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Pitstop Pty Ltd

Case Study Assessment 1 Simulated workplace scenario – Pitstop Pty Ltd

Pitstop is a privately owned company that until recently operated one independent service station in Melbourne’s north. Jim Murphy, who is the owner, chairman and CEO, has run the company for the past five years. He has operated service stations for most of the last 25 years and relies on his hands-on approach to monitor and instruct staff on what to do.
In the past eight months, Pitstop has raised sufficient finance to buy out the Independent Service Station (ISS) chain of nine stores across Victoria, NSW and Queensland and rebrand them all as Pitstop. Jim plans to continue the expansion until the optimum target of 30 service stations is secured for the Victoria, NSW and Queensland market.
Pitstop service stations trade 24 hours a day. They typically include a vehicle access forecourt with at least six pump stations, a retail shop, a food bar, Store Manager’s office and stockroom. They sell fuel, oil, gas, supermarket goods, hot pies (heated from frozen on the premises) and cold drinks.
Including the retained staff from the ISS buyout stores, Pitstop has a workforce of approximately 60 employees. The employees come from a wide range of cultural and linguistic backgrounds. A significant proportion has poor English literacy, including poor reading comprehension. Most employees, but not all, have a high-school level of education.
All stores have computerised point-of-sale terminals that are linked to the company’s enterprise resource planning and accounting systems. The flagship store has an attached office space that accommodates the directors and senior management staff.
Pitstop service stations are currently located in:
● Victoria:
○ Craigieburn
○ Bendigo
○ Shepparton
○ Wodonga ● NSW:
○ Ballina
○ Wagga Wagga
○ Wollongong
● Qld:
○ Coolangatta
○ Ipswich
○ Toowoomba.
Background to WHSMS
You have been employed by Pitstop as the General Manager – Retail. You have been asked to design and develop a WHS management system (WHSMS) to manage WHS for Pitstop as one of your initial tasks.
In the employment interview, Jim explained that:
Pitstop has just gone through a tremendous transformation, from a single handson operation to a multi-store enterprise with plans to triple in size in the next five years. The board of directors has made me acutely aware that we can’t manage the present and future operations the way I have in the past. We want you to design and develop a WHSMS, as far as is practicable, to ensure a workplace that is safe and without risks to the health of our employees, customers, suppliers and visitors to the sites. You may need to create or rewrite organisational policies as well as devise training schemes, implement changes and develop reports.
I don’t want to pressure you, but it is imperative that this WHSMS be in place in four months' time when we meet with all key stakeholders of Pitstop.
When I managed the single store, we never had the injuries and time off work that
we are having at the moment. I was always very careful to tell my staff how to work safely and made sure any potential hazards were dealt with before they caused injury. But I can’t be in ten places at once. We need a system that can be effectively implemented and monitored without me having to be there.
Absenteeism has gone up and I believe that it is caused by low staff morale connected to work health and safety. I believe that work should be a happy place because a happy workplace is a productive one. Also, it tends to cultivate long-term employees.
After the interview, Jim introduced you to key investor and board member Alan Harvey, who explained that he leaves Jim to worry about the company operations while he concentrates on strategic planning. Alan said:
With our expansion plans we have to be very concerned about our brand image. We can’t afford to have it tarnished by bad press concerning the way we
care for our sites. We handle a lot of hazardous substances in our service stations, and the board takes the legal responsibilities we have as company directors in regard to WHS very seriously.
In developing the WHSMS, make sure you consult with and include the board.
Alan asked you about the way you intend to go about setting up the WHSMS for Pitstop and whether you will be needing any help in achieving the task by the due date.
Your response was that you had been involved the rollout of a similar program with Australian Petroleum. You had used WHS consultants in areas where the company management required additional expertise. You also used the National Safety Council of Australia (NSCA) to train the managers about WHS responsibilities and obligations. You think NSCA may also be useful for training the Pitstop Store Managers on WHS compliance, as would St John’s Ambulance in certifying all managers with first aid competency.
Alan noted that, in the interest of efficiency, it would be a good idea to integrate existing management systems with the new WHSMS. This may involve adapting policies from other management systems at Pitstop or those legacy policies retained from the ISS buyout stores.
Alan went on to say:
This is a critical area for our short-term and long-term future. We don’t want to set a budget, but would rather you come back to us with recommendations on the resources required to do the WHSMS right.

Pitstop Pty Ltd organisation
Pitstop WHS strategic plan 2014 (excerpt)
Mission statement
Pitstop aims to be the first-choice provider of fuel and snacks for Australian motorists.
Pitstop is committed to providing employees and customers with a healthy and

Pitstop organisational structure

Pitstop workplace operations
Store activities list
The following activities are carried out at Pitstop.
Employees
Ongoing activities
● Serve customers.
● Resolve issues associated with use of petrol or LPG pumps.
● Heat pies.
● Receive and store frozen and refrigerated food items.
● Balance cash register and bank the notes.
● Mop and clean floors.
Once-a-day activities
● Clean all forecourt pumps.
● Pick up all rubbish on the forecourt.
● Replace water and supplies on the forecourt.
● Change display board prices.
● Move stock from reserve to retail shelves.
Weekly activities
● Measure the fuel volumes in the underground storage tanks.
● Receive deliveries of LPG and petrol.
● Receive and store retail products.
● Re-organise reserve stock.
● Stocktake inventory items on forecourt, shop and reserve.

