The term organization is used to refer to a collection of persons working together to accomplish a given mutual goal (Harper, 2015). Since the people working in the organization come from different regions, cultures, background and religions, diversity occurs in the organizations. This means that there has to be an agreed procedures to be adhered to both as a group of workers as well as an individual worker of the organization (Stewart, & Barrick, 2000). Organizational structure is what outlines the way in which the organizational responsibilities are coordinated, grouped and shared among all members of each and every organization.
Another important term in the paper is the organizational behavior which is the study of the traits portrayed by a group and individuals in an organization. There is a wide diversity in the organizational behavior brought by both the different structure of the organization and a collection of people of diverse cultures in an organization. The final term is the organizational processes which implies the methods through which activities in an organization are carried out (Pettigrew, 2014). Diversity in the organizational process, behavior and structure is the multiplicity of perspectives and experience resulting from variation in gender identity, race, mental or physical abilities, culture, age, religion, sexual orientation, and heritage (Harper, 2015).
Organizational structure play a major role in the day to day running of the company as illustrated in the definition. Hence every firm has organizational chart that diagrammatically displays the organizational structure, and also displays all the positional ranks as well as the relationship between members of the organization. Due to diversity in organizations two significant roles are provided to all members in each and every formal organizational structure (Cummings, & Worley, 2014). First the extent of control amounting to each member in the organization is dictated by the structure. Secondly all the roles for the organizational members are illustrated by the structure of the organization, this is to ensure every member knows who they are supposed to report to as well as what they are supposed to do in the firm (Cummings, & Worley, 2014).
There are six diverse elements contained in an organizational structure. Each and every one of these influence the processes and the manner in which activities are performed in an organization. These elements of the organizational structure includes departmentalization whose role is to establish a manner in which the jobs are clustered together (Stewart, & Barrick, 2000). Some of the ways in which the jobs in an organization can be grouped is as follows by product line, job function as well as job territory. All the organizations have chains of command that provides an authority line which runs from the bottom to the top of the organization spelling out the chain of command in other words who report to whom in a particular organization (DuBrin, 2013).
The other element of the organizational structure is work specialization which is part of the significant elements in influencing the way in which the structure of the organization will be or how it is. It also affects the manner in which chores are subdivided into distinct jobs among members in the organization. Work specialization explains whether a job should be broken down among several members in a particular organization or the task should be completed by a particular individual (Pettigrew, 2013). More specialization is needed when a particular job is broken down into smaller chores in the firm. High specialization entails an advantage of high efficiency in an organization but on the other hand it has a disadvantage of boredom to the workers as they are required to do the same task over and over again (Cummings, & Worley, 2014).
As a result of the diversity in the organizational structure, the exact number of the managers needed to oversee and give direction to the employees in an organization is directly dictated by the particular structure adopted by the company. This is termed as span of control and is what determines the number of person or employees that are to be effectively and efficiently managed by an individual manager. Companies with a narrow span of control are less efficient and requires a bigger number of managers than an organization with a wider span of control, but when the span of control exceeds the limit, the employees in such an organization may not receive sufficient support and required leadership from the managers (Cummings, & Worley, 2014).
Diversity in the structure of the organization is perceived on decentralization and centralization. This determines the place where the authority in making decision lies. An organization is considered centralized when the lower level personnel are not considered nor consulted in decision-making but the supreme power lies on the top management. On the other hand a firm is considered decentralized when or where the lower level managers and personnel are involved in at a higher degree in decision making process in that particular organization (Stewart, & Barrick, 2000). The last element contained in the structure of the organization is formalization. This element dictates to what degree the tasks in a particular firm are standardized. Lower degree of formalization gives a high degree of freedom and flexibility to employees in how they carry out their jobs. A highly formalized company on the other hand gives lesser freedom to the organizational employees as jobs have clearly defined procedure (Stewart, & Barrick, 2000).
The organizational behavior being the study of the diverse character traits portrayed by persons and groups of persons and application of that knowledge in managing of the workers. This is done by taking a system approach, which means that organizational behavior elaborates the relationships that exist between the organization and people whole social system, whole organization, whole group and the whole person (Cummings, & Worley, 2014). Its purpose is to develop a healthier relationships by achieving social objective, human objective and organizational objective (Cummings, 2004). The elements of organizational behavior are the basis in which an organization is based which are enshrined on management’s values, goals, philosophy and vision. In turn these elements directs the diverse cultures of the organization which are composed of the social environment, the informal organization and the formal organization (Felin, et al, 2012).
