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Personality and Consumer Behavior

Consumer Behavior, 10e (Schiffman/Kanuk)

Chapter 5   Personality and Consumer Behavior

1) The inner psychological characteristics that both determine and reflect how a person responds to his or her environment compose an individual's ________.

  1. A) role
  2. B) self-image
  3. C) individuality
  4. D) personality
  5. E) status

Answer:  D

Diff: 1    Page Ref: 118

Skill:  Concept

Objective:  5.1: Understand how personality reflects consumers' inner differences

2) The emphasis in the definition of personality is on inner characteristics, which are ________.

  1. A) those characteristics of an individual that are not readily apparent to others
  2. B) those characteristics which individuals try to hide from others
  3. C) those characteristics that distinguish one individual from others
  4. D) those characteristics that make one individual similar to others
  5. E) those characteristics that constitute the individual's ideal self-image

Answer:  C

Diff: 3    Page Ref: 118

AACSB:  Reflective Thinking

Skill:  Concept

Objective:  5.1: Understand how personality reflects consumers' inner differences

3) In the study of personality, three distinct properties are of central importance. These are that ________.

  1. A) personality reflects individual differences, personality is consistent and enduring, and personality can change
  2. B) personality reflects similarities between individuals, personality is consistent and enduring, and personality can change
  3. C) personality reflects individual differences, personality is consistent and enduring, and personality does not change
  4. D) personality reflects similarities between individuals, personality is consistent and enduring, and personality does not change
  5. E) personality reflects individual differences, personality is inconsistent and fleeting, and personality can change

Answer:  A

Diff: 3    Page Ref: 118

Skill:  Concept

Objective:  5.1: Understand how personality reflects consumers' inner differences

4) The mother who comments about her teenage son that her child "has been impulsive from the day he was born," is supporting the contention that personality ________.

  1. A) is enduring
  2. B) can change
  3. C) reflects individual differences
  4. D) is more apparent in childhood than adulthood
  5. E) develops as a result of social circumstances

Answer:  A

Diff: 2    Page Ref: 118

Skill:  Application

Objective:  5.1: Understand how personality reflects consumers' inner differences

5) How can marketers use an understanding of consumers' personalities to market their products?

  1. A) Marketers can rely on consistent consumption behavior over time because consumers' personalities are consistent over time.
  2. B) Marketers can change consumers' personalities to conform to their products.
  3. C) Marketers can attempt to appeal to the relevant traits inherent in their target group of consumers.
  4. D) Marketers can use an understanding of consumers' personalities to create consumer needs.
  5. E) In creating marketing messages, marketers can accurately presume that consumers' personalities constitute the single factor that influences how consumers behave.

Answer:  C

Diff: 3    Page Ref: 119

AACSB:  Reflective Thinking

Skill:  Application

Objective:  5.1: Understand how personality reflects consumers' inner differences

6) Stacy notes that, after her freshman year of college, her daughter is more mature and is willing to listen to points of view other than those with which she agrees.  This supports the contention that personality ________.

  1. A) is consistent
  2. B) reflects individual differences
  3. C) can change
  4. D) is more apparent in childhood than in adulthood
  5. E) is enduring

Answer:  C

Diff: 2    Page Ref: 119

Skill:  Application

Objective:  5.1: Understand how personality reflects consumers' inner differences

7) The convergence in personality characteristics of men and women provides evidence that ________.

  1. A) personality is consistent and enduring
  2. B) personality develops from social interactions
  3. C) personality stereotypes may change over time
  4. D) personality is the result of an individual's desire to conquer feelings of anxiety
  5. E) personality develops from the way individuals deal with crises during their development

Answer:  C

Diff: 3    Page Ref: 119

Skill:  Application

Objective:  5.1: Understand how personality reflects consumers' inner differences

8) Sigmund Freud's psychoanalytic theory of personality is built on the premise that ________ are at the heart of human motivations and personality.

  1. A) social relationships
  2. B) conscious decision-making processes
  3. C) efforts to avoid anxiety
  4. D) efforts to overcome inferiority
  5. E) unconscious needs or drives

Answer:  E

Diff: 1    Page Ref: 119

Skill:  Concept

Objective:  5.2: Understand how Freudian, neo-Freudian, and trait theories explore the influence of personality on consumers' attitudes and behavior

9) According to Freud's theories, the ________ is a conceptualization of the basic biogenic needs for which the individual seeks immediate satisfaction without concern for the specific means of satisfaction.

  1. A) ego
  2. B) id
  3. C) super-id
  4. D) self-image
  5. E) superego

Answer:  B

Diff: 2    Page Ref: 119

Skill:  Concept

Objective:  5.2: Understand how Freudian, neo-Freudian, and trait theories explore the influence of personality on consumers' attitudes and behavior

10) Using sexual imagery to sell a product primarily appeals to Freud's conceptualization of the ________.

  1. A) ego
  2. B) self-image
  3. C) superego
  4. D) id
  5. E) super-id

Answer:  D

Diff: 2    Page Ref: 119

AACSB:  Analytic Skills

Skill:  Application

Objective:  5.2: Understand how Freudian, neo-Freudian, and trait theories explore the influence of personality on consumers' attitudes and behavior

11) According to Freud's theories, the ________ is responsible for ensuring that the individual satisfies needs in a socially acceptable fashion.

  1. A) superego
  2. B) id
  3. C) ego
  4. D) super-id
  5. E) self-image

Answer:  A

Diff: 2    Page Ref: 119

Skill:  Concept

Objective:  5.2: Understand how Freudian, neo-Freudian, and trait theories explore the influence of personality on consumers' attitudes and behavior

12) According to Freud's theories, the ________ functions as an internal monitor that helps balance the impulses stimulated by biogenic needs and the constraints applied by the sociocultural setting.

  1. A) super-id
  2. B) self-image
  3. C) ego
  4. D) superego
  5. E) id

Answer:  C

Diff: 2    Page Ref: 119

Skill:  Concept

Objective:  5.2: Understand how Freudian, neo-Freudian, and trait theories explore the influence of personality on consumers' attitudes and behavior

13) According to Freud's theories, we are driven to action by the internal forces of the ________ and constrained by the external forces of the ________, while the ________ represents the individual's conscious choices of conformity and nonconformity with social standards in meeting one's biogenic needs.

