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Organization Development And Theories Of Assessment Answer



The current report revolves around the theories of change management that can be applied to the organizational context to gain suitable outcome. It is observed that change management is the discipline that helps to understand how one prepares, equip as well as support the individuals to effectively implement change to drive organizational success and outcomes. When all changes are unique as well as all individuals are unique, a number of research demonstrate there are several action that people could consider to impact individuals in their individual transactions. It has also been identified that change management is considered as the systematic approach to deal with the change from both the perspective of company and the individuals. The current report provides an overview of the existing journals and articles regarding the change management. The research also extends to the literature that revolves around the change management.  Considering the organizational context, report focuses on the strategies used by the organizations while implementing the changes.

Investing the current journals articles about change management

As put forward by Pieterse, Caniëls and Homan (2012), the change management is the common buzzword in today’s business environment. Like the humans, the business has also started adopting the trends and culture. It is observed that a business that mostly develops the strategies based on the culture and trends of the regions where it runs the operation gains the popularity and ability to penetrate in the large market. The businesses that are on the verge of leaving the market apply the strategy of change management to bring the customers back. Many articles and journals that have been performed on the change management largely focus on the factors that influence the business to apply change in the organization. The articles also demonstrate that how the organizations implement the changes dealing with the resistance arising from the internal environment of the business. The popular journals “professional discourage and resistance to change” reviewed by by Josh H. and the “Deriving values from change management” reviewed by Chris Metro focus on theoretical analysis the perception of the change management activities with an emphasis on now an organization could optimize as well as derive increased values form change management initiatives.

The authors of the first journals have mentioned in the article that change is the method driven by may strategic consideration with the need for more integrated ways of working as the need to enhance the business performance. These considerations usually result in the structured change programs that are based on the assumption that change management consists of a set of interventions that are considered as the objectives. Nevertheless, the authors on resistance to change highlight the need for the research that goes beyond the top-down organizational change. The research could have considered the dynamics of change methods or process. On the contrary, authors in the second article have mentioned that change is consequently redefined as either individually constructed brought about as well as given meaning in interaction with the social agents and contingencies. As put forward by Metre (2009), the change, which is rooted in the culture and communication essential but it is elusive. Thereby, it can be added that change is driven social, environmental and economical factors. Some journals have also stated as the outcome that several large organizations strategically implements change to improve organizational effectiveness.

However, it is also observed that change management efforts have observed a poor record of success. In this context, Hayes (2014) commented that the organizations gain the ability in networks of cooperative relationship that have the impact on the flow of the resources. The outcome of the existing research also confirmed that dynamic resource flows as well as differentiated structural position that influence organization’s competitive behavior towards others. Apart from the findings, the existing literature also discusses the change management theories and the models and based on the process of implementing them, the firm gains the competitive success.

Explaining what the current research literature is saying about


Change management model- Based on the journal article reviewed Chris Metro (2009), there are several change management theories and models such as Kotter’s eight step and PROSCI ADKAR mode and lewins theory that effectively guide as well as instruct the implementation of big challenge.

Kotter’s eight steps change management model- John Kotter developed the model of understanding as well as managing change based on the experience of consulting with hundreds of organizations. Each of the steps of the model helps to learn that the importance and implementation of the change.

Establishing a sense of urgency- This step emphasizes on the sense of urgency. According to Kotter, the urgency could inspire the individuals and create a sense of realism regarding the change effort goals as well as objectives. Hence, the organization should identify the potential threats and improve the scenario considering what may happen in the future (Kotter 2014).

Forming a powerful coalition- In this stage, the firm needs to convince its people that change is necessary. This often requires strong leadership as well as the visible support from the key staff within the organization. Hence, the organization finds the true leaders and the key stakeholders and work on forming the team in the organization.

Create a vision for change- Hence, the business needs to determine the values that core to the change and develop the strategy to implement the vision (Cummings and Worley 2014).

Communicate the vision- The firms need to talk about the change or discuss it with the employees o the origination to address people’s concern as well as anxieties strategically.

Remove Barriers- In order to remove the barriers, the firm needs to identify or hire the change leaders whose major role is to deliver the change.

Create short-Term wins- The major role of firm hence, is to analyze the potential advantages and disadvantages of the business targets. For instance, if the organization does not success with early goals, it could hamper the whole change management (Hon, Bloom and Crant 2014)

Build on the change- Hence, the organization should develop the goals to continue forming on the momentum it has achieved. The firm needs to keep the ideas by introducing new changes agents as well as leaders for the change coalition.

Anchor the change in the corporate culture- It is necessary, the key leaders of the firm should support the change.  The leaders need to include the change ideals as well as values while hiring and providing training to the new employees.

Lewin’s Change management model- Lewin’s change management model consists of three different steps namely unfreeze, change and Refreeze.

Unfreeze- The stage of change includes preparing the company to accept the change, which is necessary. This could involve breakdown the existing status quo before the business could build up a new way of operation. Before implementing the change, it is necessary for the organization to go through the major the initial steps of unfreezing. It is evident that some people could resist the change; thereby, the major activity of this stage is to create awareness and learn the level of acceptability.

Change- Once people are unfrozen, they could move; therefore, the organization needs to transition or adopt the new state of being.  As the uncertainty and fear created in the first stage, in this stage, the people in the organization should solve their certainty and search for the new ways to deal with the realty (Fullan 2014)

Refreeze- When the changes gain the stability as well as people adopted the new ways of working, the firm is ready to refreeze.  Hence, the organizations make sure that changes are adopted all the time.