Store Managers
Ongoing activities
● Monitor employees under supervision.
● Aid employees where required.
● Coach/train employees.
● Induct new employees.
● Provide reports to senior management as requested.
Daily activities
● Sales, inventory and banking reports for General Managers.
Yearly activities
● Performance Review and Development Program (PRDP).


WHS initial review and data gathering
One of the first tasks that the directors have asked you to perform is to review the existing WHS situation at Pitstop. Pitstop’s most senior Store Manager, Amanda Kaisig, has compiled an incident summary report. You have also conducted store visits to observe conditions, and conducted a review of recordkeeping systems.
Incident summary report for previous 6 months
Incident type Numbe
r Who affected? Work days lost
Fuel spill 33 3 customers with fuel on clothes
10-litre fuel spill into drains 0
Fire in rubbish bin 2 Staff with smoke inhalation 0.5
Slip on wet shop floor 3 2 employees
1 customer 6
Falling stock in reserve 6 6 employees 2
Trip 2 1 customer (cracks in concrete of forecourt)
1 employee (cluttered reserve corridor) 0
Burns (ovens) 42 Employees 23
Fatigued legs 2 2 employees 2
Eye and breathing difficulties related to fumes from oven cleaner 3 1 employee 1
Store visits
Your visit to the stores identified the following points.
● Unwanted chemicals have been eliminated from the flagship store.
● Some goods are being supplied in quantities that make lifting them very difficult.
● Anti-glare screens have been installed on the computer and point-of-sale screens.
● No stress mats for the cashier who has to stand on concrete floors for 7.5 hour shift.
● No real training of staff – supervision more on sales and cost control, not WHS.
● Extensive personal protective equipment (PPE) is provided, including hearing and eye protection, safety vests, hard hats. But not used all the time by staff.
● No emergency preparedness posters in the stores.
● Only a few safe working procedures clearly visible or available.
● No induction of new staff on WHS.
● No staff noticeboard for safety information.
● Material safety data sheets seem to be available for most dangerous goods such as petrol and LPG.
● First aid kits in every store – most fully stocked. Store managers have been given authorisation to fully stock first aid kits.
● Register of hazardous substances and dangerous goods kept in store but not updated.
● No safety audits or inspections have been undertaken regularly. There is no planned schedule.
● Contractors and subcontractors not informed about their duty of care on-site.
Records
You check with the Records Clerk, who is responsible for keeping all of Pitstop’s records. You discover:
● No training records are kept of employees and subcontractors to provide evidence of workplace competencies.
● No rehabilitation policy.
● No recordkeeping policies.
● Records relating to workers compensation claims are kept in an unlocked cabinet.
● Missing incident reports.
● Paper recordkeeping is hard to use to compile WHS performance data for individual stores and the organisation.
● Archiving of records is practiced and appropriate.
● Electronic data is backed up periodically.
● Insurance policies are in place but may not have been appropriately updated after the buyout of the ISS service stations.
● In the files, you discover some other relevant documents, including the current policy and procedures that have been adopted from the buyout stores.
Policy and procedures documents (retained from ISS buyout stores)
ISS work/life balance policy
ISS aims to provide a flexible and family-friendly workplace that reasonably accommodates external commitments and carer responsibilities.
As a flexible and family-friendly business, ISS recognises that its staff members have responsibilities and commitments extending beyond the working environment. ISS is aware that these responsibilities and commitments can have a significant impact on employment opportunities, and ISS is committed to providing an accessible, supportive and flexible environment for all staff.
In responding to requests for arrangements relating to work/life balance, management will need to consider work requirements and the current and potential needs of others in responding, keeping in mind that ISS seeks:
● minimisation of disadvantage/s that may result from competing commitments
● an environment that is supportive and accepting of the responsibilities of caregivers and staff with cultural obligations.
Promotion and support of the balance of work and personal needs for staff will position ISS as an employer of choice, initiate a high level of commitment from staff to the work and ideals of ISS, and provide high levels of job satisfaction and a strong collaborative and collegiate culture, while at the same time reducing stress and turnover.
Staff will be provided with a positive work climate where supervisors strive to meet expectations in accommodating life and personal responsibilities.

ISS smoking policy
As an employer, ISS has a duty under WHS legislation to provide a safe working environment and to protect the health of all employees from any illness and injury arising from the workplace. Areas other than those designated will be smoke-free to eliminate the hazards of environmental tobacco smoke.
A designated area will be available where smokers will be able to smoke during scheduled work breaks, as long as this does not cause harm or discomfort to other employees in the workplace. Employees may not, at any time, smoke inside buildings or premises or any enclosed workplaces. The designated areas will be away from flammable or other dangerous activities.
A breach of this policy will be dealt with in the same manner as a breach of any WHS policy, and standard disciplinary procedures will apply.