  1. A) ego; id; superego
  2. B) superego; ego; id
  3. C) id; ego; superego
  4. D) ego; superego; id
  5. E) id; superego; ego

Answer:  E

Diff: 3    Page Ref: 119

AACSB:  Analytic Skills

Skill:  Concept

Objective:  5.2: Understand how Freudian, neo-Freudian, and trait theories explore the influence of personality on consumers' attitudes and behavior

14) According to Freudian theory, an adult's personality is determined by ________.

  1. A) how the individual alleviates feelings of anxiety
  2. B) how well the individual deals with crises experienced during development
  3. C) how the individual seeks rewarding relationships with others
  4. D) how the individual avoids feelings of inferiority
  5. E) how the individual develops the ideal social self-image

Answer:  B

Diff: 1    Page Ref: 120

Skill:  Concept

Objective:  5.2: Understand how Freudian, neo-Freudian, and trait theories explore the influence of personality on consumers' attitudes and behavior

15) Researchers who apply Freud's theories to the study of consumer personality believe that ________.

  1. A) consumer behavior is an effort on behalf of individuals to overcome feelings of inferiority
  2. B) social relationships are fundamental to the formation and development of personality
  3. C) people continuously attempt to establish significant and rewarding relationships with others
  4. D) consumers are primarily unaware of their true reasons for their purchasing behavior
  5. E) behavior is largely driven by a desire to conquer feelings of anxiety

Answer:  D

Diff: 2    Page Ref: 121

Skill:  Application

Objective:  5.2: Understand how Freudian, neo-Freudian, and trait theories explore the influence of personality on consumers' attitudes and behavior

16) Neo-Freudian theorists believe that ________.

  1. A) consumption situations are extensions of the consumer's personality
  2. B) human drives are largely unconscious
  3. C) social relationships are fundamental to the formation and development of personality
  4. D) consumers are primarily unaware of their true reasons for making decisions
  5. E) consumer purchases are a reflection of an individual's personality

Answer:  C

Diff: 2    Page Ref: 121

Skill:  Concept

Objective:  5.2: Understand how Freudian, neo-Freudian, and trait theories explore the influence of personality on consumers' attitudes and behavior

17) Alfred Adler, a neo-Freudian theorist, believed that ________.

  1. A) unconscious needs and drives are at the heart of human motivation
  2. B) people continuously attempt to establish significant and rewarding relationships with others
  3. C) human beings are seeking to attain various rational goals, which he called style of life
  4. D) personality is measured in terms of specific psychological characteristics called traits
  5. E) personality is largely impacted by child-parent relationships and the individual's desire to conquer feelings of anxiety

Answer:  C

Diff: 3    Page Ref: 121

Skill:  Concept

Objective:  5.2: Understand how Freudian, neo-Freudian, and trait theories explore the influence of personality on consumers' attitudes and behavior

18) According to Karen Horney, ________ individuals desire independence, self-reliance, and self-sufficiency.

  1. A) compliant
  2. B) subversive
  3. C) aggressive
  4. D) detached
  5. E) obtrusive

Answer:  D

Diff: 2    Page Ref: 122

Skill:  Concept

Objective:  5.2: Understand how Freudian, neo-Freudian, and trait theories explore the influence of personality on consumers' attitudes and behavior

19) Consumer research using Karen Horney's CAD theory found that ________ personalities were less likely to be brand loyal and more likely to try different brands.

  1. A) submissive
  2. B) aggressive
  3. C) detached
  4. D) compliant
  5. E) subversive

Answer:  C

Diff: 3    Page Ref: 122

AACSB:  Analytic Skills

Skill:  Application

Objective:  5.2: Understand how Freudian, neo-Freudian, and trait theories explore the influence of personality on consumers' attitudes and behavior

20) Recent research using Karen Horney's CAD theory found that ________ personalities tend to prefer name-brand products.

  1. A) submissive
  2. B) aggressive
  3. C) detached
  4. D) compliant
  5. E) subversive

Answer:  D

Diff: 3    Page Ref: 122

AACSB:  Analytic Skills

Skill:  Application

Objective:  5.2: Understand how Freudian, neo-Freudian, and trait theories explore the influence of personality on consumers' attitudes and behavior

21) The orientation of trait theory is primarily ________.

  1. A) empirical
  2. B) qualitative
  3. C) subjective
  4. D) extroverted
  5. E) interpretive

Answer:  A

Diff: 2    Page Ref: 122

Skill:  Concept

Objective:  5.2: Understand how Freudian, neo-Freudian, and trait theories explore the influence of personality on consumers' attitudes and behavior

22) Trait theory is different from the Freudian and neo-Freudian movements mainly because ________.

  1. A) it is very recent
  2. B) it is primarily quantitative
  3. C) it is primarily qualitative
  4. D) it is a very old theory
  5. E) it is more subjective

Answer:  B

Diff: 3    Page Ref: 122

AACSB:  Analytic Skills

Skill:  Concept

Objective:  5.2: Understand how Freudian, neo-Freudian, and trait theories explore the influence of personality on consumers' attitudes and behavior

23) A(n) ________ is defined as "any distinguishing, relatively enduring way in which one individual differs from another."

  1. A) personality
  2. B) individuality
  3. C) uniqueness
  4. D) trait
  5. E) characteristic

Answer:  D

Diff: 1    Page Ref: 122

Skill:  Concept

Objective:  5.2: Understand how Freudian, neo-Freudian, and trait theories explore the influence of personality on consumers' attitudes and behavior

24) How receptive a person is to new experiences is known as ________.

  1. A) consumer ethnocentrism
  2. B) consumer innovativeness
  3. C) consumer understanding
  4. D) consumer perception
  5. E) consumer materialism

Answer:  B

Diff: 1    Page Ref: 122

Skill:  Concept

Objective:  5.2: Understand how Freudian, neo-Freudian, and trait theories explore the influence of personality on consumers' attitudes and behavior

25) The likelihood of a consumer accepting or rejecting foreign-made products is known as ________.