The four models illustrating the diversity under which the organization operates includes Custodial, Autocratic, Collegial, and Supportive. The Custodial model is based on the economic incomes with an administrative orientation of money (Stewart, & Barrick, 2000). On the other hand the employees depends and are oriented towards benefits and security provided by the organization. Autocratic model is based on power with a managerial oriented authority. Here the workers are oriented towards dependence and obedience of the boss. Only the subsistence needs of the employees are met and there is minimal performance result (Stewart, & Barrick, 2000). The Collegial model is based on partnership with a teamwork oriented managerial. The on the other hand are oriented to having self-discipline and behaving responsibly. Self-actualization is the employee’s need that is met while the moderate result is the performance result (Stewart, & Barrick, 2000). Lastly is the supportive model based on leadership with a managerial oriented support. Despite there being four different models, majority of the organizations operate on several of these models at a particular instant (Robbins, 2001).
Lastly there exist a diversity in the processes in an organization which entails, assigning the tasks to individuals after determination of the work needed to accomplish the goal of the organization, and organizing the individuals in a framework of making decisions that is organizational structure (Miner, 2015). Organization is the end product of the diverse organizational processes, which is an assemblage of combined parts acting in unison to perform tasks so as to efficiently and effectively attain a set goal. Team members can only be aware of their responsibilities in an organization where organizational processes are appropriately implemented (Stewart, & Barrick, 2000). Failure to carry out the organization process in an appropriate manner result to lack of effectiveness, frustration, loss of efficiency and confusion among employees. Generally the diversity in the organizational processes can be illustrated in five steps including objectives and plans review, where the objectives are the precise activities which has to be accomplished to achieve goals while the plans are what shapes these activities for the goal to be achieved (Thornton, et al, 2012).
As a result of the diversity in the organizational processes, it is mandatory for the plans to be continually examined by the managers as new goals are developed and the plans change. The next process is determining the necessary work to accomplish the objectives. Here to achieve the goal of the organization chores that require to be accomplished is listed and analyzed by the managers (Salin, 2003). Next is ensuring that necessary activities are clarified and managed into manageable units for example in four models of departmentalization; geographical, customer, functional and product. Then delegating and assigning activities. Lastly is designing a chain of command of relationships (Stewart, & Barrick, 2000).
In conclusion, it is important and appropriate to understand the diversities that exist in different organizations. This diversities bring about difference in organizational behavior, structure and processes in each and every organization. Understanding of the diversities is the key to effective and efficient management of the organizational day to day activities.
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Miner, J. B. (2015). Organizational behavior 1: Essential theories of motivation and leadership. Routledge.
Pettigrew, A. M. (2014). The politics of organizational decision-making. Routledge.
Cummings, T. G., & Worley, C. G. (2014). Organization development and change. Cengage learning.
DuBrin, A. J. (2013). Fundamentals of organizational behavior: An applied perspective. Elsevier.
Pettigrew, A. (2013). The Awakening Giant (Routledge Revivals): Continuity and Change in Imperial Chemical Industries. Routledge.
Thornton, P. H., Ocasio, W., & Lounsbury, M. (2012). The institutional logics perspective: A new approach to culture, structure, and process. Oxford University Press on Demand.
Felin, T., Foss, N. J., Heimeriks, K. H., & Madsen, T. L. (2012). Microfoundations of routines and capabilities: Individuals, processes, and structure. Journal of Management Studies, 49(8), 1351-1374.
Robbins, S. P. (2001). Organizational behavior, 14/E. Pearson Education India.
Salin, D. (2003). Ways of explaining workplace bullying: A review of enabling, motivating and precipitating structures and processes in the work environment. Human relations, 56(10), 1213-1232.
Stewart, G. L., & Barrick, M. R. (2000). Team structure and performance: Assessing the mediating role of intrateam process and the moderating role of task type. Academy of management Journal, 43(2), 135-148.
Cummings, J. N. (2004). Work groups, structural diversity, and knowledge sharing in a global organization. Management science, 50(3), 352-364.
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