ISS sexual harassment policy
ISS recognises that sexual harassment is a serious issue and is committed to providing a workplace free from sexual harassment.
What is sexual harassment?
Sexual harassment is any deliberate verbal or physical conduct that is unwelcome and uninvited, embarrassing, demeaning, offensive or compromising. It can be experienced anywhere in the workforce, and by both men and women.
It has nothing to do with mutual attraction or genuine affection between people. Such friendships, whether sexual or not, are a private concern. It should not be confused with genuine compliments or behaving with common courtesy.
Sexual harassment may include such actions as:
● dirty jokes, derogatory comments, offensive written messages
(email/text messages), or offensive telephone calls
● leering, patting pinching, touching or unnecessary familiarity
● persistent demands for sexual favours or social outings ● displays of offensive posters, pictures or graffiti.
Behaviour is against the law if it makes you feel:
● offended and humiliated
● intimidated and frightened ● uncomfortable at work.
ISS considers sexual harassment an unacceptable form of behaviour which will not be tolerated under any circumstances.
ISS undertakes to educate all employees on the issue of sexual harassment to avoid its incidence and to inform employees of procedures to deal with the problem, should it occur.

ISS alcohol and drugs policy
ISS recognises the value of its employees and is committed to promoting and maintaining the health and wellbeing of every member of its workforce. Alcohol and other drugs can influence an employee’s ability to maintain safe work practices and can endanger themselves and others. All employees, contractors and sub-contractors have a responsibility to present for work and remain at work not influenced by alcohol and other drugs.

ISS bullying and harassment policy
ISS is committed to providing a working environment that is free from bullying. Working relationships and standards of behaviour between employees are important workplace issues. The ISS code of conduct sets out principles for behaviour required in the workplace, namely that:
● all people should be treated with respect
● all employees should develop an awareness about the impact of their behaviour on others
● there is agreement about what is appropriate behaviour at work.
ISS considers that bullying in the workplace is inappropriate and unacceptable behaviour, and those employees found to have either committed or condoned such behaviour in the workplace may be subject to disciplinary action.
A bully is a person who uses strength or power to coerce others by fear. To bully is to oppress or persecute, physically or morally by (threat of) superior force. Bullying is physical or psychological behaviour or conduct where strength (including strength in personality) and/or a position of power is misused by a person in a position of authority or by a person who perceives that they are in a position of power or authority. While bullying is normally associated with unequal power relationships, peer-to-peer bullying is not uncommon and is an equally unacceptable behaviour at ISS.
A variety of behaviours and acts may constitute bullying which, over time, create a negative workplace environment. These may include:
● threats
● verbal abuse
● shouting
● constant unconstructive criticism
● blaming
● sarcasm and other forms of demeaning language
● coercion
● punitive behaviour
● isolation
● deliberately withholding information that a person needs to exercise her or his role or entitlements within the organisation
● repeated refusal of requests for leave or training without adequate explanation and suggestion of alternatives.
Bullying may be perpetrated by an individual who may be a work colleague, a supervisor or any person who is part of the work environment.

ISS performance management policy
Purpose
To support ISS’s commitment to providing a high-performance and satisfying work environment. To describe ISS’s Performance Review and Development Program (PRDP).
Scope
This policy applies to all employees of ISS.
Policy
Each Store Manager at ISS should provide support and guidance to their employees. To this end, Store Managers should discuss performance and development. The PRDP has the following aims:
● encouraging and facilitating high performance among ISS employees
● recognition of achievement and training
● facilitating feedback and consultation between management and staff ● identifying employee development and training needs.
To facilitate the PRDP, all Store Managers will be trained in the principles and practice of PRDP to ensure effective implementation of the PRDP process.
Together, each employee and their supervisor will develop a performance plan and a professional development plan. Both will then negotiate how these plans will be implemented. PRDP should be repeated over a twelve-month cycle.
PRDP will be implemented in accordance with the principles of fairness and equity, and in accordance with relevant legislation and various ISS policies.
Responsibility
Managers are responsible for ensuring that PRDP is implemented for all employees for whom they are designated supervisors.

ISS induction policy
Purpose
To support ISS’s commitment to induction of all new employees. To describe ISS’s induction process.
Scope
This policy applies to all employees of ISS.
Policy
Each employee should be systematically introduced to their job roles and should be provided with the information they require to succeed and develop. Inductions should:
● encourage commitment to the mission and strategic goals of ISS
● welcome and introduce staff members to the workplace
● provide any information necessary to enable new employees to perform their duties.
The induction process has two components
● ISS corporate induction
● local induction; for example, store induction.
Responsibility
Managers are responsible for ensuring that the induction process is implemented for all employees for whom they are designated supervisors.


ISS emergency procedures
Fire emergency
All fire exits should be kept clear of obstacles.
Keep access corridors to emergency exits clear.
In the case of a fire:
1. Assess the danger.
2. Assist anyone in the vicinity of the fire away from danger.
3. Close door/s to the fire area if possible.
4. Call for assistance and call out ‘FIRE, FIRE, FIRE’ in a loud and clear voice.
5. Attack the fire with the correct extinguisher or fire hose.

First aid
1. Supervisors and managers should endeavour to have a current first aid certificate.
2. Follow CPR procedure where appropriate.
a. Check for DANGER; to you, to others, to the casualty.
b. Check for a RESPONSE.
c. Check the AIRWAY.
d. Check for BREATHING.
e. Check for CIRCULATION.
3. Call for assistance as soon as it is appropriate to do so.