  1. A) consumer ethnocentrism
  2. B) consumer innovativeness
  3. C) consumer understanding
  4. D) consumer perception
  5. E) consumer materialism

Answer:  A

Diff: 1    Page Ref: 122

Skill:  Concept

Objective:  5.2: Understand how Freudian, neo-Freudian, and trait theories explore the influence of personality on consumers' attitudes and behavior

26) The degree of a consumer's attachment to "worldly possessions" is known as ________.

  1. A) consumer ethnocentrism
  2. B) consumer innovativeness
  3. C) consumer understanding
  4. D) consumer perception
  5. E) consumer materialism

Answer:  E

Diff: 1    Page Ref: 122

Skill:  Concept

Objective:  5.2: Understand how Freudian, neo-Freudian, and trait theories explore the influence of personality on consumers' attitudes and behavior

27) Trait researchers have found that it is generally most realistic to expect personality to be linked to ________.

  1. A) consumer preference for specific brands
  2. B) consumers' biogenic needs
  3. C) how consumers make their choices
  4. D) the effectiveness of the interaction between the id, ego, and superego
  5. E) how aware consumers are of their true reasons for buying what they buy

Answer:  C

Diff: 2    Page Ref: 122

AACSB:  Reflective Thinking

Skill:  Concept

Objective:  5.2: Understand how Freudian, neo-Freudian, and trait theories explore the influence of personality on consumers' attitudes and behavior

28) ________ are people who are open to new ideas and are often among the first to try new products, services, or practices.

  1. A) consumer participants
  2. B) consumer followers
  3. C) consumer innovators
  4. D) consumer pathfinders
  5. E) consumer activists

Answer:  C

Diff: 1    Page Ref: 123

Skill:  Concept

Objective:  5.3: Understand how personality reflects consumers' responses to product and marketing messages

29) Personality trait research that tries to predict how ________ will respond to certain new products or services is especially important to marketers given that these consumers are often critical to the success or failure of new products.

  1. A) consumer advocate groups
  2. B) consumer reports
  3. C) consumer innovators
  4. D) laggards
  5. E) early majority consumers

Answer:  C

Diff: 3    Page Ref: 124

Skill:  Application

Objective:  5.3: Understand how personality reflects consumers' responses to product and marketing messages

30) When describing consumer innovativeness, the term "global innovativeness" refers to ________.

  1. A) a pattern of actions or responses that indicate early acceptance of change and adoption of innovations
  2. B) a high level of demonstrated consumer ethnocentrism
  3. C) a tendency for innovativeness to exist independent of any context
  4. D) a high degree of rigidity that an individual displays toward the unfamiliar
  5. E) a tendency for innovativeness to exist within a very specific domain or product category

Answer:  C

Diff: 2    Page Ref: 125

Skill:  Concept

Objective:  5.3: Understand how personality reflects consumers' responses to product and marketing messages

31) ________ refers to the degree of open-mindedness that individuals display toward the unfamiliar and toward information that is contrary to their own established beliefs.

  1. A) Novelty seeking
  2. B) Sensation seeking
  3. C) Optimum level of stimulation
  4. D) Need for cognition
  5. E) Dogmatism

Answer:  E

Diff: 2    Page Ref: 126

Skill:  Concept

Objective:  5.3: Understand how personality reflects consumers' responses to product and marketing messages

32) Highly dogmatic consumers tend to be more receptive to ads for new products or services that contain ________.

  1. A) text focusing on the benefits of the product or service
  2. B) visually provocative themes
  3. C) appeals to nationalism
  4. D) an appeal from an authoritative figure
  5. E) scenes of social acceptance

Answer:  D

Diff: 3    Page Ref: 126

Skill:  Application

Objective:  5.3: Understand how personality reflects consumers' responses to product and marketing messages

33) Consumers who are low in dogmatism are more likely to ________.

  1. A) prefer established products
  2. B) approach the unfamiliar defensively and with considerable discomfort and uncertainty
  3. C) respond to celebrities and experts in new-product advertising
  4. D) prefer innovative products
  5. E) be reluctant to accept information that is contrary to their own established beliefs

Answer:  D

Diff: 2    Page Ref: 126

AACSB:  Reflective Thinking

Skill:  Application

Objective:  5.3: Understand how personality reflects consumers' responses to product and marketing messages

34) Other-directed consumers prefer ads that contain ________.

  1. A) text focusing on the benefits of the product or service
  2. B) visually provocative themes
  3. C) appeals to nationalism
  4. D) an appeal from an authoritative figure
  5. E) scenes of social acceptance

Answer:  E

Diff: 3    Page Ref: 126

Skill:  Application

Objective:  5.3: Understand how personality reflects consumers' responses to product and marketing messages

35) In reference to social character, ________ consumers tend to rely on their own values or standards in evaluating new products and are more likely to be consumer innovators.

  1. A) inner-directed
  2. B) other-directed
  3. C) dogmatic
  4. D) ethnocentric
  5. E) unique

Answer:  A

Diff: 2    Page Ref: 126

Skill:  Concept

Objective:  5.3: Understand how personality reflects consumers' responses to product and marketing messages

36) Low levels of which of the following traits typically characterizes a consumer innovator?

  1. A) novelty seeking
  2. B) sensation seeking
  3. C) optimum stimulation levels
  4. D) inner-directedness
  5. E) need for uniqueness

Answer:  D

Diff: 3    Page Ref: 126

Skill:  Concept

Objective:  5.3: Understand how personality reflects consumers' responses to product and marketing messages

37) ________ consumers tend to be more responsive to advertising appeals that are based on social or group affiliations, rather than the informational content of an ad.

  1. A) Inner-directed
  2. B) Other-directed
  3. C) Novelty-seeking
  4. D) Sensation-seeking
  5. E) Dogmatic

Answer:  B

Diff: 2    Page Ref: 126

Skill:  Application

Objective:  5.3: Understand how personality reflects consumers' responses to product and marketing messages

38) Research has found that ________ are linked with greater willingness to take risks, and to be innovative.