ADKAR model –This model provides the business with the principles that state that managing organizational change could start with understanding how to manage change with a single individual. The model ADKAR developed by Prosci stands for Awareness, Desire, Knowledge, Ability and Reinforcement (Kuipers et al. 2014). This means in order to make change effectively in the organization, the individual or the leader needs to gain awareness of the need for change and desire to participate the change as well as ability to implement necessary skills and behaviors. The model can be used as the effective tool for planning change management activities and developing the corrective options. By implementing this change model, the firm gains the ability to sustain the change and derive the expected outcome.

The change curve model- As put forward by Senge (2014), the change curve is developed is based on the model that is actually in developed in 1960 by Elisabeth Kubler-Ross to explain the grieving process. This model is relevant to describe the stages of personal transition involved in most large organizational change. The principles of the model help to understand how people could react to change and provide assistance for own personal transition. There four different stages and behavior involved the curve model in the form of status Quo, Disruption, exploration and Rebuilding.

Interpreting, demonstrating, and explaining what it means in terms of today’s organization

The above-mentioned discussion helps to observe that organization applies changes to the operation, the when the market is saturated or the business observes losses. It is also observed that many organizations sometimes face the challenge that compels them to adjust with the current scenario. The large or developed organizations regularly have to regularly go through the process involved in the changes when it is necessary to respond to new environment as the part of their expansion and restructuring process. As stated by Rosenzweig et al. (2014), the managers of large organization now agree change which is constant phenomenon could be attended to as well as managed properly if the firm has to survive. Thus, it can be added that change cannot be applied to one single context; the changes in technology, the marketplace, global economy, social values as well as workforce and the political environment all have a significant effects on the products and process generated.

As stated by Benn, Dunphymand Griffiths (2014), the organizations that effectively survive that are often regulated to the role of playing deal with the competitors. As organizational change is one of the persistent experience, the knowledge as well as awareness about many of the critical issues involved in the management of such change responsible for its progress. In addition, it has also been observed that if the companies ever have to experience a large level of success in their enhancement efforts, the leaders and the managers need to have a developed framework for considering the changes as well as key understanding of the key issues.


The idea of change management is familiar in most of the large business today. Nevertheless, the way business deals with the change and successful they are at it, could be different relying on the type of the nature of the business and the personnel involved. On the conclusion of the report, it can be added that change management is better the application of the structure techniques as well as tools to increase the ability of the group to transition from a present state to the upcoming state to accomplish the desired outcome.  In addition, when the change is applied, people are engaged in the change method as well as work together considering the common goals and objectives.


Empirical-Rational Strategy- People are known as the rational-being and they rely on the self-interests. Thus, the change should be implemented based on the communication of the information and incentives. Most significantly, the people behave reasonably; thereby, they could be with reasoned with the purpose of the implement change. Besides the values judgment, they could also be bought. This is known as the “carrot” side of “carrot-and-stick management”.  Furthermore, the resistance to change from the internal environment can be controlled .

Normative-Reeducative Strategy- People will always adhere to the cultural norms as well as values. Therefore, the successful change is relied on redefining and re-interpreting existing norms and values enhancing the commitments to new ones. Hence, the changes should be aligned with the people’s culture and trends.

Reference list:

Benn, S., Dunphy, D. and Griffiths, A., 2014. Organizational change for corporate sustainability. Routledge.

Cummings, T.G. and Worley, C.G., 2014. Organization development and change. Cengage learning.

Cummings, T.G. and Worley, C.G., 2014. Organization development and change. Cengage learning.

Fullan, M., 2014. Leading in a culture of change personal action guide and workbook. John Wiley & Sons.

Harmon, P., 2014. Business process change. Morgan Kaufmann.

Hayes, J., 2014. The theory and practice of change management. Palgrave Macmillan.

Hon, A.H., Bloom, M. and Crant, J.M., 2014. Overcoming resistance to change and enhancing creative performance. Journal of Management, 40(3), pp.919-941.

Kotter, J.P., 2014. Accelerate: building strategic agility for a faster-moving world. Harvard Business Review Press.

Kuipers, B.S., Higgs, M., Kickert, W., Tummers, L., Grandia, J. and Van der Voet, J., 2014. The management of change in public organizations: A literature review. Public Administration, 92(1), pp.1-20.

Matos Marques Simoes, P. and Esposito, M., 2014. Improving change management: How communication nature influences resistance to change. Journal of Management Development, 33(4), pp.324-341.

Metre, C., 2009. Deriving Value from Change Management (Doctoral dissertation, University of Pennsylvania).

Pieterse, J.H., Caniëls, M.C. and Homan, T., 2012. Professional discourses and resistance to change. Journal of Organizational Change Management, 25(6), pp.798-818.

Rosenzweig, C., Elliott, J., Deryng, D., Ruane, A.C., Müller, C., Arneth, A., Boote, K.J., Folberth, C., Glotter, M., Khabarov, N. and Neumann, K., 2014. Assessing agricultural risks of climate change in the 21st century in a global gridded crop model intercomparison. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 111(9), pp.3268-3273.

Senge, P.M., 2014. The dance of change: The challenges to sustaining momentum in a learning organization. Crown Business.


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