Fuel spill
Fuel spills can happen when filling tanks.
When notified of a fuel spill:
1. Stop pump.
2. Wheel prepared fuel spill kit bin to the affected area.
3. Clear persons from area.
4. Place absorbent mats on the spill.
5. Clear soaked mats and place them in the discard bin.

Armed holdup
1. Stay calm.
2. Talk in a calm voice.
3. Don’t argue.
4. Press hidden alarm.
5. Always give them what they want.
6. Note as many details as possible about the person.
7. Report details to police.

ISS hazard control procedures
All staff should be made aware of this policy and procedure within several months of commencing work at ISS.
New staff should be made aware of any hazards that exist within the workplace, and the way ISS manages the potential risk from that hazard.
It is expected that each staff member will report and act upon potential workplace hazards.
Process for identification of new hazard:
1. Identify hazard.
2. Clear area.
3. Partition the hazard.
4. Clear hazard if safe to do so.
5. Report hazard to owner or manager.
6. Complete all documentation.

ISS safe fuel handling – Instructions for customers
Car engines – By law you must switch off your engine before and during refuelling.
Refuelling petrol vehicles – Take care; static discharge from clothing may ignite vapours.
Mobile phones – Dropping a mobile phone can cause sparks, which may ignite vapours. Using a mobile phone while refuelling can cause a lapse in concentration.
Smoking – By law, you and your passengers are required to extinguish your cigarettes.
Children – ONLY adults (15 years or older) are permitted to fill fuel tanks.
Motorcycles – Always dismount your motorcycle prior to and during refuelling.
Autogas (LPG) – If you detect an LPG leak, press the emergency stop button and advise staff immediately.
Caravans and food vans – By law, you are required to extinguish all pilot lights.
Filling containers – Fill only properly labelled containers which have been stamped to say they are approved to carry flammable liquids.
Safe fuel handling – Please be careful when handling or storing fuel for any purpose.
● Contact with fuel can burn or irritate skin and eyes.
● If your clothing is splashed with fuel, saturate the area with water.
● If fuel splashes on your skin, wash immediately with soap and water.
● Prolonged exposure to vapours can adversely affect health.
● Always label and store fuel in a cool, well-ventilated location out of children’s reach.
● It is illegal to pour fuel into drains or sumps.
Prevention of static electricity
● Discharge static electricity (e.g. by touching metal parts of your vehicle) before refuelling.
● Do not re-enter your vehicle during refuelling – stay outside.
Driveway safety
● Start your engine and move your vehicle only AFTER refuelling is completed and the nozzle has been returned to the pump.
● Pull-away of hose and nozzle may hurt people around you, damage your car, lead to fuel leakage and possibly cause a fire.
● Service station driveways are busy places. Reduce speed and be aware of moving vehicles and pedestrians.
Consultation with stakeholders

Meeting with Store Manager – Flagship Store
Amanda Kaisig
Amanda is very concerned about the number of incidents since Pitstop’s buyout of ISS. Safety performance, because of poor and antiquated recordkeeping practices, was very difficult to evaluate; however she was able to compile the following summary report.
● Fuel spills could have catastrophic consequences. There is the risk of failing to comply with environmental laws. There is also the risk of potential loss of customer goodwill.
We advertise our responsibility to the environment.
● The large number of burns is worrying and is also symptomatic of the lack of procedures and training for all processes.
That was part of the buyout, when all stores were fitted with the
new LG MP-9485S 34L Silver Colour Solar DOM (10amp) ovens and a pie warmer so that all the stores could sell Jim’s favourite multiple sale product – pies. We have not had any issues here, but the new stores had no training

on the new oven. Managers were just given an instruction book that was translated from Japanese. The staff members need to be very careful when using the oven cleaner as well. It can give off some very caustic fumes.
Amanda is concerned that, since the Pitstop buyout of ISS, the system that worked on a small scale is inadequate to deal systematically with the present size of operations.
Jim was always keen to show new employees the dangers that were specific to this job and the ways he wanted the risks managed and actioned. I don’t think the new buyout stores concentrate on the induction phase with new employees. They tend to introduce the new staff to the potential hazards as they arise in the work activities. I know Jim looks at the WorkSafe Victoria website, but I have never accessed it. I know Jim keeps a copy of the WHS Act and Regulations in his files because I have seen them there. Jim never questions the money I spend to keep the personal safety equipment in full stock, but I know they have been on a restricted budget in the buyout stores. As for training, well, Jim did it all. He trained me, but I know that with all the increased activity, he has not had the time to train the other managers as he would have liked. He authorised resources for my St John’s first aid course and actually gave me time off work to do it. I know that only a few of the buyout managers have this qualification.
Jim was always very attentive to WHS issues in this store, but I’m not so confident about the buyout stores. They were not trading very well before Pitstop took them over and I don’t think WHS was a key focus of those stores. It hardly comes up in store meetings and agendas proposed by the managers of the buyout stores. As you can see, Jim did not have a lot of documented policy and procedures but he was very conscious of the importance of WHS for the staff.
Despite issues with buyout stores’ safety, because of time pressures, we have tended to adopt their policy and procedures until we can fully develop Pitstop’s own.
Meeting with worker representative, former ISS stores – Pat Lee
Pat Lee
Pat Lee has met with 40 workers and managers from the former ISS stores. He has compiled a list of their concerns.
● Few health and safety issues have been raised by management in the buyout stores over the past two years.
● Store managers are unclear about reporting process and legal obligations.
● Jim (the CEO) seems to be appreciated as a great oral communicator, but the workers complained that they had no real written instructions.
● The workers are unsure if the issues raised by them actually make it to the General Manager or the board of directors. They are not sure that their Shift Managers and Store Managers are that interested.
● Some of the workers have contacted their union representatives, who have given their members information about WHS Act.
● Workers would like to be represented by an elected HSR.
● No one-on-one training was given by technical experts on how to operate the new pie oven and warmer safely.
● Few workers feel adequately trained to perform their role safely. WHS policy and procedures need to be included in induction or training.
● Workers that work in the late night and overnight shifts complained most about not being informed about WHS issues.
● Poor morale is leading to absenteeism and presenteeism. Presenteeism is particularly worrisome because it can mean workers are more susceptible to injuries when they are not fully committed.