  1. A) low sensation seeking scores
  2. B) high optimum stimulation levels
  3. C) low novelty seeking scores
  4. D) high ethnocentricity
  5. E) high need for cognition

Answer:  B

Diff: 2    Page Ref: 127

Skill:  Concept

Objective:  5.3: Understand how personality reflects consumers' responses to product and marketing messages

39) Renee likes to try on some of the newest clothes each season to see how she looks in the styles, and prefers to buy clothes that are very unusual.  Renee is best described as ________.

  1. A) having a high optimum stimulation level
  2. B) highly dogmatic
  3. C) highly ethnocentric
  4. D) having a low optimum stimulation level
  5. E) minimally ethnocentric

Answer:  A

Diff: 2    Page Ref: 128

Skill:  Application

Objective:  5.3: Understand how personality reflects consumers' responses to product and marketing messages

40) A trait characterized by the need for varied, novel, and complex sensations and experience, and the willingness to take physical and social risks for the sake of such experience, is known as ________.

  1. A) optimum stimulation level
  2. B) sensation seeking
  3. C) variety-novelty seeking
  4. D) need for uniqueness
  5. E) need for cognition

Answer:  B

Diff: 3    Page Ref: 128

Skill:  Concept

Objective:  5.3: Understand how personality reflects consumers' responses to product and marketing messages

41) Exploratory purchase behavior, vicarious exploration, and use innovativeness are types of ________.

  1. A) sensation seeking
  2. B) social character
  3. C) variety seeking
  4. D) innovativeness
  5. E) optimum stimulation level

Answer:  C

Diff: 3    Page Ref: 128

Skill:  Concept

Objective:  5.3: Understand how personality reflects consumers' responses to product and marketing messages

42) Kyle is an enthusiastic golf player and likes to shop on eBay for used golf clubs so he can try out different clubs for a while, then resell them if he doesn't like them.  This is known as ________.

  1. A) vicarious exploration
  2. B) use innovativeness
  3. C) exploratory purchase behavior
  4. D) sensation seeking
  5. E) dogmatism

Answer:  C

Diff: 2    Page Ref: 128

Skill:  Application

Objective:  5.3: Understand how personality reflects consumers' responses to product and marketing messages

43) George subscribes to Hotrod Magazine and likes reading articles about custom cars and daydreaming about how cool it would be to own and drive one.  This behavior is known as ________.

  1. A) vicarious exploration
  2. B) novelty seeking
  3. C) need for cognition
  4. D) innovativeness
  5. E) need for uniqueness

Answer:  A

Diff: 1    Page Ref: 128

Skill:  Concept

Objective:  5.3: Understand how personality reflects consumers' responses to product and marketing messages

44) ________ measures a person's craving for or enjoyment of thinking.

  1. A) Optimum stimulation level
  2. B) Novelty seeking
  3. C) Need for cognition
  4. D) Innovativeness
  5. E) Need for uniqueness

Answer:  C

Diff: 1    Page Ref: 129

Skill:  Concept

Objective:  5.3: Understand how personality reflects consumers' responses to product and marketing messages

45) Consumers who ________ are more likely to be responsive to the part of an ad that is rich in product-related information or detailed description.

  1. A) are highly ethoncentric
  2. B) are other-directed
  3. C) have a high need for uniqueness
  4. D) have a low optimal stimulation level
  5. E) are high in need for cognition

Answer:  E

Diff: 2    Page Ref: 129

Skill:  Application

Objective:  5.3: Understand how personality reflects consumers' responses to product and marketing messages

46) Someone who prefers to follow instructive diagrams would be considered a ________, whereas someone who would prefer to read instructive text would be considered a ________.

  1. A) verbalizer; visualizer
  2. B) innovator; verbalizer
  3. C) visualizer; innovator
  4. D) visualizer; verbalizer
  5. E) verbalizer; innovator

Answer:  D

Diff: 3    Page Ref: 129

Skill:  Application

Objective:  5.3: Understand how personality reflects consumers' responses to product and marketing messages

47) Which of the following describes a materialistic consumer?

  1. A) Materialistic people tend to find that owning many possessions does not provide them any greater personal satisfaction.
  2. B) Materialistic people especially value acquiring and showing off possessions.
  3. C) Materialistic people prefer a simple, uncluttered lifestyle.
  4. D) Materialistic people are particularly selfless and thoughtful of others.
  5. E) Materialistic people place relationships with others at the center of their lives.

Answer:  B

Diff: 2    Page Ref: 131

AACSB:  Reflective Thinking

Skill:  Concept

Objective:  5.3: Understand how personality reflects consumers' responses to product and marketing messages

48) ________ have been shown to tend to display and share their involvement in their purchases with others who have a similar interest.

  1. A) Compulsive consumers
  2. B) Fixated consumers
  3. C) Highly ethnocentric consumers
  4. D) Inward-directed consumers
  5. E) Dogmatic consumers

Answer:  B

Diff: 2    Page Ref: 132

AACSB:  Analytic Skills

Skill:  Concept

Objective:  5.3: Understand how personality reflects consumers' responses to product and marketing messages

49) Which of the following characteristics is typical of fixated consumers?

  1. A) Their purchase decisions are heavily dependent upon convenience.
  2. B) They are only mildly interested in the particular object or product category.
  3. C) They are very guarded about displaying their purchases.
  4. D) Their consumption pattern is considered abnormal behavior.
  5. E) They dedicate a considerable amount of discretionary time and money to searching out the product or object.

Answer:  E

Diff: 3    Page Ref: 132

Skill:  Concept

Objective:  5.3: Understand how personality reflects consumers' responses to product and marketing messages

50) Serious collectors of Barbie dolls, Beanie Babies, and Zippos are all displaying a form of ________.

  1. A) dogmatic consumption
  2. B) fixated consumption behavior
  3. C) variety seeking behavior
  4. D) novelty seeking behavior
  5. E) ethnocentric consumption

Answer:  B

Diff: 2    Page Ref: 132

Skill:  Application

Objective:  5.3: Understand how personality reflects consumers' responses to product and marketing messages

51) "Buy American" and "Keep America Working" are both tag-lines used by companies to attract the ________ consumer.

