrate each of the equipment that are normally used in clinical settings (Crookes, Crookes, & Walsh, 2013). Students can be called at a time to for a hands on practice. Each of the student will be provided with a user guide containing colored picture of different PPE and their handling manual. There are various types of teaching strategies to provide education to the health care interns. The learning resources like user manuals are important as they can significantly increase the achievement of the students by supporting the student learning.
Use of the teaching aids is an integral part of an educational event. Teaching aids like PowerPoint presentations would help in improving the reading and the comprehension skills of the student by reinforcing and illustrating the skill or the concept. The whole educational session was planned to be completed within 60 minutes.
The implementation stage also reflects the continuous modifications of the program for making sure that maximum efficiency and positive results are obtained (Davis, 2013). The planned design can be edited or updated to ensure a proper delivery of the education.
The activities in an educational event plan should be made systematically. The whole teaching event would take place for 60 minutes. The teachers would initiate the event with the distribution of the user guide and the associated pamphlets related to the topic. The students will be asked to go through the guide before the starting of the presentation. The educators will then introduce the topic to the students. There are different types of teaching methods that can be used to impart education. In order to explore the kinesthetic skills of the students the most suitable method is the lecture and the demonstration method (Xu, 2016). A lecture can be given to the students explaining about the presentation, whereas the demonstration method involves the hands- on demonstration of the use of PPE. A lecture and demonstration method is a teaching approach where a teacher presents a topic in a manner by deducing the facts, principles and the relationships and during which the teachers are expected to elicit the participation of the students by the employment of appropriate techniques (Crookes, Crookes, & Walsh, 2013). It is the hands on practice that helps the student to master the practical skills such as use of equipment, hazard communication among the patients and the peers and peers. One of the step in an educational event is to give scopes to the students to place their opinion or quarries. Hence few minutes should be spared to address the questions of the students. All the personal protective equipment intended for the use should be following the regulations of the FDA and should be meeting the applicable voluntary consensus standard for the protection, as it is important to understand which of the equipment to be used in hospital settings (Mitchell et al., 2013).
Record keeping in an important step of the implementation step. It is important to document the actual data that have been mined from the students interfacing the educational event (Crookes, Crookes, & Walsh, 2013). As the event proceeds it is necessary to see whether the learners are able to grasp the topic immediately or they require personal classes. It is also necessary to keep a backup tool in case the educational event fails to produce an action.
According to The Australian Council of Healthcare Standards (ACHSI) (2018), customised education and training covers a wide range of accreditation and this includes safety and quality systems, risk management. The safety systems mainly include occupational health and safety, environment and equipment management for infection control. The main learning resources that will be used for customised education and training for infection control and management include power point presenting in small workshop groups and user manuals displayed via posters and pamphlets.
(Source: Government of South Australia, 2017)
According to Van Leeuwen (2016), power point presentation is an effective way of teaching healthcare trainees. Since the trainee are not aware of the mode of spread of infection and the process of contact inhibition for infection prevention, effective audio-visual presentation will help them to understand the overall concept in deep. The effective description of the theory underlying the spread of infection via visual presentation of the aids to control the spread of infection will be proved to be helpful for the students. The user manuals designed in colourful pamphlets or posters with step up step presentation of how to use resources as PPE in infection control will help to the grab attraction of the healthcare workers and at the same time will help them to learn the things quickly.
Further formative assessment will be conducted on the basis of group discussion in order to analyse the quality of the learning resources.
The degree of participations satisfaction will be noted down on the basis of survey conducted through open ended questionnaire.
Survey questionnaire for perception
Acquisition of knowledge and skills will be undertaken via conducting a short oral test among the participants of the workshop. The overall performance of the oral test will help to judge the level of knowledge acquisition. The live demonstration of process of implementation of the PPE will help to judge skill acquisition.
The overall performance will be evaluated on the basis of performance in the work-field under rush hours in the community infection control program. The performance will be judged on how efficiently the trainee healthcare workers are using the PPE.
Thus from the above discussion, it can be concluded that proper ADDIE framework is an effective for drafting a planned educational event based on relevant theories of research. In order to promote effective education for PPE in HCAIs, power-point presentation orated in small workshops and user manuals designed over pamphlets and posters can be considered as two effective resources. However, before implementation of the plan, formative evaluation must be undertaken and summative evaluation will be effective in post implementation in order to judge the overall success rate of the program.
Adams, N. E. (2015). Bloom’s taxonomy of cognitive learning objectives. Journal of the Medical Library Association: JMLA, 103(3), 152.
Alsahafi, A. J., & Cheng, A. C. (2016). Knowledge, attitudes and behaviours of healthcare workers in the kingdom of Saudi Arabia to MERS coronavirus and other emerging infectious diseases. International journal of environmental research and public health, 13(12), 1214.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2018). Training and Education Resources. Access date: 31st August 2018. Retrieved from: https://www.cdc.gov/infectioncontrol/training/index.html
Crookes, K., Crookes, P. A., & Walsh, K. (2013). Meaningful and engaging teaching techniques for student nurses: a literature review. Nurse education in practice, 13(4), 239-243.
Davis, A. L. (2013). Using instructional design principles to develop effective information literacy instruction: The ADDIE model. College & Research Libraries News, 74(4), 205-207.
Government of South Australia. (2017). Medical education and training principles. Access date: 31st August 2018. Retrieved from: https://www.sahealth.sa.gov.au/wps/wcm/connect/eb5854804105ed91b75eff1afc50ebfc/SA+Met+document+final+web.pdf?MOD=AJPERES&CACHEID=ROOTWORKSPACE-eb5854804105ed91b75eff1afc50ebfc-mcHzSL.
Iliyasu, G., Dayyab, F. M., Habib, Z. G., Tiamiyu, A. B., Abubakar, S., Mijinyawa, M. S., & Habib, A. G. (2016). Knowledge and practices of infection control among healthcare workers in a Tertiary Referral Center in North-Western Nigeria. Annals of African medicine, 15(1), 34.
McClung, L., Obasi, C., Knobloch, M. J., & Safdar, N. (2017). Health care worker perspectives of their motivation to reduce health care–associated infections. American journal of infection control, 45(10), 1064-1068.
Mitchell, A., Spencer, M., & Edmiston Jr, C. (2015). Role of healthcare apparel and other healthcare textiles in the transmission of pathogens: a review of the literature. Journal of Hospital Infection, 90(4), 285-292.
National health and Medical Research council., 2016 .Use of personal protective equipment. Access date: 31.8.2018. Retrieved from: https://www.nhmrc.gov.au/book/australian-guidelines-prevention-and-control-infection-healthcare-2010/b1-2-personal-protective
Seels, B. B., & Richey, R. C. (2012). Instructional technology: The definition and domains of the field. IAP.
The Australian Council of Healthcare Standards (ACHSI). (2018). Training and Education. Access date: 31st August 2018. Retrieved from: https://www.achs.org.au/international/products-and-services/training-and-education/
World Health Organisation. (2018). Health workforce: Education and Training. Access date: 31st August 2018. Retrieved from: https://www.who.int/hrh/education/en/
Xu, J. H. (2016). Toolbox of teaching strategies in nurse education. Chinese Nursing Research, 3(2), 54-57.
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