Assessment 2 Simulated workplace scenario – Pitstop Pty Ltd

In order to ensure that the WHSMS and its accompanying documentation will meet the needs and expectations of all Pitstop employees across Victoria, NSW and Queensland, you are piloting your WHSMS implementation in the Wollongong, NSW service station. Pitstop Wollongong is the service station with the most WHS incidents to-date, with a representative workforce of relatively new employees and with only a few long-serving staff.
You have met with the CEO of Pitstop and all relevant Pitstop stakeholders to consult on the general design of the WHS management system. You have now been authorised to plan and implement the system.
There are several key tasks to perform, including:
● lead meeting with the board of directors and senior management to consult on planning
● develop a 1–2 page draft risk assessment and control procedure
● develop a draft implementation/action plan for the Wollongong store
● lead meeting with the Wollongong manager and HSR to consult on implementation.
Crucially for senior management, you will need to carry out planning and implementation in close consultation with stakeholders to ensure buy-in across the organisation.
Senior management sees the implementation of the WHSMS as a great opportunity to build a self-sustaining and reinforcing culture of safety that systematically reduces risk across the expanding business.
As CEO Jim Murphy states, however, ‘…the rapid expansion of our business, and replication of management structures and systems, will mean that the effect of any successes or failures will be amplified – we may only get one chance to get this implementation right.’ The key objectives for the WHSMS implementation are to:
● minimise injuries
● reduce number of days of lost work
● establish risk management process
● ensure managers implement WHS policy and WHSMS ● ensure employee buy-in across the organisation.
Pitstop workplace current (pre-WHSMS) operations
Store activities list
The following activities are carried out at Pitstop.
Employees
Ongoing activities
● Serve customers.
● Resolve issues associated with use of petrol or LPG pumps.
● Heat pies.
● Receive and store frozen and refrigerated food items.
● Balance cash register and bank the notes.
● Mop and clean floors.
Once-a-day activities
● Clean all forecourt pumps.
● Pick up all rubbish on the forecourt.
● Replace water and supplies on the forecourt.
● Change display board prices.
● Move stock from reserve to retail shelves.
Weekly activities
● Measure the fuel volumes in the underground storage tanks.
● Receive deliveries of LPG and Petrol.
● Receive and store retail products.
● Re-organise reserve stock.
● Stocktake inventory items on forecourt, shop and reserve.

Store Managers
Ongoing activities
● Monitor employees under supervision.
● Aid employees where required.
● Coach/train employees.
● Induct new employees.
● Provide reports to senior management as requested.
Daily activities
● Sales, inventory and banking reports for General Managers.
Yearly activities
● Performance Review and Development Program (PRDP).

Wollongong store employee skills
Employee Comments
Store Manager 1 year managerial experience.
Not sure how WHSMS could integrate with existing systems.
No idea how to use the pie oven; otherwise familiar with all store procedures.
Adequate knowledge of all safety procedures but unsure of risk assessment process.
Certificate IV in Training and Assessment.
2 years’ training experience.
No first aid training.
Good knowledge of WHS legal framework.
Good written and verbal communication skills. Can write reports.
Shift Manager 1 18 months’ experience – 6 months as shift manager.
No formal training experience; provides informal training to new staff.
No first aid training.
No understanding of performance measures.
No previous managerial experience.
Can use the pie oven.