  1. A) dogmatic
  2. B) ethnocentric
  3. C) innovative
  4. D) variety-seeking
  5. E) compulsive

Answer:  B

Diff: 2    Page Ref: 136

Skill:  Application

Objective:  5.3: Understand how personality reflects consumers' responses to product and marketing messages

52) Which of the following is true of consumer ethnocentrism?

  1. A) Consumers who are highly ethnocentric tend to evaluate foreign-made products for their extrinsic characteristics
  2. B) Ethnocentrism has been found to vary by country and product.
  3. C) Marketers successfully target ethnocentric consumers by stressing the foreign origin of their products in their promotional appeals.
  4. D) Consumers who are nonethnocentric are likely to feel that it is inappropriate or wrong to purchase foreign-made products.
  5. E) Consumers that have the most knowledge about a product are more strongly influenced by country-of-origin perceptions than consumers who know little about the product.

Answer:  B

Diff: 3    Page Ref: 136

Skill:  Concept

Objective:  5.3: Understand how personality reflects consumers' responses to product and marketing messages

53) The notion of ________ suggests that consumers attribute various descriptive personality-like traits or characteristics to different brands.

  1. A) brand personality
  2. B) consumer dogmatism
  3. C) consumer innovation
  4. D) consumer need for cognition
  5. E) sensation seeking

Answer:  A

Diff: 1    Page Ref: 138

Skill:  Concept

Objective:  5.3: Understand how personality reflects consumers' responses to product and marketing messages

54) A ________ tries to recast consumers' perception of the attributes of a product or service into a human-like character.

  1. A) brand personality
  2. B) brand personification
  3. C) consumer innovation
  4. D) consumer need for cognition
  5. E) sensation seeking device

Answer:  B

Diff: 1    Page Ref: 140

Skill:  Concept

Objective:  5.3: Understand how personality reflects consumers' responses to product and marketing messages

55) The idea that consumers have ________ reflects the observation that healthy or normal people are likely to display a somewhat different personality in each of a number of different situations or social roles.

  1. A) consistent personalities
  2. B) an expected self
  3. C) extended selves
  4. D) an ideal self-image
  5. E) multiple selves

Answer:  E

Diff: 2    Page Ref: 145

Skill:  Concept

Objective:  5.5: Understand how the products and services that consumers use enhance their self-images

56) Individuals develop their self-images through ________.

  1. A) the establishment of their socioeconomic status
  2. B) the satisfaction of their primary needs
  3. C) interactions with people
  4. D) the biological aging process
  5. E) experiences with particular brands

Answer:  C

Diff: 2    Page Ref: 146

Skill:  Concept

Objective:  5.5: Understand how the products and services that consumers use enhance their self-images

57) ________ is how consumers see actually see themselves, whereas ________ refers to how consumers would like to see themselves.

  1. A) Ideal self-image; ideal social self-image
  2. B) Actual self-image; ideal self-image
  3. C) Social self-image; self-image
  4. D) Actual social self-image; ideal social self-image
  5. E) Ideal self-image; actual social self-image

Answer:  B

Diff: 3    Page Ref: 146

Skill:  Concept

Objective:  5.5: Understand how the products and services that consumers use enhance their self-images

58) ________ reflects how consumers would like to see themselves, whereas ________ refers to how consumers would like others to see them.

  1. A) Ideal self-image; ideal social self-image
  2. B) Actual self-image; ideal self-image
  3. C) Social self-image; self-image
  4. D) Actual social self-image; ideal social self-image
  5. E) Ideal self-image; actual social self-image

Answer:  A

Diff: 3    Page Ref: 146

Skill:  Concept

Objective:  5.5: Understand how the products and services that consumers use enhance their self-images

59) Kyle is a senior in high school and is preparing to apply to colleges.  He sees himself going to a 4-year college or university and majoring in biology.  Kyle's self image as a future biology major is best described as his ________.

  1. A) social self-image
  2. B) "ought-to" self
  3. C) extended self
  4. D) expected self-image
  5. E) multiple self

Answer:  D

Diff: 2    Page Ref: 146

Skill:  Application

Objective:  5.5: Understand how the products and services that consumers use enhance their self-images

60) The ________ consists of traits or characteristics that an individual believes it is his or her duty or obligation to possess.

  1. A) social self-image
  2. B) "ought-to" self
  3. C) extended self
  4. D) expected self-image
  5. E) multiple self

Answer:  B

Diff: 2    Page Ref: 146

Skill:  Concept

Objective:  5.5: Understand how the products and services that consumers use enhance their self-images


WEIGHT LOSS MINI CASE: Gloria sees herself as being a bit heavy and has made a New Years resolution to lose 10 pounds by Memorial Day. She receives a postcard in the mail from her local gym chain that specializes in women's fitness. The advertisement suggests that the chain is fun and welcoming - a place where women can work out comfortably with friends, in contrast to the potentially intimidating environments at other gyms. After consulting a few friends, she decides to join.  She is particularly excited to try the various group classes the gym offers, many of which she has never heard of before.

61) In the WEIGHT LOSS MINI CASE, Gloria sees herself as being a bit heavy. This is Gloria's ________.

  1. A) social self-image
  2. B) "ought-to" self
  3. C) extended self
  4. D) expected self-image
  5. E) actual self-image

Answer:  E

Diff: 2    Page Ref: 146

Skill:  Application

Objective:  5.5: Understand how the products and services that consumers use enhance their self-images

62) In the WEIGHT LOSS MINI CASE, "fun and welcoming" describes the local gym's ________.

  1. A) brand personification
  2. B) dogmatism
  3. C) brand personality
  4. D) expected self-image
  5. E) extended self

Answer:  C

Diff: 2    Page Ref: 138

Skill:  Application

Objective:  5.4: Understand how marketers seek to create brand personalities-like traits

63) In the WEIGHT LOSS MINI CASE, Gloria's social character would best be described as ________.