Adequate knowledge of safety and emergency procedures.
Limited knowledge of WHS legal framework – originally from UK.
Excellent verbal communication but poor written communication skills.
Shift Manager 2 5 years’ experience.
Competent in all aspects of working in a petrol station.
Can use pie oven.
Adequate knowledge of safety and emergency procedures.
No knowledge of WHS legal requirements.
Good written and verbal communication skills.
Cashier 1 2 years’ experience.
Competent in all aspects of working in a petrol station.
Some experience with other pie ovens.
Adequate knowledge of safety and emergency procedures.
Adequate knowledge of WHS legal requirements.
Good written and verbal communication skills.
Cashier 2 18 months’ experience.
Can use all in-store equipment safely, but unsure of outdoor safety procedures. Adequate knowledge of emergency procedures.
Can use pie oven.
No knowledge of WHS legal requirements.
Poor written and verbal communication skills.
Cashier 3 12 months’ experience.
Competent in all aspects of working in a petrol station.
No idea how to use the pie oven.
No knowledge of safety procedures, but adequate knowledge of emergency procedures.
No knowledge of WHS legal requirements.
Good verbal communication but poor written communication skills.
Cashier 4 6 months’ experience.
Not yet competent in all aspects of working in a petrol station.
No idea how to use the pie oven.
Adequate knowledge of safety and emergency procedures.
No knowledge of WHS legal requirements.
Good written and verbal communication skills.
Cashier 6 3 months’ experience.
Not yet competent in all aspects of working in a petrol station.
Can use pie oven.
No knowledge of safety or emergency procedures.
No knowledge of WHS legal requirements.
Good verbal communication but poor written communication skills.
Assessment 3 Simulated workplace scenario – Pitstop Pty Ltd

It has been six months since the implementation of the WHS management system across all stores at Pitstop. The implementation has been carried out concurrently with the expansion of the business, which, over the course of two years, has grown from a single store to 30 stores. The number of employees has grown from 20 to 160 over the course of the implementation of the WHSMS.
Signs are that the rollout has been moderately successful in about half the stores. Initial feedback from store managers and employees has been positive; however the implementation seems to have lost momentum.
It is now time for a review of the WHSMS. You have been asked by senior management to provide a written report on the performance of the system. The report should contain analysis of the data, and recommendations for improvement based on your analysis.
The original objectives for the WHS management system appear below.
1. Minimise illness and injuries in the workplace:
○ minimise incidents
○ reduce number of days of lost work.
2. Provide effective risk management:
○ establish risk management process.
3. Provide effective WHS management and leadership:
○ ensure managers implement WHS policy and WHSMS.
4. Build a culture of safety in the workplace:
○ ensure employee buy-in across the organisation.
The CEO has asked you to prepare a 3–4 page report for directors on the performance of the WHS management system. The CEO has explained what the directors will require in your report.
● In your executive summary, you should summarise the main points of your report.
● In your analysis, you should relate the information about the WHSMS to targets and performance indicators. You should explore possible causes for poor performance and explore potential solutions.
● In your conclusions, you should summarise areas of poor performance and determine root causes.
● In your recommendations, you should provide solutions to poor performance and explain how your recommendations will work to improve the system.
The directors look forward to your report.







Strategic implementation plan

IR Incidence
LTIFR Lost Tim
A strategic implementation plan for the organisation has been developed from the WHS management system objectives and appears below.




Data collected
Using the approved data collection plan, the following data and information was collected for use in the six month evaluation of the WHS management system.
Incident report
Incident type Number Description Work days lost
Fuel spills 38 Some customers and employees with spilled fuel on clothes. 0
Fires 3 3 small fires due to employee and customer cigarette butts, quickly extinguished by customers or staff; one day lost due to smoke inhalation by employee with asthma. 1
Slipping on floors 2 Employees slipping on wet floors while mopping. 1
Falling stock 10 Employees hit on head. 10
Lifting injuries 12 Employees injured while receiving and storing stock. 5
Tripping 8 Employees tripping on exposed pipes and wires. 8
Burns 60 Pie oven burns. 15
Fatigue from standing 10 Employees complaining of back and foot aches from standing and serving customers all shift. 4
Breathing difficulties 40 1 employee cleaning pumps with strong solvent. 20
Eye irritation 2 1 employee splashed fuel in eyes. 1
Overall IR = 6
Overall LTIFR = 12
Additional information
Using the approved data collection plan, the following information was collected from various sources for use in the evaluation.

Source Information and data
Employee data report from General Manager – Finance and Operations 160 employees
20 stores
20 Store Managers
Safety audits 10 audits completed.
Wide variance in approach to risk taken by various managers. For example, some managers have initiated the use of nozzle guards and automatic pump shut-off systems to reduce small and large spills. Other managers have chosen to post rules for customers in more visible locations.
Project management reports 13 managers have completed a skills audit in the 6month period.
Incident reports Incident reports are not always completed by managers. Risk of serious incidents not being considered in review; risk of serious incidents not being reported to relevant WorkCover authority.
Managers' reports Managers report 250 weekly safety audits of premises Nearly 500 expected.
The ability of designated staff to understand and follow written risk assessment processes is impeding progress.
Training records 80 employees trained in job role.
Employee feedback survey Employees generally like the idea of training sessions, but feel sessions are often disorganised and incompetently run by inexperienced managers.
Some stores have highly popular and informative sessions. Managers run regular sessions based on employee WHS concerns and WHS issues showing in management reports. These same stores have very few incidents.
Feedback through HSRs and informal consultation Employees feel that there was a lot of initial managerial enthusiasm for the new WHSMS; however, recently not much attention has been paid to maintaining the system.
Employees at some stores complaining about recent introduction of strong solvents; managers at those stores dismiss concerns.
Also, at some stores, job roles and performance indicators set by managers don’t mention WHS. Employees feel that this send the message: WHS is not genuinely important to role at store.
Industry reports and independent scientific Barriers and engineering controls 50% more effective in reducing incidents than signage.
studies; advice from WHS experts Stable causal link between increased frequency and repetition of safety messages and reduced injury rates.
Strong correlation shown between smoking rates at stores and fire incidence.
Strong correlation shown between smoking rates at stores and willingness to promote a safe working environment.
Policy and procedures documents (retained from ISS buyout stores)
ISS work/life balance policy
ISS aims to provide a flexible and family-friendly workplace that reasonably accommodates external commitments and carer responsibilities.
As a flexible and family-friendly business, ISS recognises that its staff members have responsibilities and commitments extending beyond the working environment. ISS is aware that these responsibilities and commitments can have a significant impact on employment opportunities, and ISS is committed to providing an accessible, supportive and flexible environment for all staff.
In responding to requests for arrangements relating to work/life balance, management will need to consider work requirements and the current and potential needs of others in responding, keeping in mind that ISS seeks:
● minimisation of disadvantage/s that may result from competing commitments
● an environment that is supportive and accepting of the responsibilities of caregivers and staff with cultural obligations.
Promotion and support of the balance of work and personal needs for staff will position ISS as an employer of choice, initiate a high level of commitment from staff to the work and ideals of ISS, and provide high levels of job satisfaction and a strong collaborative and collegiate culture, while at the same time reducing stress and turnover.
Staff will be provided with a positive work climate where supervisors strive to meet expectations in accommodating life and personal responsibilities.

ISS smoking policy
As an employer, ISS has a duty under WHS legislation to provide a safe working environment and to protect the health of all employees from any illness and injury arising from the workplace. Areas other than those designated will be smoke-free to eliminate the hazards of environmental tobacco smoke.
A designated area will be available where smokers will be able to smoke during scheduled work breaks, as long as this does not cause harm or discomfort to other employees in the workplace. Employees may not, at any time, smoke inside buildings or premises or any enclosed workplaces. The designated areas will be away from flammable or other dangerous activities.
A breach of this policy will be dealt with in the same manner as a breach of any WHS policy, and standard disciplinary procedures will apply.

ISS sexual harassment policy
ISS recognises that sexual harassment is a serious issue and is committed to providing a workplace free from sexual harassment.
What is sexual harassment?
Sexual harassment is any deliberate verbal or physical conduct that is unwelcome and uninvited, embarrassing, demeaning, offensive or compromising. It can be experienced anywhere in the workforce, and by both men and women.
It has nothing to do with mutual attraction or genuine affection between people. Such friendships, whether sexual or not, are a private concern. It should not be confused with genuine compliments or behaving with common courtesy.
Sexual harassment may include such actions as:
● dirty jokes, derogatory comments, offensive written messages
(email/text messages), or offensive telephone calls
● leering, patting pinching, touching or unnecessary familiarity
● persistent demands for sexual favours or social outings ● displays of offensive posters, pictures or graffiti.
Behaviour is against the law if it makes you feel:
● offended and humiliated
● intimidated and frightened ● uncomfortable at work.
ISS considers sexual harassment an unacceptable form of behaviour which will not be tolerated under any circumstances.
ISS undertakes to educate all employees on the issue of sexual harassment to avoid its incidence and to inform employees of procedures to deal with the problem, should it occur.

ISS alcohol and drugs policy
ISS recognises the value of its employees and is committed to promoting and maintaining the health and wellbeing of every member of its workforce. Alcohol and other drugs can influence an employee’s ability to maintain safe work practices and can endanger themselves and others. All employees, contractors and sub-contractors have a responsibility to present for work and remain at work not influenced by alcohol and other drugs.

ISS bullying and harassment policy
ISS is committed to providing a working environment that is free from bullying. Working relationships and standards of behaviour between employees are important workplace issues. The ISS code of conduct sets out principles for behaviour required in the workplace, namely that:
● all people should be treated with respect
● all employees should develop an awareness about the impact of their behaviour on others
● there is agreement about what is appropriate behaviour at work.
ISS considers that bullying in the workplace is inappropriate and unacceptable behaviour, and those employees found to have either committed or condoned such behaviour in the workplace may be subject to disciplinary action.
A bully is a person who uses strength or power to coerce others by fear. To bully is to oppress or persecute, physically or morally by (threat of) superior force. Bullying is physical or psychological behaviour or conduct where strength (including strength in personality) and/or a position of power is misused by a person in a position of authority or by a person who perceives that they are in a position of power or authority. While bullying is normally associated with unequal power relationships, peer-to-peer bullying is not uncommon and is an equally unacceptable behaviour at ISS.
A variety of behaviours and acts may constitute bullying which, over time, create a negative workplace environment. These may include:
● threats
● verbal abuse
● shouting
● constant unconstructive criticism
● blaming
● sarcasm and other forms of demeaning language
● coercion
● punitive behaviour
● isolation
● deliberately withholding information that a person needs to exercise her or his role or entitlements within the organisation
● repeated refusal of requests for leave or training without adequate explanation and suggestion of alternatives.
Bullying may be perpetrated by an individual who may be a work colleague, a supervisor or any person who is part of the work environment.