  1. A) other-directed
  2. B) dogmatic
  3. C) sensation seeking
  4. D) innovative
  5. E) ethnocentric

Answer:  A

Diff: 3    Page Ref: 126

Skill:  Application

Objective:  5.3: Understand how personality reflects consumers' responses to product and marketing messages

64) In the WEIGHT LOSS MINI CASE, the more slender self that Gloria is working toward is Gloria's ________.

  1. A) social self-image
  2. B) ideal social self-image
  3. C) projective self-image
  4. D) expected self-image
  5. E) actual self-image

Answer:  D

Diff: 2    Page Ref: 146

Skill:  Application

Objective:  5.5: Understand how the products and services that consumers use enhance their self-images

65) In the WEIGHT LOSS MINI CASE, Gloria is particularly excited to try new and different group exercise classes.  Gloria is probably best described as ________.

  1. A) highly ethnocentric
  2. B) highly dogmatic
  3. C) inner-directed
  4. D) novelty seeking
  5. E) high in her need for cognition

Answer:  D

Diff: 2    Page Ref: 128

Skill:  Application

Objective:  5.3: Understand how personality reflects consumers' responses to product and marketing messages


TEQUILA MINI CASE: Viva Beverages has recently launched its own brand of tequila under the slogan "I never have, but I'd like to." Viva's television advertisements are set in a trendy night club with a well-dressed man standing at the bar. A scantily clad woman with a Russian accent is serving drinks.  She approaches him and the following interaction ensues:

WOMAN: What can I do for you?

MAN: I don't know, something different.

WOMAN: Well, have you ever tried ... (WOMAN looks both ways, then leans across the bar and whispers into MAN's ear)

MAN: I never have, but I'd like to ...

(WOMAN serves MAN a Viva Tequila)

66) In the TEQUILA MINI CASE, the advertisement would most accurately be described as appealing to which of the following Freudian elements of the personality?

  1. A) super-id
  2. B) ego
  3. C) self-image
  4. D) superego
  5. E) id

Answer:  E

Diff: 2    Page Ref: 119

Skill:  Application

Objective:  5.2: Understand how Freudian, neo-Freudian, and trait theories explore the influence of personality on consumers' attitudes and behavior

67) In the TEQUILA MINI CASE, setting the advertisement in a trendy bar full of people enjoying themselves together is designed to appeal to which of the following social character personality traits?

  1. A) other-directedness
  2. B) dogmatism
  3. C) ethnocentricity
  4. D) inner-directedness
  5. E) innovativeness

Answer:  A

Diff: 3    Page Ref: 126

Skill:  Application

Objective:  5.3: Understand how personality reflects consumers' responses to product and marketing messages

68) In the TEQUILA MINI CASE, what kind of consumer behavior does Viva's slogan encourage?

  1. A) ethnocentricity
  2. B) dogmatism
  3. C) consumer innovativeness
  4. D) consumer satisfaction
  5. E) consumer uniqueness

Answer:  C

Diff: 3    Page Ref: 125

Skill:  Application

Objective:  5.3: Understand how personality reflects consumers' responses to product and marketing messages

69) In the TEQUILA MINI CASE, when the man asks for "something different," he is engaging in ________.

  1. A) vicarious exploration
  2. B) perceptual mapping
  3. C) ethnocentricity
  4. D) exploratory purchase behavior
  5. E) use innovativeness

Answer:  D

Diff: 3    Page Ref: 128

Skill:  Application

Objective:  5.3: Understand how personality reflects consumers' responses to product and marketing messages

70) In the TEQUILA MINI CASE, the bartender in the Viva advertisement is intended to suggest that Viva Vodka is trendy and foreign.  What type of consumer would respond best to this element of the advertisement?

  1. A) consumers high in dogmatism
  2. B) consumers low in optimum stimulation level
  3. C) consumers who are predominantly verbalizers
  4. D) consumers low in ethnocentricity
  5. E) consumers with a low need for uniqueness

Answer:  D

Diff: 3    Page Ref: 135

Skill:  Application

Objective:  5.3: Understand how personality reflects consumers' responses to product and marketing messages


FURNITURE MINI CASE: Andrews Mountain Furniture is a manufacturer of home furnishings in eastern North Carolina.  Andrews has been in business for 150 years and its advertising emphasizes the company's long history of production and sales in the United States.  It also encourages cross-generational brand loyalty within families by suggesting to adults should buy the same furniture that their parents had in their homes.

71) In the FURNITURE MINI CASE, Andrews Mountain's advertising emphasizes that its furnishings are all "Made in America." This is designed to appeal to people with high ________.

  1. A) need for cognition
  2. B) ethnocentricity
  3. C) innovativeness
  4. D) optimum stimulation levels
  5. E) variety seeking behavior

Answer:  B

Diff: 2    Page Ref: 135

Skill:  Application

Objective:  5.3: Understand how personality reflects consumers' responses to product and marketing messages

72) In the FURNITURE MINI CASE, the name of the furniture company is an attempt to create a strong ________ for the brand in the minds of consumers.

  1. A) brand personification
  2. B) superego
  3. C) self-image
  4. D) geographical association
  5. E) brand personality

Answer:  D

Diff: 1    Page Ref: 143

Skill:  Application

Objective:  5.4: Understand how marketers seek to create brand personalities-like traits

73) In the FURNITURE MINI CASE, by encouraging consumers to remain loyal to the brands to which their parents were loyal, Andrews Mountain is appealing to consumers with low ________.

  1. A) dogmatism
  2. B) ethnocentricity
  3. C) need for cognition
  4. D) inner-directedness
  5. E) need for uniqueness

Answer:  E

Diff: 3    Page Ref: 126

Skill:  Application

Objective:  5.3: Understand how personality reflects consumers' responses to product and marketing messages

74) In the FURNITURE MINI CASE, Andrews Mountain's advertisements are dominated by pictures of the furniture, and attempt to convey a feeling for its quality and style through these photographs. This is in an attempt to appeal to ________

  1. A) verbalizers
  2. B) innovators
  3. C) visualizers
  4. D) fixated consumers
  5. E) sensation seekers

Answer:  C

Diff: 3    Page Ref: 129

Skill:  Application

Objective:  5.3: Understand how personality reflects consumers' responses to product and marketing messages

75) In the FURNITURE MINI CASE, Andrews Mountain Furniture is most likely to appeal to consumers who are ________ and value tradition over novelty.