ISS performance management policy
Purpose
To support ISS’s commitment to providing a high-performance and satisfying work environment. To describe ISS’s Performance Review and Development Program (PRDP).
Scope
This policy applies to all employees of ISS.
Policy
Each Store Manager at ISS should provide support and guidance to their employees. To this end, Store Managers should discuss performance and development. The PRDP has the following aims:
● encouraging and facilitating high performance among ISS employees
● recognition of achievement and training
● facilitating feedback and consultation between management and staff ● identifying employee development and training needs.
To facilitate the PRDP, all Store Managers will be trained in the principles and practice of PRDP to ensure effective implementation of the PRDP process.
Together, each employee and their supervisor will develop a performance plan and a professional development plan. Both will then negotiate how these plans will be implemented. PRDP should be repeated over a twelve-month cycle.
PRDP will be implemented in accordance with the principles of fairness and equity, and in accordance with relevant legislation and various ISS policies.
Responsibility
Managers are responsible for ensuring that PRDP is implemented for all employees for whom they are designated supervisors.

ISS induction policy
Purpose
To support ISS’s commitment to induction of all new employees. To describe ISS’s induction process.
Scope
This policy applies to all employees of ISS.
Policy
Each employee should be systematically introduced to their job roles and should be provided with the information they require to succeed and develop. Inductions should:
● encourage commitment to the mission and strategic goals of ISS
● welcome and introduce staff members to the workplace
● provide any information necessary to enable new employees to perform their duties.
The induction process has two components
● ISS corporate induction
● local induction; for example, store induction.
Responsibility
Managers are responsible for ensuring that the induction process is implemented for all employees for whom they are designated supervisors.


ISS emergency procedures
Fire emergency
All fire exits should be kept clear of obstacles.
Keep access corridors to emergency exits clear.
In the case of a fire:
6. Assess the danger.
7. Assist anyone in the vicinity of the fire away from danger.
8. Close door/s to the fire area if possible.
9. Call for assistance and call out ‘FIRE, FIRE, FIRE’ in a loud and clear voice.
10. Attack the fire with the correct extinguisher or fire hose.

First aid
1. Supervisors and managers should endeavour to have a current first aid certificate.
2. Follow CPR procedure where appropriate.
a. Check for DANGER; to you, to others, to the casualty.
b. Check for a RESPONSE.
c. Check the AIRWAY.
d. Check for BREATHING.
e. Check for CIRCULATION.
3. Call for assistance as soon as it is appropriate to do so.

Fuel spill
Fuel spills can happen when filling tanks.
When notified of a fuel spill:
6. Stop pump.
7. Wheel prepared fuel spill kit bin to the affected area.
8. Clear persons from area.
9. Place absorbent mats on the spill.
10. Clear soaked mats and place them in the discard bin.

Armed holdup
8. Stay calm.
9. Talk in a calm voice.
10. Don’t argue.
11. Press hidden alarm.
12. Always give them what they want.
13. Note as many details as possible about the person.
14. Report details to police.

ISS hazard control procedures
All staff should be made aware of this policy and procedure within several months of commencing work at ISS.
New staff should be made aware of any hazards that exist within the workplace, and the way ISS manages the potential risk from that hazard.
It is expected that each staff member will report and act upon potential workplace hazards.
Process for identification of new hazard:
7. Identify hazard.
8. Clear area.
9. Partition the hazard.
10. Clear hazard if safe to do so.
11. Report hazard to owner or manager.
12. Complete all documentation.

ISS safe fuel handling – Instructions for customers
Car engines – By law you must switch off your engine before and during refuelling.
Refuelling petrol vehicles – Take care; static discharge from clothing may ignite vapours.
Mobile phones – Dropping a mobile phone can cause sparks, which may ignite vapours. Using a mobile phone while refuelling can cause a lapse in concentration.
Smoking – By law, you and your passengers are required to extinguish your cigarettes.
Children – ONLY adults (15 years or older) are permitted to fill fuel tanks.
Motorcycles – Always dismount your motorcycle prior to and during refuelling.
Autogas (LPG) – If you detect an LPG leak, press the emergency stop button and advise staff immediately.
Caravans and food vans – By law, you are required to extinguish all pilot lights.
Filling containers – Fill only properly labelled containers which have been stamped to say they are approved to carry flammable liquids.
Safe fuel handling – Please be careful when handling or storing fuel for any purpose.
● Contact with fuel can burn or irritate skin and eyes.
● If your clothing is splashed with fuel, saturate the area with water.
● If fuel splashes on your skin, wash immediately with soap and water.
● Prolonged exposure to vapours can adversely affect health.
● Always label and store fuel in a cool, well-ventilated location out of children’s reach.
● It is illegal to pour fuel into drains or sumps.
Prevention of static electricity
● Discharge static electricity (e.g. by touching metal parts of your vehicle) before refuelling.
● Do not re-enter your vehicle during refuelling – stay outside.
Driveway safety
● Start your engine and move your vehicle only AFTER refuelling is completed and the nozzle has been returned to the pump.
● Pull-away of hose and nozzle may hurt people around you, damage your car, lead to fuel leakage and possibly cause a fire.
● Service station driveways are busy places. Reduce speed and be aware of moving vehicles and pedestrians.


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