  1. A) low in ethnocentricity
  2. B) low in dogmatism
  3. C) high in dogmatism
  4. D) sensation seekers
  5. E) novelty seekers

Answer:  C

Diff: 3    Page Ref: 126

Skill:  Application

Objective:  5.3: Understand how personality reflects consumers' responses to product and marketing messages

76) Theorists agree that social relationships and environmental influences are what shape human personality.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 1    Page Ref: 118

Skill:  Concept

Objective:  5.1: Understand how personality reflects consumers' inner differences

77) If each person were different in terms of all personality traits, it would be impossible to group consumers into segments on the basis of personality.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 2    Page Ref: 118

AACSB:  Reflective Thinking

Skill:  Application

Objective:  5.1: Understand how personality reflects consumers' inner differences

78) Marketers are able to change consumers' personalities to conform to their products.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 1    Page Ref: 118

Skill:  Concept

Objective:  5.1: Understand how personality reflects consumers' inner differences

79) The fact that consumers' personalities are consistent means that their behavior is always consistent.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 2    Page Ref: 119

Skill:  Concept

Objective:  5.1: Understand how personality reflects consumers' inner differences

80) An individual's personality changes only in response to major life events, such as marriage or the birth of a child.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 2    Page Ref: 119

Skill:  Concept

Objective:  5.1: Understand how personality reflects consumers' inner differences

81) According to Freud, the superego acts to restrain or inhibit the impulsive forces of the id.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 2    Page Ref: 119

AACSB:  Analytic Skills

Skill:  Concept

Objective:  5.2: Understand how Freudian, neo-Freudian, and trait theories explore the influence of personality on consumers' attitudes and behavior

82) Researchers who apply Freud's psychoanalytic theory to the study of consumer personality tend to see consumer purchases as a reflection and an extension of the consumer's personality.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 2    Page Ref: 121

Skill:  Application

Objective:  5.2: Understand how Freudian, neo-Freudian, and trait theories explore the influence of personality on consumers' attitudes and behavior

83) According to Karen Horney, aggressive individuals desire to excel and win admiration.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 3    Page Ref: 122

Skill:  Concept

Objective:  5.2: Understand how Freudian, neo-Freudian, and trait theories explore the influence of personality on consumers' attitudes and behavior

84) It is generally more realistic to expect personality to be linked to the purchase or consumption of a broad product category rather than a specific brand.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 2    Page Ref: 123

Skill:  Application

Objective:  5.3: Understand how personality reflects consumers' responses to product and marketing messages

85) Dogmatism, social character, and optimum stimulation level are personality traits that have been useful in measuring consumer materialism.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 2    Page Ref: 124

Skill:  Concept

Objective:  5.3: Understand how personality reflects consumers' responses to product and marketing messages

86) People who are high in dogmatism are more likely to prefer innovative products to established or traditional alternatives.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 2    Page Ref: 126

Skill:  Concept

Objective:  5.3: Understand how personality reflects consumers' responses to product and marketing messages

87) Inner-directed consumers tend to rely on their own values or standards in evaluating new products and are likely to be consumer innovators.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 1    Page Ref: 126

Skill:  Concept

Objective:  5.3: Understand how personality reflects consumers' responses to product and marketing messages

88) When consumers are asked to explain their choices, but are not concerned about being criticized by others, they are more receptive to making unique choices.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 1    Page Ref: 126

Skill:  Application

Objective:  5.3: Understand how personality reflects consumers' responses to product and marketing messages

89) Consumers whose actual lifestyles are equivalent to their OSL scores are likely to seek rest or relief.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 2    Page Ref: 128

Skill:  Concept

Objective:  5.3: Understand how personality reflects consumers' responses to product and marketing messages

90) Consumers with a high need for variety tend to search for marketers that provide a diverse product line.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 1    Page Ref: 128

Skill:  Concept

Objective:  5.3: Understand how personality reflects consumers' responses to product and marketing messages

91) Variety seekers often use price promotions as low-cost ways to try different brands over time.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 2    Page Ref: 128

AACSB:  Analytic Skills

Skill:  Concept

Objective:  5.3: Understand how personality reflects consumers' responses to product and marketing messages

92) The extent of consumer materialism is more or less the same from country to country.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 3    Page Ref: 132

AACSB:  Multicultural and Diversity

Skill:  Concept

Objective:  5.3: Understand how personality reflects consumers' responses to product and marketing messages

93) Materialistic consumers are out of control and their actions may have damaging consequences to them and those around them.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 2    Page Ref: 133

Skill:  Concept

Objective:  5.3: Understand how personality reflects consumers' responses to product and marketing messages

94) Fixated and compulsive consumption are in the realm of abnormal behavior.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 3    Page Ref: 132

Skill:  Concept

Objective:  5.3: Understand how personality reflects consumers' responses to product and marketing messages

95) Consumers who have little knowledge about a product are more strongly influenced by country-of-origin perceptions than consumers with high knowledge about a product.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 1    Page Ref: 136

Skill:  Concept

Objective:  5.3: Understand how personality reflects consumers' responses to product and marketing messages

96) Any brand personality, as long as it is strong and favorable, will strengthen a brand.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 2    Page Ref: 138

AACSB:  Reflective Thinking

Skill:  Concept

Objective:  5.3: Understand how personality reflects consumers' responses to product and marketing messages

97) For a geographical association to be beneficial for a brand, the location must be real and reflect where the product is actually made.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 2    Page Ref: 143

AACSB:  Reflective Thinking

Skill:  Concept

Objective:  5.4: Understand how marketers seek to create brand personalities-like traits

98) Consumers who have strong links to particular brands see such brands as representing an aspect of themselves.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 2    Page Ref: 146

Skill:  Concept

Objective:  5.5: Understand how the products and services that consumers use enhance their self-images

99) The expected self and the "ought-to" self provide consumers with a realistic opportunity to change the self, and thus are valuable to marketers as a guide to designing and promoting products.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 3    Page Ref: 146

Skill:  Concept

Objective:  5.5: Understand how the products and services that consumers use enhance their self-images

100) High self-monitors might be more prone to employ a self-altering product in order to enhance their ideal social self-image.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 2    Page Ref: 149

AACSB:  Reflective Thinking

Skill:  Application

Objective:  5.5: Understand how the products and services that consumers use enhance their self-images

101) "Personality reflects individual differences." Discuss this statement.

Answer:  Because the inner characteristics that constitute an individual's personality are a unique combination of factors, no two individuals are exactly alike. Nevertheless, many individuals may be similar in terms of a single personality factor and not in terms of others. Personality is useful in terms of reflecting individual differences because it enables marketers to categorize consumers into different groups on the basis of one or even several traits, and build a marketing campaign around those traits.

Diff: 1    Page Ref: 118

Skill:  Concept

Objective:  5.1: Understand how personality reflects consumers' inner differences

102) Talk about Freud's psychoanalytic theory of personality. How do the three systems he proposed interact?

Answer:  Sigmund Freud's psychoanalytic theory of personality is a cornerstone of modern psychology. It was built on the premise that unconscious needs and drives, especially sexual and biological, are at the heart of human motivation and personality.

Based on this theory, Freud proposes that human personality consists of three interacting systems: the id, the superego, and the ego. The id is the warehouse of primitive and impulsive drives, such as hunger, thirst and sex, for which individuals seek immediate satisfaction. The superego is the individual's internal expression of society's moral and ethical codes of conduct. Its role is to see that individuals satisfy their needs in a socially acceptable fashion. The ego is the conscious control. It functions as an internal monitor that attempts to balance the impulsive demands of the id and the sociocultural constraints of the superego.

Diff: 3    Page Ref: 119-120

AACSB:  Analytic Skills

Skill:  Concept

Objective:  5.2: Understand how Freudian, neo-Freudian, and trait theories explore the influence of personality on consumers' attitudes and behavior

103) What did Karen Horney, a neo-Freudian theorist, propose with respect to personality?

Answer:  Karen Horney focused on the impact of parent-child relationships and the individual's desire to conquer feelings of anxiety. She proposed the CAD theory, in which she stated that individuals can be classified into three personality groups: compliant, aggressive, and detached.

Complaint personalities are those who move towards others. Aggressive individuals are those who move against others. Detached personalities are those who move away from others.

Diff: 1    Page Ref: 122

Skill:  Concept

Objective:  5.2: Understand how Freudian, neo-Freudian, and trait theories explore the influence of personality on consumers' attitudes and behavior

104) What is consumer innovativeness, and how does it relate to personality and consumer behavior?

Answer:  Consumer innovators are those consumers who are likely to be first to try new products, services and practices. Those with a high level of innovativeness are of major concern and interest to marketers because they many times determine the success or failure of new products, especially new product categories.

Diff: 2    Page Ref: 124-125

Skill:  Concept

Objective:  5.3: Understand how personality reflects consumers' responses to product and marketing messages

105) How do inner-directed people differ from other-directed people? How does that implicate marketers?

Answer:  Inner directed consumers tend to rely on their own values or standards in evaluating new products and are more likely to be innovators. Other directed consumers tend to look to others for direction on what is right or wrong; they are less likely to be innovators.

Marketers need to attract inner-directed people with ads that stress product features and personal benefits, whereas other-directed people prefer ads that feature an approving social environment and social acceptance.

Diff: 2    Page Ref: 126

AACSB:  Reflective Thinking

Skill:  Application

Objective:  5.3: Understand how personality reflects consumers' responses to product and marketing messages

106) What is use innovativeness in the context of variety-novelty seeking personalities? Give an example.

Answer:  Use innovativeness means using an already established and adopted product in a new or novel way. This trait is particularly relevant to technology products in which there are many features and options that may be creatively utilized. Here, the student may offer a variety of examples.

 Diff: 2   Page Ref: 128

Skill:  Concept

Objective:  5.3: Understand how personality reflects consumers' responses to product and marketing messages

107) What are some general characteristics of materialistic people?

Answer:  Materialistic people value acquiring possessions and showing them off. They are particularly self-centered and selfish; they seek lifestyles full of possessions and hope for greater happiness and satisfaction by acquiring more possessions.

Diff: 2    Page Ref: 130

Skill:  Concept

Objective:  5.3: Understand how personality reflects consumers' responses to product and marketing messages

108) What is consumer ethnocentrism? Cite some examples.

Answer:  It is a predisposition to accept (or reject) foreign made products. Consumers who are highly ethnocentric are likely to feel that it is inappropriate or wrong to purchase foreign made products for many reasons, mainly economic, but also for political and social reasons.

A student may offer a variety of examples mentioned in the text or others from personal experience.

Diff: 1    Page Ref: 135

Skill:  Concept

Objective:  5.3: Understand how personality reflects consumers' responses to product and marketing messages

109) A variety of different self-images have been recognized in consumer behavior. Talk about three kinds of self-image.

Answer:  First, the actual self-image is how a consumer sees themselves in reality. Second, the ideal self image is how consumers would like to see themselves. Third, the social self-image is how consumers feel others see them.

The student may offer other types of self-image.

Diff: 1    Page Ref: 146

Skill:  Concept

Objective:  5.5: Understand how the products and services that consumers use enhance their self-images

110) Identify the ways in which possessions can extend the self.

Answer:  Much human emotion can be connected to valued possessions.  In such cases, possessions are considered extensions of the self. Possessions can extend the self in a number of ways: (1) actually, by allowing the person do to things that otherwise would be very difficult or impossible to accomplish; (2) symbolically, by making the person feel better or "bigger"; (3) by conferring status or rank; (4) by bestowing feelings of immortality by leaving valued possessions to young family members; and (5) by endowing with magical powers.

Diff: 2    Page Ref: 148-149

Skill:  Application

Objective:  5.5: Understand how the products and services that consumers use enhance their self-images

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